An international agreement - initially known as the Reform Treaty - which amends the two treaties that form the constitutional basis of the European Union and which aims to enhance the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the European Union and to improve the coherence of its actions.
1. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the 27 EU Member States on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), which is also known as the Treaty on European Union, and the Treaty of Rome (1952), which is also known as the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEEC). At Lisbon, the Treaty of Rome was renamed the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2. Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU, and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, legally binding.
3. The Treaty of Lisbon broadened the competences of the EU in asylum issues. According to Art. 78 TFEU, a common policy on asylum is developed through the ordinary legislative procedure. There is no mentioning of minimum standards as before which sets the aim to convergence. The Article provides for the legal basis for the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) . For further information, see the entry for 'Common European Asylum System (CEAS)' in this EMN Glossary.
4. For more information see the Website of the Lisbon Treaty .