1. In EU Member States, the scope of healthcare to which a third-country national has access depends on their residence or employment status. For further information see EMN: Migrants access to social security and healthcare: policies and practice, 2014
2. According to Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive), long-term residents enjoy the same access to healthcare as nationals as defined by national law.
3. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)grants access to adequate healthcare, including treatment of mental disorders when needed, to beneficiaries of international protection under the same eligibility conditions as nationals of the EU Member State that has granted such protection.
4.Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive) establishes minimum standards for access to healthcare for applicants of international protection during the asylum procedure. It requires EU Member States to ensure that asylum seekers at least receive emergency care and essential treatment for illnesses and serious mental disorders. However, the entitlement of asylum seekers to healthcare services depends on national legislation and varies among Member States. See for example, the EMN: Ad-Hoc Query on System of medical treatment of asylum seekers in Member States.
5. Access to healthcare can be a key factor in the process of decision-making on applications for international protection. Subsidiary protection may apply if the asylum-seeker contends that a return to the country of origin is impossible for health reasons, as the return of a sick person which is often connected with the medical standards in the country of return could constitute a breach of Art. 3 ECHR. Thus case workers have to take into account whether medical treatment is available in the country of origin and whether the available medical treatment would also be (e.g. financially) accessible to the concerned person upon return. For further information see the description of the MedCOI project in the List of projects funded by the European Refugee Fund in 2011.