Rights of EU citizens

The Treaty on the functioning of the European Union gives EU citizens the right to

  • non-discrimination on the basis of nationality
  • move and reside freely within the EU
  • vote for and stand as a candidate in European Parliament and municipal elections
  • consular protection (help from the embassy or consulate of any other EU country to EU citizens in distress in a country outside the EU where they have no embassy or consulate of their own country)
  • petition the European Parliament and complain to the European Ombudsman
  • launch or support a European citizens' initiative, asking the European Commission to propose legislation on an issue that matters to them
  • contact and receive a response from any EU institution in one of the EU's official languages
  • access European Parliament, European Commission and Council documents under certain conditions

All EU citizens have equal access to the EU Civil Service.

EU citizenship reports

EU citizenship and the rights it confers lie at the heart of the EU. The European Commission reports every 3 years on progress towards effective EU citizenship and new priorities for the years ahead in the area of EU citizenship rights. A public consultation on EU citizenship was held in summer 2020 in preparation of the Citizenship Report 2020.

Press release on the EU Citizenship Report 2020

Summary Factsheet: EU Citizenship Report 2020

Factsheet: Results of the Public Consultation on EU Citizenship Rights 2020

Report on the Public Consultation on EU Citizenship Rights 2020

Report under Article 25 TFEU

Eurobarometer surveys

Standard Eurobarometers are carried out twice per year. Additional Eurobarometers are conducted regularly to complement the Standard Eurobarometers and examine attitudes on EU citizenship in more depth. Issues linked to the priorities of the European Commission, notably free movement, feature prominently.

Autumn 2019 –Standard Eurobarometer report on EU citizenship (EB 92)

EU citizenship and democracy (2020)

A Flash Eurobarometer survey was carried out in all EU countries to help inform the next EU citizenship report.

Democracy and elections (2018)

A Special Eurobarometer survey on democracy and elections was issued in 2018 as a contribution to the annual Colloquium on fundamental rights.

European citizenship (2016)

Eurobarometer report on EU citizenship 2016

Summary: Eurobarometer report on EU citizenship 2016

Factsheet: Eurobarometer on EU citizenship 2016

Electoral rights (2016)

Summary: Eurobarometer on electoral rights 2016

Factsheet: Eurobarometer on electoral rights 2016

Other reports

On 23 January 2019, the Commission adopted its Report on Investor Citizenship and Residence Schemes in the European Union, which provides an overview of all such schemes operating in the EU. You can find more information on the follow-up to the Commission’s report here.

Information portals