Strategies and policies
Adaptation strategies are needed at local, regional, national, EU and international levels in order to anticipate the adverse effects of climate change and prevent or minimize the damage.
Such strategies often have an urban dimension, and cities have a major role in their implementation. The Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy is the main conduit for EU support to cities for climate-change adaptation.
Adaptation is complementary to efforts to cut greenhouse-gas emissions in cities, which are covered by other topics such as Energy transition in cities, Urban mobility, Circular economy in cities, and Sustainable use of land and nature-based solutions in cities.
Urban data and studies
Covenant technical materials
Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy reporting guidelines and Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan template
Funding opportunities and advice
Advice and technical assistance
Mainstreaming climate action - ERDF fact sheet
Mainstreaming climate action - CF fact sheet
Mainstreaming climate action - ETC fact sheet
Mainstreaming climate action - ESF fact sheet
Climate change and major projects
Quick reference guide
Project databases and examples
Case studies database: Climate-ADAPT
Case studies on urban adaptation, searchable by climate impact
Stopping Athens floods: Funding opportunities for disaster risk management within EU cohesion policy
Western Attica (Greece) has serious flood problems. The Cohesion Fund financed an €80 million flood protection project along the Eschatia river. This protects 134,000 local residents and their property from floods in the suburbs of Athens. It has also created over 700 jobs and promoted urban regeneration in a low-income area. The construction of new flood defence structures stops floods now, and it will also allow the future development of the area upstream the river.
Strategic Initiative Cluster adapt!
8 transnational projects with almost 100 project partners jointly promote climate adaptation in North-West Europe
URBACT network: Resilient Europe
Cities in the URBACT network share experiences in order to foster resilience and sustainability.
LIFE Resilient communities projects
Recent LIFE projects focusing on promoting resilient communities
Helping the city of Riga (Latvia) adapt to hydrological processes intensified by climate change
Making critical infrastructure more resistent to climate change
Reconciling Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development for Cities (RAMSES)
Flood and heat-proof, green Emscher valley
Strengthening the green infrastructure network and adapting water management in Germany
Climate-resilient cities and infrastructures
Promoting innovation in disaster resilience
Smart Mature Resilience
Collaborative research on flood resilience in urban areas
Improving preparedness and risk management for flash floods and debris flow
Responses to coastal climate change: innovative strategies for high‑end scenarios - adaptation and mitigation
Support sharing of technological solutions and community participatory governance methods.
Environmental Impact Assessment Directive
Directive 85/337/EEC applies to a wide range of public and private urban-development projects.
Water Framework Directive - integrated river basin management for Europe
Directive 2000/60/EC is a response to demands by citizens and environmental organisations for cleaner rivers and lakes, groundwater and coastal beaches.
Directive 2007/60/EC obliges EU countries to assess and reduce flood risks.
Urban Waste Water Directive
Directive 91/271/EEC seeks to protect the environment from the adverse affects of urban and industrial waste water discharge.
Civil Protection Mechanism
Established in 2001 to deliver governmental aid in the immediate aftermath of a disaster.