EU Science Hub

Energy Consumption Trends


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The JRC monitors the energy consumption and the energy efficiency trends in Europe and regularly publishes updated reports.

Following the JRC's last report "Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency Trends in the EU-28 2000-2014", the European Union has reduced its energy consumption in the period from 2000-2014. This decrease has allowed reducing energy indicators such as energy intensity and energy consumption per capita, turning into a sign of higher competitiveness as global actor. In 2014, the EU has already met the target values set in the EED for 2020 in terms of final energy consumption (1,061 Mtoe in 2014 vs 1,086 Mtoe of the target) and it is on track to reach the target value for primary energy consumption (1,505 Mtoe in 2014 vs 1,483 Mtoe of the target; corresponding to a gap of 1.5% gap). Over this period, the financial and economic crisis has caused remarkable change in the dynamics and growth rates of the different economic sectors and in the EU Member States and it has contributed to get the energy consumption back on track towards the EU energy and environmental targets for 2020. Distinguishing by economic sectors, the tertiary sector is the only economic sector which has increased its final energy consumption over the analysed period; whilst the others (i.e. residential, transport and industry sectors) have declined it. The increasing trend in the tertiary sector is expected to continue as per the on-going tertiarization process in the EU. On the other hand, the decreasing trends in transport and industry sectors have been highly influenced, among others, by the financial and economic crisis. Regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, the transport sector has increased its emissions from 1990-2013. In the residential sector, the energy demand depends on weather and climate conditions, although there are multiple affecting factors in the energy consumption such as building characteristics (i.e. building envelope, insulation level, location, etc.) or social and cultural reasons (lifestyle, habits, etc.) among others. The analysis of residential Energy-related Products explains the trends in the energy consumption of these products. Therefore, the market monitoring is a supportive tracking tool which may enhance the impact assessment of the energy products policies in terms of market penetration, market sales and consumer purchasing habits.