Factors that contribute to pay inequality
How work is valued
In some cases, women may earn less than men for doing jobs of equal value. The main cause is the way in which women's skills are valued compared to men's.
Segregation in the labour market also reinforces the gender pay gap. Women and men still tend to work in different jobs.
Segregation is frequently linked to stereotypes. While around 60% of new university graduates are women, they are a minority in fields like mathematics, computing and engineering. Consequently, fewer women work in scientific and technical jobs, while women often work in lower valued and lower paid sectors of the economy.
Far more women than men choose to take parental leave. This, together with a lack of childcare facilities, means that women are often forced to leave the labour market. Only 65.8% of women with young children in the EU are working, compared with 89.1% of men. Across Europe around 32% of women work part-time, compared with only around 8% of men.