EU Science Hub

Glossary

GLOSSARY            
The definitions in this glossary were extracted from several sources. Click on the term title to visit the source.

Absolute inequality reflects the magnitude of difference in health between two subgroups. Absolute measures retain the same unit of measure as the health indicator. Relative inequality measures show proportional differences in health among subgroups

An estimate of the amount of a substance in food or drinking water that can be consumed over a lifetime without presenting an appreciable risk to health. It is usually expressed as milligrams of the substance per kilogram of body weight and applies to chemical substances such as food additives, pesticide residues and veterinary drugs.

Access by individuals to adequate resources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Entitlements are defined as the set of all commodity bundles over which a person can establish command given the legal, political, economic and social arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional rights such as access to common resources).

The principal breakdown product of ethanol. Acetaldehyde is formed by oxidation of ethanol, the reaction being catalysed principally by alcohol dehydrogenase. It is itself oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance, implicated in the alcohol flush reaction and in certain physical sequelae of alcohol consumption and carcinogenic substance.

Term used to describe sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch hydrolysates (glucose syrup, high-fructose syrup) and other isolated sugar preparations used as such or added during food preparation and manufacturing.

The value estimated when a Population Reference Intake cannot be established because an average requirement cannot be determined. An Adequate Intake is the average observed daily level of intake by a population group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that is assumed to be adequate.

A term used to describe body fat.

Internet-based or downloadable video games promoting a brand name product by featuring it as part of the game.

The paid public presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a sponsor that is intended to bring a product to the attention of consumers through a variety of media channels such as broadcast and cable television, radio, print, billboards, the Internet, or personal contact.

Activity in which the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time. Aerobic activity, also called endurance activity, improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Examples include walking, running, and swimming, and bicycling.

The cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition.

The ability of consumers to purchase food, their vulnerability to price shocks and the presence of programmes and policies to support customers when shocks occur.

A clinically significant transient condition that develops during or shortly after the administration of alcohol that is characterized by disturbances in level of consciousness, cognition, perception, affect, behaviour or coordination. Common features of alcohol intoxication include mood lability, impaired judgement, impaired coordination, unsteady gait. Alcohol intoxication can also be associated with inappropriate behaviour and impaired social interaction. These features are caused by the known pharmacological effects of alcohol; their intensity is closely related to the amount of alcohol consumed and they abate as alcohol is cleared from the body.

Term used to denote mental, physical, and behavioural conditions of clinical relevance and associated with the use of alcohol. The full ICD-I0 term is ''mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol use", covered by codes FI0.0-9. The disorders include acute intoxication, harmful use, dependence syndrome, withdrawal syndrome, (with and without delirium), psychotic disorders, and amnesic syndrome.

Liquid that contains alcohol (ethanol) and is intended for drinking. Almost all alcoholic beverages are prepared by fermentation, followed-in the case of spirits-by distillation. Ethanol is the main psychoactive ingredient in all common alcoholic beverages.

A normally harmless substance, such as an ingredient in a foodstuff, that causes an (immediate) allergic reaction in a susceptible person.

An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance known as an allergen (usually a protein).

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Although hundreds of different amino acids can be found in nature, only approx. 20 of them commonly appear in proteins.

Substances present in foods other than nutrients that can perturb digestion or metabolism.

An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm that, when severe or long-lasting, can prevent the heart from pumping enough blood to the body. Alcohol, cigarettes and recreational drugs can cause arrhythmias.

The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports (including food aid).

The level of (nutrient) intake that is adequate for half of the people in a population group, given a normal distribution of requirement.

Static and dynamic exercises that are designed to improve individuals' ability to withstand challenges from postural sway or destabilizing stimuli caused by self-motion, the environment, or other objects.

A type of chemical found in small amounts in plants and certain foods (such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, oils, and whole grains). Bioactive compounds have actions in the body that may promote good health. They are being studied in the prevention of cancer, heart disease, and other diseases. Examples of bioactive compounds include lycopene, resveratrol, lignan, tannins, and indoles.

