Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean. It is located in the hurricane belt and frequently suffers severe weather events. Cuba has been a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group since 2000, despite not being a signatory of the Cotonou Agreement. The country is immersed in a process of reforms, as outlined in the Lineamientos, the Cuban government's economic and social policy guidelines.
Between 2008 and 2014, we committed around €90 million in the fields of food security; hurricane response and disaster preparedness; environment; climate change and energy; culture and heritage; and support to economic and social modernisation and management capacities.
EU funded programmes:
- ‘FORGEC’ (€2.2 million, 2013-16) has contributed to strengthening management capabilities in Cuban institutions
- ‘BASAL’ (EU contribution: €8.3 million, 2013-17), reinforced the capacity of key Cuban actors at central and local level to gather, analyse, understand and use environmental and scientific information in relation to the impact of climate change, and to elaborate and implement related adaptation strategies and actions concerning agricultural production
- ‘Expertise Exchange Programme’ supported activities in the areas of decentralisation, public policies, tax administration, foreign investment and external trade, contributing to the 2030 Cuban Development Strategy and accompanying the process of updating the Cuban economy and society
‘AGROCADENAS’ (EU contribution: €8.2 million, 2014-18), contributed to improving the management of the value chains of milk, meat, maize and beans, and to strengthen the capacities of farmers, agricultural cooperatives and other non-state entities.
The 2014-2020 Multi-annual Indicative Programme (€50 million) focuses on 3 sectors:
- sustainable agriculture and food security
- environment and Climate Change: Support for a better use of key natural resources for sustainable development
- support to economic and social modernisation
The selected sectors respond to national priorities identified in the 2011 Guidelines for economic and social policy (Lineamientos), which were approved by the National Assembly in 2011and updated most recently in 2017. The guidelines aim to reduce and redeploy the state workforce, modernise public administration, improve the performance of State-owned enterprises, promote foreign investment and reform the agricultural sector.
Private employment in specific categories has been reintroduced or expanded, private transactions have been authorised in real estate, legislation allowing limited bank credits was passed, the legal framework for foreign investment was modified and an important migration reform has eased Cubans’ travel abroad.
Cuba also participates in EU regional programmes for Latin America. The main regional programmes delivered in Latin America and with key results for Cuba are:
- Al-Invest (covering the internationalisation of SMEs)
- COPOLAD (supporting cooperation on Drugs policies)
- EUROCLIMA (facilitating the integration of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies)
Erasmus + (facilitating education mobility and capacity building in academic institutions; also, the University of Havana holds a Jean Monnet Chair)