This research is produced with the financial support of the European Union. The contents of these reports can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission.


Study on the Benefits and Drawbacks of Remote Voting

Following the publication of the own-initiative report of the constitution committee of the European Parliament (AFCO) on 'potential and challenges of e-voting in the European Union',[1] the European Parliament requested the Commission to carry out a pilot project on making the best use of modern technologies for more active and democratic voting procedures.[2] The objective was to "look into the potential benefits of alternative arrangements with a view to televoting, focusing on the advantages of an e-voting system, and produce a televoting good practice guide. The study was one part of a DG JUST grant call. A grant call under the same pilot project funded the Elections GO! (EGO!) (project which developed and piloted a digital platform with voter facilitation and mobilisation functions across the EU) and the YourVoteEU project (multilingual digital platform, designed as an innovative communication tool between the 2019 European elections’ candidates and their electorate).

The study prepared by Open Evidence and RAND Europe presents mixed findings. It shows that remote voting can help increasing voters participation but only in certain cases and that a lot depends on how the voting system is organised.

The primary research for this study was conducted from October 2017 – July 2018, and the analysis concluded before the 2019 European elections, which were not taken into account. Although the information contained was correct at that time to the knowledge of the research team, changes affecting remote voting options may have been proposed or come into effect during the span or directly after publishing this study.


[2] Item 33 02 77 14 — Pilot project — E-voting: making the best use of modern technologies for more active and democratic voting procedures:

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Studies by the EU-CITIZEN network of experts on citizenship rights

The EU-CITIZEN network funded by the European Commission under the Rights Equality and Citizenship Programme brings together academic experts from around the Union and coordinated by the Centre for European Policy Studies to provide research and information on citizenship rights. Every year the group delivers a number of reports and studies to Commission services

In 2018 the network prepared a number of studies, principally on the theme of democracy in the EU.

One study focused on the electoral framework for the participation of Union citizens at municipal and European Parliamentary Elections. It analyses the exercise of democratic rights by four categories of voters, namely people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, in particular the Roma, as well as linguistic minorities of the Baltic States.

Another study provides an overview of the electoral participation of mobile EU citizens in the then 28 Member States with further exploration of how such citizens participate democratically through eight case studies on Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, and Poland. 

An ad hoc literature review and preliminary analysis of key elements about Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation (SLAPP)

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