Term that indicates the proportion of any nutrient that can be absorbed from the diet and utilized.

The concentration of alcohol (ethanol) present in blood. It is usually expressed as mass per unit volume.

When marketers build familiarity of a specific brand among consumers to enhance perceived quality, meet customers’ expectations, or increase purchase intent of the brand. Also called brand relevance and brand performance.

Characters or mascots associated with a particular brand.

A marketing feature that provides a name or symbol that legally identifies a company, a single product, or a product line to differentiate it from other companies and products in the marketplace.

Such breaks occur when there is a change in the standards for defining and observing a variable over time. They may be the result of a single change or the combination of multiple changes at any one point in time of observation of the variable.

The burden of disease is a measurement of the gap between a population’s current health and the optimal state where all people attain full life expectancy without suffering major ill-health.

Cancer-causing property of a substance when an animal or human is exposed to it.

A health-related component of physical fitness that is the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness is usually expressed as measured or estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).

Caryopsis, also called grain, specialized type of dry, one seeded fruit (achene) characteristic of grasses, in which the ovary wall is united with the seed coat, making it difficult to separate the two except by special milling processes.

A type of neurohormone (a chemical that is made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells). Catecholamines are important in stress responses. High levels cause high blood pressure. Examples of catecholamines include dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).

A positively charged ion, opposite of negatively charged ion (anion).

A human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

Cholesterol is an amphipathic molecule that is composed of a steroid nucleus and a branched hydrocarbon tail. Its presence in the food supply is for the most part restricted to fats of animal origin.

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.

Stereoisomers which differ in the positions of atoms (or groups) relative to a reference plane: in the cis-isomer the atoms are on the same side, in the trans-isomer they are on opposite sides.

Coeliac disease is a life-long autoimmune systemic disorder triggered by gluten and similar cereal storage proteins present in wheat, rye and barley. Its prevalence is estimated to be 0.5 to 1 %. A gluten-free diet is the conventional treatment.

Conditionally essential nutrients (CENs) are organic compounds that are ordinarily produced by the body in amounts sufficient to meet its physiological requirements. However, in disorders, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in other physiologically stressful conditions, their biosynthesis may be inadequate. Under these circumstances, CENs become essential nutrients, comparable to vitamins.

CLA refers to a mixture of positional and geometric natural isomers of linoleic acid, whose double bounds can be in either trans or cis configuration. They differ from most natural PUFA in that the double bonds are not separated by a methylene carbon, but are conjugated.

A form of non-personal sales promotional efforts that are designed to have an immediate impact on sales. This form of promotion uses media and non-media marketing communications for a limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand, or increase product availability. Examples of consumer promotion include coupons, discounts and sales, contests, point of purchase displays, rebates, and gifts and incentive items. Consumer promotion is also called sales promotion.

A consumer sales promotion technique in which the manufacturer attempts to sell the consumer new or other products related to a product the consumer already uses or which the marketer has available.

A term used to describe the primary teeth.

A lack of a necessary factor in, for example, the diet or the environment which results in harm to the growth of an organism.

As a general term, the state of needing or depending on something or someone for support or to function or survive. As applied to alcohol, the term implies the need for repeated doses of the drug to feel good or to avoid feeling bad. The term is often used interchangeably with addiction and alcoholism. The term refers to both physical and psychological elements. Psychological or psychic dependence refers to the experience of impaired control over drinking, while physiological or physical dependence refers to tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) includes eating less sodium. The DASH eating plan is rich in fruits, vegetables, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. It also contains less sodium; sweets, added sugars, and beverages containing sugar; fats; and red meats than the typical American diet. This heart-healthy way of eating is also lower in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and rich in nutrients that are associated with lowering blood pressure—mainly potassium, magnesium, calcium, protein, and fiber.

Dietary lipid (fat) is a critical source of metabolic energy, a substrate for the synthesis of metabolically active compounds (essential fatty acids) and regulator of gene expression, and serves as a carrier for other nutrients such as the fat - soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and vitamin precursors in both the gastrointestinal tract and plasma.

