EU Science Hub


Genetic alterations in somatic and germ cells are associated with serious health effects, which in principle may occur even at low exposure levels.

Mutations in somatic cells may cause cancer if occuring in proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and/or DNA damage response genes, and are responsible for a variety of genetic diseases.

Accumulation of DNA damage in somatic cells has also been proposed to play a role in degenerative conditions such as accelerated aging, immune dysfunction, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

Mutations in germ cells can lead to spontaneous abortions, infertility or heritable damage to the offspring and possibly to the subsequent generations.

Regulatory context

Development and optimisation of alternative methods and approaches

EURL ECVAM validated test methods

Test methods under validation by EURL ECVAM

Scientific tools and databases