The European Commission is working on all fronts to contain the spread of the coronavirus, support national health systems and counter the socio-economic impact of the pandemic by taking  unprecedented measures at both national and EU level.

European Commission's coronavirus response team

Examples of how the Commission has helped to tackle the crisis:

Graphic of the commission's response

Timeline of EU action

Economic measures

EU leaders have agreed to a recovery package of €1.8 trillion that combines the EU budget for 2021-27 and NextGenerationEU. Under the agreement the Commission will be able to borrow up to €750 billion on the markets.

The European Commission has adopted other measures of support, such as:

paper with a list economic measures that complement the European Central Bank’s €1,350 billion Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme in addition to the €120 billion programme decided earlier
icon aid rules temporary state aid rules so governments can provide liquidity to the economy to support citizens and save jobs in the EU
hand and building triggering the ‘escape clause’ that allows maximum flexibility to our budgetary rules. This will help EU countries support healthcare systems and businesses, and secure people’s jobs during the crisis
Folder with papers screening of foreign direct investment. The Commission has issued guidelines to help Member States protect critical European assets and technology in the current crisis

Providing economic guidance to Member States

The European Semester Spring Package provided economic policy guidance to all EU Member States in the context of the pandemic. The recommendations focus on cushioning the impact of the crisis in the short term and building growth in the long term, in line with our green and digital goals.

Image of a family

Mobilising the EU budget and the European Investment Bank to save people's jobs and to support companies hit by the crisis.


The Commission’s Temporary Support to mitigate Unemployment Risks in an Emergency (SURE) is designed to help people keep their jobs during the crisis.

SURE support is issued as social bonds, to make sure every euro has a clear social impact. Money will soon flow to 18 EU countries, to keep people employed. Fifteen countries have already received support under SURE.

In addition, the Commission presented guidelines to ensure the protection of seasonal workers in the EU during the pandemic. It provides guidance to national authorities, labour inspectorates, and social partners to guarantee the rights, health and safety of seasonal workers, and to ensure that seasonal workers are aware of their rights.

Office space

Financial support for hard-hit small and medium businesses

  • The EIB Group aims to invest an additional €20 billion in small and medium-sized businesses.
  • The Commission is already mobilising €8 billion to help at least 100,000 companies, together with the EIB Group.
masks unloading in Bucharest

The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative

The Commission tabled an investment initiative to provide Member States with immediate liquidity. It consists of unspent cohesion policy funds and includes:

  • new methods to reach the most vulnerable under the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived, such as home deliveries and the use of electronic vouchers to reduce the risk of spreading the virus
  • support to fishermen and farmers
Support to agriculture

To support farmers and the agriculture sector, the Commission has

Supporting research for treatment, diagnostics and vaccines

The Coronavirus Global Response pledging marathon raised funds for universal access to coronavirus treatments, tests and vaccines. It started in May and culminated in a Global Pledging Summit and concert in June 2020.

  • €16 billion in pledges from donors worldwide. This includes a pledge of €1.4 billion from the Commission

The Commission will participate in the COVAX Facility for equitable access to affordable COVID-19 vaccines and contribute €500 million in guarantees.

The Commission has mobilised more than €660 million under Horizon 2020 since January to develop vaccines, new treatments, diagnostic tests and medical systems to prevent the spread of the coronavirus and save lives.

The Commission has offered CureVac, a highly innovative European vaccine developer, financial support by backing a €75 million European Investment Bank loan.

The European Investment Bank also signed a €100 million financing agreement with immunotherapy company BioNTech SE to develop a vaccine programme. The EIB financing is backed by both Horizon 2020 and the Investment Plan for Europe.

The Commission’s Vaccines Strategy is designed to accelerate the development and availability of vaccinesIt aims to

  • secure the production of vaccines within the EU 
  • ensure sufficient supplies for its Member States through Advance Purchase Agreements with vaccine producers
  • adapt the EU's regulatory framework to the current emergency 
  • use the flexibility of our rules to speed up the development, authorisation and availability of vaccines

So far, the Commission has authorised 6 contracts, for almost 2 billion doses of potential vaccines: 

  • an agreement with BioNTech-Pfizer for the initial purchase of 200 million doses on behalf of all EU Member States, plus an option to purchase up to a further 100 million doses;
  • an agreement with AstraZeneca for the purchase of 300 million doses of the vaccine, with an option to purchase 100 million more, on behalf of EU Member States;
  • an agreement with Sanofi-GSK  for the purchase of 300 million doses, on behalf of all EU Member States;
  • an agreement with Johnson and Johnson for the initial purchase of 200 million doses on behalf of all EU Member States, and could further purchase up to an additional 200 million;
  • an agreement with CureVac for the initial purchase of 225 million doses on behalf of all EU Member States;
  • an agreement with Moderna for the initial purchase of 80 million doses on behalf of all EU Member States, plus an option to request up to a further 80 million doses.

The Vaccination Strategy presented by the Commission helps identify vulnerable groups which should benefit from vaccination.

It also makes recommendations regarding vaccination services and infrastructure, vaccine deployment, as well as availability and affordability of vaccines and communication too ensure public confidence. 

The Commission will put in place a common reporting framework and a platform to monitor the effectiveness of national vaccine strategies.

The Commission has launched a new joint procurement for medical equipment for vaccination.

The Commission also proposed that hospitals and medical practitioners should not have to pay VAT on vaccines and testing kits.