The complete set of reference values for nutrient intake comprising Population Reference Intakes (PRI), Average Requirements (AR), Adequate Intakes (AI), Lower Threshold Intakes (LTI) and Reference Intakes (RI). DRVs are typically used as a basis for reference values in food labelling and for establishing food-based dietary guidelines.

A measure of the dietary intake which is made available to the organism after digestion and absorption. For protein, there are 2 measures of protein digestibility: faecal digestibility and ileal digestibility. In the first case, the proportion of food protein (measured a nitrogen) is given by the difference between protein (nitrogen) ingested and protein (nitrogen) detected in faeces. In the second case, digestibility is assessed by the difference between protein (nitrogen) ingested and protein (nitrogen) detected at the end of the small intestine (ileum).

'Promotional activity, delivered through a digital medium, that seeks to maximize impact through creative and/or analytical methods, including:

  • creative methods to activate implicit emotional persuasion, such as building engagement in social networks (e-Word-of-Mouth); using immersive narratives or social- entertainment- and humour-based approaches; using 'influencers' popular with children, such as YouTube 'vloggers' (video bloggers); using augmented reality, online games and virtual environments; or
  • analysis of emotions, responses, preferences, behaviour and location to target specific groups, individuals and particular moments of vulnerability or to maximize the impact of creative methods.'

A form of advertising that involves sending a promotional message directly to consumers through direct mail or telemarketing rather than through a mass medium such as television or the Internet. Direct advertising is also called direct marketing.

One DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Year) can be thought of as one lost year of "healthy" life. DALYs for a disease or health condition are calculated as the sum of the Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality in the population and the Years Lost due to Disability for people living with the health condition or its consequences.

'Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. The major dietary disaccharides include sucrose (glucose + fructose) and lactose (glucose + galactose)'.

Salt added voluntarily to foods during cooking or at the table.

A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapours.

The relationship between the amount of a substance to which an individual organism, population or ecosystem is exposed and the way in which it responds (e.g. in terms of toxicity).

The generally favoured term for the criminal action of driving a vehicle with a blood alcohol level over a specified limit.  The term "drinking-driving" includes, but is not limited to, drunk driving, driving under the influence (DUI), and driving while intoxicated (DWI).

The length of time in which an activity or exercise is performed. Duration is generally expressed in minutes.

The nutritive tissue surrounding and nourishing the embryo in seed plants.

Energy density is the amount of energy or calories in a particular weight of food and is generally presented as the number of calories in a gram (kcal/g). Foods with a lower energy density provide fewer calories per gram than foods with a higher energy density. For the same amount of calories, a person can consume a larger portion of a food lower in energy density than a food higher in energy density.

Beverages that contain stimulants such as a combination of caffeine with other substances such as vitamins, amino-acids, and sugar or sugar derivatives.

The average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

A forum for European-level organisations, ranging from the food industry to consumer protection NGOs, willing to commit to tackling current trends in diet and physical activity. Since starting in 2005, these platform members have more than 300 commitments.

Migrants that are legally resident in the EU but are citizens of a country outside the EU.

Statistics for related categories can be grouped together or aggregated in order to provide a broader picture. Thus, an aggregate is the combination of related categories, usually within a common branch of a hierarchy, to provide information at a broader level to that at which detailed observations are taken. For example, EU-aggregated data would refer to evidence presented for the EU as a whole, and not for specific countries.

A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective. 'Exercise' and 'exercise training' frequently are used interchangeably and generally refer to physical activity performed during leisure time with the primary purpose of improving or maintaining physical fitness, physical performance, or health.

The reach, frequency and media impact of the (marketing) message.

A method used in establishing nutrient needs, when biochemical markers of nutritional (nutrient) status are not available and/or there are no good intake-status relationships. It involves adding up the various factors that determine the requirement for maintenance of a defined plasma level or body store, and that is associated with the absence of adverse health effects, respectively normal tissue or body function. This requires measuring of the amounts of nutrients that leave the body via the faeces, urine and skin, either unchanged or as metabolites and also estimating the amounts that are required for growth, pregnancy or lactation.

