The JRC has carried out a study of available knowledge on the replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) of animal procedures used in research and testing to understand how supply of such knowledge can better meet demand.
We are doing science for policy
The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
In this section, you can learn more about the JRC's role, how it is structured, its resources and the people that make it work. You'll also find contact details and information about where we are located across the EU.