Public health

A step towards a European Health Union

On 11 November 2020, the Commission laid the first bricks of a European Health Union, based on two pillars:

  • A stronger health security framework, which will entail:
    • Harmonising European, national and regional preparedness and response plans. These plans would be stress-tested and audited regularly by the Commission and EU agencies.

    • An EU emergency system. It would trigger increased coordination and rapid action to develop, stockpile, and procure the equipment needed to face the crisis.

  • More robust EU agencies:
    • The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control will monitor the epidemiological situation based on common data.

    • The European Medicines Agency's mandate will cover the safety of medicines and medical devices, risk of shortages and clinical trials of medicines.

    • A new Health Emergency Response Authority (HERA) will be created.

Medical guidance for EU countries 

The Commission’s panel of 7 independent epidemiologists and virologists provides science-based guidelines and advises upon

  • response measures for all Member States
  • gaps in clinical management
  • prioritisation of health care, civil protection and other resources
  • policy measures for long-term consequences of coronavirus

Based on scientific advice from this panel as well as the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the Commission took the following steps

  • 19 March

    Recommendations on community measures, such as physical distancing

  • 8 April

    Issued guidelines to optimise the supply and availability of medicines as well as antitrust guidance on allowing limited cooperation among businesses, especially for critical hospital medicines. The Commission also set up a ‘Clearing house for medical equipment’ that helps identify available supplies, including testing kits, and accelerate their matching with national demands.

  • 15 April

    Guidelines on testing methodologies, to support the efficient use of testing kits by Member States, in particular when confinement measures are lifted.

  • 16 April

    Guidance on how to develop tracing mobile apps that fully respect EU data protection rules, in the context of the gradual lifting of containment measures.

  • 16 June

    EU Member States, with the support of the Commission, have agreed on technical guidelines to ensure a safe exchange of information between contact tracing apps and interoperability

  • 3 July

    Granted a conditional marketing authorisation for the medicine Remdesivir, making it the first medicine authorised at EU level for treatment against coronavirus.

  • 29 July

    Signed a €63 million contract with the pharmaceutical company Gilead to secure treatment doses of Veklury, the brand name for Remdesivir. Batches of Veklury are made available to Member States and the UK, with the coordination and support of the Commission.

  • 19 October

    A European Gateway Service was launched to interlink contact tracing apps. By mid-December, 13 apps should be connected to the service.

  • 2 December

    Strategy to help keep safe from COVID-19 during the winter, recommending continued vigilance and caution into 2021 when the roll out of safe and effective vaccines will occur.

The Commission has allocated €3 billion from the EU budget, matched with €3 billion from Member States, to fund the Emergency Support Instrument and RescEU’s common stockpile of equipment.

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

To aid the production and availability of personal protective equipment (PPE), the Commission is

  • working closely with Member States to assess the available stock of PPE in the EU, the production capacity and anticipated needs
  • ensuring conformity assessment and market surveillance to increase the supply of PPE without compromising health and safety standards
  • discussing with industry how to convert production lines to supply more PPE and providing manufacturers with guidance to increase production of PPE, hand sanitisers and disinfectants


The Commission issued a recommendation to Member States on testing strategies, including the use of rapid antigen tests. €100 million from the Emergency Support Instrument is invested in the purchase and delivery of such tests in the Member States. In parallel, the Commission is launching a joint procurement to help EU countries get more of these tests.

In addition, the Commission has given €35.5 million from the Emergency Support Instrument to the International Federation of the Red Cross to scale up COVID-19 testing capacity in the EU, train volunteers and protect the most vulnerable.


Borders and mobility

During the pandemic, the Commission has issued

  • guidelines for border management measures to protect health and ensure availability of goods and essential services
  • temporary restrictions on non-essential travel to the EU
  • guidance to ensure the free movement of workers, especially in the health care and food sectors
  • guidance on health, repatriation and travel arrangements for cruise ship passengers and cargo vessel crews
  • Proposals to ensure that any measures taken by Member States that restrict free movement due to the pandemic are coordinated and clearly communicated at the EU level, with a single set of colours to represent risks and a single set of rules to follow. The Commission will also work with Member States on a common approach to quarantine practices
  • guidance on travellers to be exempted from the temporary travel restrictions

  • a testing protocol for aviation and an EU Passenger Locator Form are in the making, to facilitate safe travel

reopen eu visual

Re-open EU provides essential information regarding the safe relaunch of free movement and tourism across Europe. A Re-open EU app will launch in the coming weeks. You can find real-time information on

  • borders
  • available means of transport
  • travel restrictions
  • public health and safety measures
  • a map with a clear colour code

Travel and transportation during the coronavirus pandemic

Fighting disinformation

The Commission is in close contact with social media platforms regarding measures to promote authoritative content, improve users' awareness, and limit coronavirus disinformation and advertising related to it.

So far more than 600 disinformation narratives on the coronavirus have been exposed, published and updated on The Commission’s fighting coronavirus-disinformation page also provides materials for myth busting and fact checking.

The Commission is deploying all available tools and funding research to help in the fight against coronavirus-related misinformation and disinformation.

The Commission and the European External Action Service are working closely with other EU institutions and Member States, including through the Rapid Alert System set up in March 2019, as well as with international partners from the G7 and NATO.

On 10 June, the Commission presented a series of actions to step up fighting disinformation around the coronavirus pandemic, such as strengthening strategic communications and public diplomacy in the EU's immediate neighbourhood and around the world as well as its support to independent media and journalists.

These actions are feeding into further EU work on disinformation, notably the European Democracy Action Plan and the Digital Services Act.


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