Fatty acids are composed of a hydrocarbon (acyl) chain with a methyl and carboxyl group at either end. Most fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms that are arranged in a straight chain. The majority of dietary fatty acids range in chain length from 4 to 22 carbons. Fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbons comprise the fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbons comprise the bulk of fatty acids in both the diet and the human body.

The conversion of organic compounds such as carbohydrate into simpler substances  such as ethanol or lactic acid by microbes, usually under anaerobic conditions (with no oxygen present). Energy is produced.

Flexibility exercises enhance the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion.


An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ethanol during pregnancy. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.

A pattern of retarded growth and development, both mental and physical, with cranial, facial, limb, and cardiovascular defects, found in some children of mothers who excessively consumed alcohol during pregnancy.

Food used by infants when appropriate complementary feeding is introduced and constituting the principal liquid element in a progressively diversified diet of such infants.

'The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports (including food aid).'

Food deserts are areas that lack access to affordable fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, and other foods that make up the full range of a healthy diet.

Food poverty is the inability of individuals and households to obtain an adequate and nutritious diet, often because they cannot afford healthy food or there is a lack of shops in their area that are easy to reach.

Free sugars include monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods and beverages by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.

A measure of how many times the average person is exposed to a message.

The number of times an exercise or activity is performed. Frequency is generally expressed in sessions, episodes, or bouts per week.

The most commonly used measure of inequality. The coefficient varies between 0, which reflects complete equality and 1, which indicates complete inequality (one person has all the income or consumption, all others have none).

Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. GFR is a calculation that determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys, which is one way to measure remaining kidney function. GFR is usually estimated (estimated GFR or eGFR) using a mathematical formula that compares a person's size, age, sex, and race to serum creatinine levels. A GFR under 60 ml/min/1.73 m² may indicate kidney disease; the lower the GFR number, the worse the kidney function.

The glycaemic index, or GI, measures how a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose. Foods are ranked based on how they compare to a reference food — either glucose or white bread.

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) means those aspects of quality assurance which ensure that materials and articles are consistently produced and controlled to ensure conformity with the rules applicable to them and with the quality standards appropriate to their intended use by not endangering human health or causing an unacceptable change in the composition of the food or causing a deterioration in the organoleptic characteristics thereof.

Any claim that states, suggests or implies that a relationship exists between a food category, a food or one of its constituents and health.

Activity that, when added to baseline activity, produces health benefits. Brisk walking, jumping rope, dancing, playing tennis or soccer, lifting weights, climbing on playground equipment at recess, and doing yoga are all examples of health-enhancing physical activity.

'The Healthy Life Years (HLY) indicator is the expected remaining number of years, lived from a particular age without long-term activity limitation. HLY is computed as the life expectancy from which the expected number of years lived with long-term activity limitations is subtracted. It is calculated by the Sullivan method based on life table data and age-specific period prevalence data on long-term activity limitations.'

HDL cholesterol absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver, which flushes it from the body. HDL is known as 'good' cholesterol because having high levels can reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke.

Homocysteine is an amino acid naturally found in the blood that may serve as a marker for higher risk of coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease.

National surveys mainly focusing on consumption expenditure; despite being an important source of socio-economic data, surveys between countries vary in terms of frequency, timing, content or structure.

Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries. When that pressure is consistently above the normal range, it is considered hypertension, also known high or raised blood pressure. Optimal blood pressure is less than 120 mm Hg when the heart beats (systolic) and 80 mm Hg when the heart relaxes (diastolic). When systolic blood pressure is equal to or above 140 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure equal to or above 90 mm Hg the blood pressure is considered to be raised or high.

People with high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure equal or above 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure equal or above 90 mmHg).

People who form calcium kidney stones in the absence of any causal systemic disease.

