A regional process that was launched with a ministerial conference in Rabat in July 2006, which set up a framework for comprehensive action on migration and development with Western Africa.
Cooperation on Home Affairs is an integral part of the EU-Africa partnership. On the basis of the of its Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM) the EU is running an intense and broad dialogue with Africa on migration and mobility at bilateral, regional and continental level. In line with the GAMM, those dialogues cover its four thematic priorities thus covering topics like regular migration intra-African mobility, the fight against human trafficking, the protection of migrants, the promotion of asylum and international protection, capacity building in border control, the maximisation of the positive correlation between migration and development (which includes mitigating the impact of brain drain, enhancing the role of African diasporas in the development of their countries of origin, or helping African countries build up their capacity to manage migration flows).
The Commission of the African Union visiting the European Commission in Brussels, 1 June 2011
The Mobility Partnership with Cape Verde
On 21 May 2008, Cape Verde and the EU signed a joint declaration on a Mobility Partnership, the first cooperation of this kind between the EU and an African state and, for the time being, the only Mobility Partnership concluded with a Sub-Saharan state. Five EU Member States (Portugal, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain) participate in this partnership and develop several initiatives covering the different objectives embodied in the Political Declaration.
In 2012 and 2013, respectively, two flagship agreements, one on visa facilitation and the other on readmission, were concluded by Cape Verde and the EU. Both entered into force on 1 December 2014.
The Rabat Process
The Commission is supporting financially and politically the Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development with Western and Central African countries launched in 2006 in Rabat (the so-called Rabat Process). The Rabat Process brings together some 55 countries of origin, transit and destination, of migration along the migratory route from West and Central Africa to Europe.
Covering cooperation on addressing irregular migration, legal migration, migration and development as well as international protection, it is an abundant source of good practice and experience, also to inspire bilateral relations as well as other cooperation frameworks. It has an important role in implementing concreate actions.
The Valletta Summit recognised the important role of the Rabat Process and tasked it with monitoring of the implementation of the Valletta Action Plan alongside with the Khartoum Process and the Joint EU-Africa Strategy.
In November 2014 Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Interior from the Rabat Process countries adopted the Rome Declaration and Action Plan to guide the development of the Rabat process for the years 2015-2017.
The Africa-EU Partnership on Migration, Mobility and Employment (MME) was launched during the 2nd Africa-EU Summit of Heads of State and Government in December 2007 in Lisbon, where the Joint EU-Africa Strategy and the First Action Plan (2008-2010) were also adopted.
The MME partnership provides the framework for dialogue and cooperation on migration issues between the EU and all African States.
The added value of the MME partnership is that it allows for a dialogue on migration between EU and Africa at continental level, with the African Union Commission as the main interlocutor. It is therefore an inclusive framework, with the participation of all African states including the countries of the Southern Mediterranean.
So far, the MME partnership led to some significant results, the best example being the African Institute on Remittances created to better leverage financial flows and monitor the flows of labour and remittances and oversee policies to make them easier, cheaper, safer, and more productive. The fight against Trafficking in Human Beings is also one of the field is which the MME bore fruits: with the support of the EU, the African Union Commission is assisting regional actors in building their capacity to effectively address and respond to the challenges posed in the protection, prevention and prosecution of trafficking in human beings. The MME partnership’s Action Plan for 2011-2013 foresees a total of 12 initiatives on migration, employment and higher education.