Migration and Home Affairs

Temporary protection

A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W X

Unaccompanied minor

A non-EU national or stateless person below the age of eighteen who arrives on the territory of the EU States unaccompanied by an adult responsible for him/her whether by law or custom, and for as long as s/he is not effectively taken into the care of such a person, or a minor who has left unaccompanied after s/he has entered the territory of the EU States.

Temporary protection

A procedure of exceptional character to provide, in the event of a mass influx or imminent mass influx of displaced persons from non-EU countries who are unable to return to their country of origin, immediate and temporary protection to such persons, in particular if there is also a risk that the asylum system will be unable to process this influx without adverse effects for its efficient operation, in the interests of the persons concerned and other persons requesting protection.

Refugee

A person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of his/her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him-/herself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his/her former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.

Protection

A concept that encompasses all activities aimed at obtaining full respect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter and spirit of human rights, refugee and international humanitarian law. Protection involves creating an environment conducive to respect for human beings, preventing and/or alleviating the immediate effects of a specific pattern of abuse, and restoring dignified conditions of life through reparation, restitution and rehabilitation.

Minor

A person who, according to the law of his/her respective country, is under the age of majority, i.e. is not yet entitled to exercise specific civil and political rights.

Mass influx of displaced persons

Arrival in the EU of a large number of displaced persons, who come from a specific country or geographical area, whether their arrival in the EU was spontaneous or aided, for example through an evacuation programme. Displaced persons are non-EU nationals or stateless persons who have had to leave their country or region of origin, or have been evacuated, in particular in response to an appeal by international organisations, and who are unable to return in safe and durable conditions because of the situation prevailing in that country.

Displaced person

Non-EU nationals or stateless persons who have had to leave their country or region of origin or have been evacuated, in particular in response to an appeal by international organisations, and are unable to return in safe and durable conditions because of the situation prevailing in that country, who may fall within the scope of Article 1A of the Geneva Convention or other international or national instruments giving international protection, in particular:

Country of origin

The country that is a source of migratory flows (regular or irregular).

According to Directive 2004/83/EC, ""country of origin"" means the country or countries of nationality or, for stateless persons, of former habitual residence.

Asylum

A form of protection given by a State, on its territory, based on the principle of non-refoulement and internationally or nationally recognised refugee rights (e.g. access to employment, social welfare and health care). It is granted to a person who is unable or unwilling to seek protection in his/her country of citizenship and/or residence, in particular, for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.

Temporary protection

Temporary protection

During the 1990s, conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, in Kosovo and elsewhere demonstrated the need for special procedures to deal with mass influxes of displaced persons. The 2001 Directive on temporary protection was the EU’s concrete response to this need.

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