Alcohol interlocks are automatic control systems designed to prevent driving with excess alcohol by requiring the driver to blow into an in-car breath analyser before starting the ignition. The alcohol interlock can be set at different levels and limits.

Food used by infants during the first months of life and satisfying by themselves the nutritional requirements of such infants until the introduction of appropriate complementary feeding.

'The indicator on Infant mortality gives the ratio of the number of deaths of infants per 1,000 live births based on one year data. Infants are defined as younger than one year of age at death (0-364 days).'

Any substance deliberately added to foodstuff which will remain in the finished product, even in an altered form.

Not meeting the WHO physical activity guidelines, i.e. for adults, less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (or equivalent) per week, and for children and adolescents aged 5−17 years, less than 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA).

'A condition that occurs when insulin becomes ineffective or less effective than is necessary to regulate sugar levels in the blood.'

Strategies designed to assure that all promotional activities, including media advertising, direct mail, sales promotion, and public relations, produce a unified, customer-focused promotion message, relevant to the customer and consistent over time.

'Intensity refers to how much work is being performed or the magnitude of the effort required to perform an activity or exercise. Intensity can be expressed either in absolute or relative terms.

  • Absolute. The absolute intensity of an activity is determined by the rate of work being performed and does not take into account the physiologic capacity of the individual. For aerobic activity, absolute intensity typically is expressed as the rate of energy expenditure (for example, milliliters per kilogram per minute of oxygen being consumed, kilocalories per minute, or METs) or, for some activities, simply as the speed of the activity (for example, walking at 3 miles an hour, jogging at 6 miles an hour), or physiologic response to the intensity (for example, heart rate). For resistance activity or exercise, intensity frequently is expressed as the amount of weight lifted or moved.
  • Relative. Relative intensity takes into account or adjusts for a person’s exercise capacity. For aerobic exercise, relative intensity is expressed as a percent of a person’s aerobic capacity (VO2max) or VO2 reserve, or as a percent of a person’s measured or estimated maximum heart rate (heart rate reserve). It also can be expressed as an index of how hard the person feels he or she is exercising (for example, a 0 to 10 scale).'

A hierarchical system of categories to which causes of injury and death as well as diseases and health conditions are assigned according to established criteria. Conditions are grouped to facilitate morbidity and mortality reporting. It is designed to promote international compatibility in health data collecting and reporting, and is produced by the World Health Organization.

'The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is used to define the levels and fields of education. ISCED is a three-stage classification:

  • Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 2011 levels 0-2)
  • Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 2011 levels 3 and 4)
  • Tertiary education (ISCED 2011 levels 5-8)'.

Sugars incorporated within the structure of intact fruit and vegetables.

Iodine deficiency is one of the main causes of impaired cognitive development in children. Iodizing table salt is one of the best and least expensive methods of preventing iodine deficiency disorders.

One of several species (or molecular entities ) that have the same atomic composition (molecular formula) but different line formulae or different stereochemical formulae and hence different physical and/or chemical properties.

Characters owned by one company who may be licensed to another company for promoting a product.

'Life expectancy at a given age represents the average number of years of life remaining if a group of persons at that age were to experience the mortality rates for a particular year over the course of their remaining life. Life expectancy at birth gauges the age-specific all-cause mortality rates in an area in a given period.'

The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body. Four amino acids are most likely to be limiting: lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan.

'Long - chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, by definition, are more than 18 carbons in length and have more than two double bonds.'

People who are out of work and have been actively seeking employment for at least a year.

LDL cholesterol makes up the majority of the body’s cholesterol. LDL is known as “bad” cholesterol because having high levels can lead to plaque buildup in your arteries and result in heart disease and stroke.

Various practices which constitute a commercial communication or message that is designed to, or has the effect of, increasing the recognition, appeal and/or consumption of particular products and services. It comprises anything that acts to advertise or otherwise promote a product or service.

Accepted standard unit of energy used in human energetics which should also be used for the expression of energy in foods. One Megajoule is equivalent to 239 Kilocalories.

