- the common land borders, including river and lake borders, of EU States,
- the airports of EU States for internal flights,
EU citizens, non-EU residents and visitors to the EU need to be able to freely and safely travel within the Union. The Schengen Area has made this a concrete reality.
The Schengen Area is one of the greatest achievements of the EU. It is an area without internal borders, an area within which citizens, many non-EU nationals, business people and tourists can freely circulate without being subjected to border checks. Since 1985, it has gradually grown and encompasses today almost all EU States and a few associated non-EU countries.
While having abolished their internal borders, Schengen States have also tightened controls at their common external border on the basis of Schengen rules to ensure the security of those living or travelling in the Schengen Area.
The Schengen Borders Code governs the crossing of the external border, facilitating access for those who have a legitimate interest to enter into the EU. A special Local Border Traffic Regime has also been established to facilitate entry for non-EU border residents who frequently need to cross the EU external border. A common visa policy further facilitates the entry of legal visitors into the EU.
EU State authorities need to cooperate on border management to ensure the security of citizens and travellers in the EU. A number of information sharing mechanisms are central to this cooperation.
It is also necessary to ensure the security of travel documents to fight against the falsification and counterfeiting of travel documents and to establish a reliable link between the document and its holder.