Following an unprecedented crisis due to the pandemic, Poland’s recovery and resilience plan responds to the urgent need of fostering a strong recovery and making Poland future-ready. The reforms and investments in the plan will help Poland become more sustainable, resilient and better prepared for the challenges and opportunities of the green and digital transitions. To this end, the plan consists of 49 reforms and 53 investments. They will be supported by an estimated €23.9 billion in grants and €11.5 billion in loans. 42.7% of the plan will support the green transition and 21.3% of the plan will support the digital transition.
The transformative impact of Poland’s plan is the result of a strong combination of reforms and investments that address the specific challenges of Poland. The reforms address bottlenecks to lasting and sustainable growth, while investments are targeted at decarbonising the Polish economy, accelerating the digital transition and reinforcing Poland’s economic and social resilience. The plan also intends to strengthen important aspects of the independence of judiciary. All reforms and investments have to be implemented within a specified timeframe, as the Regulation on the Recovery and Resilience Facility foresees that they have to be completed by August 2026.
The plan will foster economic growth and create jobs. It will lift Poland’s gross domestic product by 1.1% to 1.8% by 2026. This boost to the economy will bring up to 105,000 citizens into jobs. Poland will benefit significantly from the Recovery and Resilience Plans of other Member States, for instance through exports. These spill-over effects account for 0.2 percentage points of gross domestic product in 2026. This demonstrates the added value of joint and coordinated action at the European level.
When designing the plan, the Polish authorities consulted national and regional social partners and stakeholders, while pursuing a close dialogue with the Commission ahead of the formal submission of the plan on 3 May 2021. On 1 June 2022, the Commission gave its green light to the plan. The Plan was in turn adopted by the Council on 17 June, opening the door to its implementation and financing.
In the area of climate and environmental policies, Poland faces the challenge of decarbonisation of the Polish economy and developing sustainable transport.
Key measures for the green transition
The plan supports the green transition by contributing to increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. This includes more than €3.7 billion in funding for offshore wind energy plants and terminal infrastructure, as well as key changes to the regulatory framework, which will facilitate the construction of onshore wind energy plants. The plan also foresees a reform to eliminate bottlenecks for imports of electricity. Moreover, the plan dedicates €3.5 billion to the energy-efficient renovation of buildings and provides €800 million to support the development of green hydrogen technologies.
The plan also includes investments worth over €7.5 billion in green and smart mobility.
Example project: Upgrade of Poland’s electricity grid and digitalisation of the power system
The plan supports the upgrade of Poland’s electricity grid and the digitalisation of the power system by contributing €300 million to the expansion and modernisation of high-voltage power lines and the development of an electricity market data hub. It will help Poland integrate more renewables, including from the country’s first offshore wind farms that the plan also supports. The energy data hub will enable the development of new innovative services in the electricity market, bringing together the green and digital transitions.
Digital challenges for Poland include a lack of universal access to high-speed internet, digitalisation of public services and education, improving digital skills and enhancing cyber-security.
Key measures for the digital transition
Poland recovery and resilience plan supports the digital transition with investments of €420 million to digitalise public administration with, for instance, the digitisation of invoicing and administrative procedures related to construction and spatial planning. €2.6 billion will be dedicated to ensuring access to high-speed internet and 5G network deployment in Poland.
The plan also includes reforms to digitalise education and investments of €1.4 billion in digital infrastructure and equipment for schools, as well as in digital skills of teachers.
Transformative reforms and investments of €443 million are foreseen to strengthen the State's cybersecurity capacity.
Example project: Digitalisation of schools
Under the plan, schools in Poland will receive state-of-the-art multimedia equipment for use by teachers and students, such as 1.2 million laptops, high-speed internet connection and STEM and Artificial Intelligence laboratories. In this way, the plan will ensure that all primary and secondary school across Poland have equal opportunities to benefit from digital technologies in learning.
Economic and social resilience
Key macro-economic challenges for the Polish economy include low labour market participation of women and disadvantaged groups, shortcomings of the healthcare services and a need to improve investment climate.
Key measures in reinforcing economic and social resilience
The plan reinforces economic and social resilience with measures for further development of childcare and long-term care, which are expected to improve the labour market participation of women. The plan also supports the accessibility and effectiveness of the Polish healthcare system, with €4.4 billion of investments in, for instance, support of hospitals and medical universities.
Several reforms are provided for to improve the investment climate in Poland. This includes a comprehensive reform of the disciplinary regime applicable to Polish judges, which is expected to strengthen important aspects of the independence of the judiciary.
Example project: Improving availability and quality of childcare
A large-scale investment in childcare facilities of €381 million will improve access to childcare for children up to the age of three years by creating over 47,500 new places in nurseries and children’s clubs and establishing a new set of quality standards for childcare, including educational guidelines. This, in turn, will support women’s access to the labor market.
The plan addresses a significant subset of Poland’s country-specific challenges and priorities identified in the European Semester, an annual cycle of coordination and surveillance of the EU’s economic policies. For a detailed explanation of the European Semester see the following link: The European Semester explained | European Commission (europa.eu)
Assessment of the recovery and resilience plan
- Press release: "European Commission endorses Poland's plan"
- Proposal for a Council Implementing Decision on the approval of the assessment of the recovery and resilience plan of Poland
- Annex to the Proposal for a Council Implementing Decision on the approval of the assessment of the recovery and resilience plan for Poland
- Commission Staff Working Document: Analysis of the recovery and resilience plan of Poland
- Factsheet: Poland’s recovery and resilience plan
- Questions and answers: European Commission endorses Poland's plan