'MET is the ratio of a person's working metabolic rate relative to their resting metabolic rate. One MET is defined as the energy cost of sitting quietly and is equivalent to a caloric consumption of 1kcal/kg/hour. It is estimated that compared with sitting quietly, a person's caloric consumption is three to six times higher when being moderately active (3-6 METs) and more than six times higher when being vigorously active (>6 METs).'

A chemical process in which oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates (sugar) or from protein (amino acids).

The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

The presence of albumin in the urine characterized by a relatively low rate of urinary excretion of albumin, typically between 30 and 300 milligrams per 24-hour period.

Refers to a transitional dentition; begins with the appearance of the permanent first molars and ends with the exfoliation of the deciduous teeth.

It refers to the sum of activities of moderate (3-6METs) and vigorous (>6METs) intensity. Moderate-intensity activities are those that require a moderate amount of effort and noticeably accelerate the heart rate. Vigorous-intensity activities require a large amount of effort and cause rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. See also: Metabolic Equivalent (MET).

Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates, comprise of 3 to 9 carbon atoms, and are important fuel molecules as well as building blocks of more complex polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Common monosaccharides include Glucose, Fructose and Galactose.

Fatty acids with one cis double bond.

Mortality rate is a measure of the frequency of occurrence of death in a defined population during a specified interval.

Physical activity, including exercise, that increases skeletal muscle strength, power, endurance, and mass.

Number of residential dwellings (houses and apartments) divided by the residential land area.

Nitrogen balance is commonly referred to as the net difference between the intake (and/or the effective absorption) of nitrogen contained in the diet and its excretion. Since nitrogen is contained predominantly in proteins, this term pertains mainly to the balance of proteins and of amino acids.

Non-protein metabolically active substances containing nitrogen like peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, glutathione or creatine.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, are not passed from person to person. They are of long duration and generally slow progression. The 4 main types of noncommunicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.

A building block for nucleic acids (the molecules inside cells that carry genetic information).

A statement that implies that a foodstuff has beneficial nutritional properties, such as being 'low fat' or 'high in fibre'.

The nutrition declaration for a food concerns information on the presence of energy and certain nutrients in foods.

Retail sale of sealed containers of alcoholic beverages for consumption elsewhere than the premises where the beverages are purchased.

Carbohydrates with three to nine degrees of polymerization (i.e. three to nine monosaccharide units) are classified as oligosaccharides. Some oligosaccharides occur naturally in plants: stachyose and raffi nose in soybeans and other legumes and fructooligosaccharides in fruits, vegetables, and grains. However, because of their usefulness as food ingredients and their possible health benefits, an increasing number of oligosaccharides are now synthesized from sugars or obtained through extraction and/or partial hydrolysis of longer - chain plant polysaccharides.

Fatty acids in which the first double bond occurs three carbons from the methyl end are designated as omega - 3 fatty acids, denoted as ω - 3 or n - 3 fatty acids.

Fatty acids in which the first double bond occurs six carbons from the methyl end are termed ω - 6 or n - 6 fatty acids.

Retail sale of alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises where the beverages are purchased (e.g., bars, restaurants).

A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal bone mass or bone mineral density (the amount of bone mineral contained in a certain amount of bone). Osteopenia is a less severe form of bone loss than osteoporosis.

Refers to the permanent teeth in the dental arch; adult dentition.

A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids esterified to a glycerol molecule and one polar head group attached via a phosphate linkage. Phospholipids serve as the structural components of cellular membranes and lipoprotein particles.

'Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure'. This includes 'activities undertaken while working, playing, carrying out household chores, travelling, and engaging in recreational pursuits'.

A way of estimating physical activity in a person by looking at energy (calorie) usage over 24 hours in relation to the amount of energy needed to fuel the body at rest.

The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and respond to emergencies. Physical fitness includes a number of components consisting of cardiorespiratory endurance (aerobic power), skeletal muscle endurance, skeletal muscle strength, skeletal muscle power, flexibility, balance, speed of movement, reaction time, and body composition.

