On 1 February 2020, the Withdrawal Agreement setting out arrangements for the orderly withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union entered into force and the United Kingdom became formally a third country. The Withdrawal Agreement provided for a transition period which started on 1 February 2020 and ended on 31 December 2020. During that transition period, and unless otherwise provided, Union law continued to apply to and in the UK, including infringement procedures. Any reference to Member States in this report should therefore be understood as including the United Kingdom.

Infringements

New infringement cases 2016 - 2020

In 2020, the Commission opened 903 new infringement cases by sending a letter of formal notice under Article 258 TFEU. This is an increase compared to year 2019, when the Commission opened 797 new cases.

By clicking on this interactive multi-level chart, you can consult the distribution of the new infringement cases in 2020 per policy area and per type of infringement.

Infringement cases open at year-end 2016 - 2020

At the end of 2020, 1786 infringement cases remained open. This is an increase compared to year 2019, when 1564 cases remained open.

The figures for 2020 cover infringement cases where a letter of formal notice was sent in that year or before, irrespective of the stages the cases have reached. Only cases which have not been closed by a formal decision in 2020 are included.

By clicking on the above multi-level chart you can consult the number of infringement cases open at the end of 2020 per policy area and per type of infringement.

Infringement cases 2016 - 2020

The above chart shows the number of cases that were new, closed or remained open at year-end for the period 2016-2020.

New late transposition cases 2016 - 2020

In 2020, the Commission opened 599 new late transposition cases for Member States’ failure to timely transpose directives. This is an increase compared to year 2019, when the Commission opened 406 new late transposition cases.

By clicking on this interactive multi-level chart, you can consult the distribution of the new late transposition cases in 2020 per policy area and per sector within that policy area.

Type of infringement per Member State at year-end

The above graph shows the repartition of open infringement cases at year-end against individual Member States based on the type of infringement.

EU Pilot

New EU Pilot cases 2016 - 2020

In 2020, the Commission opened 212 new EU Pilot cases. This is an increase compared to year 2019, when the Commission opened 190 new EU Pilot cases.

By clicking on this interactive multi-level chart, you can consult the distribution of the new EU Pilot cases in 2020 per policy area and per policy sector.

EU Pilot cases 2016 – 2020

The above chart shows the number of EU Pilot cases that were new, handled or remained open at year-end for the period 2016-2020.

Complaints

New complaints

In 2020, the Commission registered 3727 new complaints about alleged or potential breaches of EU law. This is an increase compared to year 2019, when the Commission registered 3525 new complaints.

By clicking on this interactive multi-level chart, you can consult the distribution of the new complaints in 2020 per policy area and per policy sector.

Complaints 2016 – 2020

The above chart shows the number of complaints registered, handled or remaining open at year-end for the period 2016-2020.

Overview of enforcement activity

The above chart shows the average time in weeks needed before taking a decision to close complaints, EU Pilot cases and infringement cases. Certain EU Pilot cases or complaints are potentially counted in more than once (e.g. if an initial complaint is transferred to an EU Pilot or infringement case).

More information on infringement cases by policy area

Agriculture and Rural Development Financial Stability, Financial Services & Capital Markets Union Mobility and Transport
Communications Networks, Content and Technology Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Health and Food Safety
Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion Migration and Home Affairs Taxation and Customs
Energy Justice and Consumers
Environment Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

Member States

Belgium Estonia Croatia Luxembourg Poland Finland
Bulgaria Ireland Italy Hungary Portugal Sweden
Czechia Greece Cyprus Malta Romania
Denmark Spain Latvia The Netherlands Slovenia
Germany France Lithuania Austria Slovakia United Kingdom

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