'An insufficient physical activity level to meet present physical activity recommendations. This means: 

  • Toddlers and preschoolers (1–4 years): Not achieving 180 min of physical activity of any intensity per day.
  • Children and youth (5–17 years): Not achieving 60 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per day.
  • Adults (≥ 18 years): Not achieving 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity per week or 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.'

Polyols, or sugar alcohols, are derived from the hydrogenation of mono - and disaccharides, and include sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, and erythritol. Polyols are not as easily digested as other sugars, so they produce a lower glycemic response and a reduced caloric value.

The majority of carbohydrates consumed in the food supply are polysaccharides. As the name implies, these carbohydrates have a high degree of polymerization, ranging from 10 sugar units to several thousand. Polysaccharides can be subdivided into starch and non - starch polysaccharides.

Means fatty acids with two or more cis, cis-methylene interrupted double bonds.

The level of (nutrient) intake that is adequate for virtually all people in a population group.

People in poverty or at risk of poverty are affected by at least one of three forms of poverty:
1. monetary poverty; 2. material deprivation; 3. very low work intensity. People can suffer from more than one dimension of poverty at a time.

The extent to which a message achieves its communications objectives.

Systolic blood pressure consistently ranging from 120 to 139 mm Hg or diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89 mm Hg.

A promotional item that can be received for a small fee when redeeming proofs of purchase which come with or on retail products.

Presenteeism is the reduction in an employees’ performance as a result of health issues when workers chose to attend work but are not able to perform at their normal capacity.

A marketing technique that uses a message, brand logo, or product in a visual or graphic medium in a variety of forms of media entertainment, including television programmes, films, music, videos/DVDs, video games, and advergames.

Marketing activities other than advertising, personal selling, and publicity that stimulate consumer purchases at the point-of-sale such as a display, product demonstration, trade show, contest, coupon, premium, prize, toy, or price discount.

The ratio of protein energy to total energy which can be used as a convenient and useful descriptor of one aspect of dietary quality in human nutrition. The reference ratio is calculated as the simple ratio of protein requirements (expressed as equivalent energy) to energy requirements.

Twenty of the naturally occurring amino acids which build proteins in living organisms.

Pseudocereals are a group of nongrasses, the seeds of which can be ground into flour and then used like cereals. The main pseudocereals are amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tartaricum).

Substances that, when taken in or administered into one's system, affect mental processes, e.g. cognition or affect.

Government designated and maintained park of any size that is open to the public free of cost.

Number of public parks of any size contained in a considered area, divided by the land area.

Number of bus, rail, or ferry stops and stations located in a considered area, divided by the land area.

It means that no maximum numerical level is specified and substances shall be used in accordance with good manufacturing practice, at a level not higher than is necessary to achieve the intended purpose and provided the consumer is not misled.

A category of restaurants characterised by food that is supplied quickly after ordering and with minimal service. Foods and beverages purchased may be consumed at the restaurant or served as takeout or takeaway.

An experiment in which two or more interventions, possibly including a control intervention or no intervention, are compared by being randomly allocated to participants. In most trials one intervention is assigned to each individual but sometimes assignment is to defined groups of individuals (for example, in a household) or interventions are assigned within individuals (for example, in different orders or to different parts of the body).

The percentage of people in a target market who are exposed to the campaign over a specified period.

The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

Reduced kidney function.

Resistance training (also called strength training or weight training) is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of skeletal muscles.

The number of respondents who complete a questionnaire compared to the number assigned, usually expressed as a percentage. The response rate can also apply to individual questions.

Means fatty acids without double bond.

A screening test is an instrument designed to discover within a given population as many individuals as possible who currently have a condition or who are at risk of developing one in the future. Examples of screening instruments for alcohol-use disorders include Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Munich Alcoholism Test (MALT), and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) test. The brief intervention is a treatment strategy in which structured therapy of short duration (typically 5-30 minutes) is offered with the aim of assisting an individual to cease or reduce the harmful use of alcohol. It is designed in particular for general practitioners and other primary health care workers. The public health impact of large numbers of primary health care workers providing these interventions systematically can be considerable.

'Sedentary behavior is any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents (METs), while in a sitting, reclining or lying posture.'

Programmes aimed at developing and implementing policies and procedures in retail alcohol outlets for preventing alcohol sales and service to minors ad intoxicated persons, and at training staff to implement these effectively.

Evidence shows that in general, within countries, the lower an individual’s socioeconomic position the worse their health. There is a social gradient in health that runs from top to bottom of the socioeconomic spectrum. This is a global phenomenon, seen in low, middle and high income countries. The social gradient in health means that health inequities affect everyone.

Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation.

Any contribution made by public or private undertakings or natural persons not engaged in providing audiovisual media services or in the production of audiovisual works, to the financing of audiovisual media services or programmes with a view to promoting their name, trade mark, image, activities or products.

A volume of beverage alcohol ( e.g. a glass of wine, a can of beer, or a mixed drink containing distilled spirits) that contains approximately the same amounts (in grams or mL) of pure ethanol regardless of the type of beverage. The term is often used to educate alcohol users about the similar effects associated with consuming different alcoholic beverages served in standard-sized glasses or containers (e.g. the effects of one glass of beer are equal to those of one glass of wine). In the UK, the term ''unit" is employed, where one unit of an alcoholic beverage contains approximately 8-9 grams of ethanol; in North American literature, ''a drink" contains about 12 grams of ethanol. In other countries, the amounts of alcohol chosen to approximate a standard drink may be greater or less, depending on local customs and beverage packaging.

A marketing strategy used to present products or services that consumers do not identify as an attempt to influence their purchase behaviours. Viral marketing is a form of stealth marketing.

Isomers due to differences in the spatial arrangement of atoms without any differences in connectivity or bond multiplicity between them.

Number of pedestrian-accessible street intersections divided by the considered area.

Term conventionally used to describe mono- and disaccharides.

Substances used to impart a sweet taste to foods or in table-top sweeteners.

A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyse and summarise the results of the included studies.

A dose or exposure below which adverse effects are not detected.

A media product, such as a book, video game, or movie, that makes use of material presented in another, usually more well-known media product.

The maximum intake of substances in food, such as nutrients or contaminants, that can be consumed daily over a lifetime without adverse health effects.

Term describing both intrinsic and added sugars.

This involves promotion activities that are directed to marketing intermediaries, such as grocery stores, convenience stores, and other food retail outlets, and uses strategies that include in-store displays, shelf space and positioning, 'free' merchandise, buy-back allowances, merchandise allowances, and sales contests to encourage wholesalers or retailers to sell more of a company’s specific product or lines.

Trans fatty acids are classified as unsaturated fatty acids containing at least one unsaturated, non-conjugated, double bond in the trans configuration. Industrial TFAs are produced during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils.

Triacylglycerols, commonly referred to as triglycerides, are composed of three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol molecule and serve as a storage form of energy and a substrate reservoir for synthesis of bioactive compounds.

Major end product of nitrogen excretion in mammals.

VLDL stands for very low density lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are made up of cholesterol, triglycerides, and proteins. They move cholesterol, triglycerides, and other lipids (fats) around the body. VLDL is one of the three main types of lipoproteins. VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. VLDL is a type of 'bad cholesterol' because it helps cholesterol build up on the walls of arteries.

On an absolute scale, physical activity that is done at 6.0 or more times the intensity of rest. On a scale relative to an individual’s personal capacity, vigorous-intensity physical activity is usually a 7 or 8 on a scale of 0 to 10.

A strategy used to build brand awareness and promote purchases by encouraging people to pass a marketing message to a target audience, often through electronic or digital platforms.

Digital advertisements that are inserted into programmes, into films, or onto stadium walls at sporting events.

A type of microorganism that is found almost everywhere, including inside the body. Yeast are a type of fungus. Some types are used to make foods, such as bread, cheese, and alcoholic drinks.