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Migration and Home Affairs

Glossary

(civil) war refugee

Definition(s)A person who leaves their country to escape from the effects of armed conflicts (direct effects of fighting, assaults of combat troops...

ACP Observatory on Migration

Please see entry for Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration

ACP

Please see entry for Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration

ACP-EC Partnership Agreement

Please see entry for Cotonou Agreement

ASEM

Please see entry for Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)

Action plan on the integration of third-country nationals

Definition(s)Comprehensive framework to support EU Member States' efforts in developing and strengthening their integration policies.Source(s)European...

Africa Caribbean Pacific (ACP) Observatory on Migration

Definition(s)A reference network of migration research institutions and governmental entities dealing with migration in the six regions of the Africa...

Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration

AT/DE/LU: Beobachtungs-stelle für Migration in Afrika, in der Karibik und im pazifischen RaumBG: Обсерватория по миграция за страните от Африка...

Africa-EU MME Partnership

Please see entry for Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership

Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership

Definition(s)A partnership that provides comprehensive responses to the issues of migration, mobility and employment, in the interest of all partners...

Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)

Definition(s)An informal process of dialogue and cooperation bringing together countries of the two regions (28 EU Member States, two other European...

Asia-Europe Meeting

AT/DE/LU: Asien-Europa-TreffenBG: Среща Азия-ЕвропаCS: Asijsko-evropské setkáníEE: Aasia-Euroopa kohtumineES: Conferencia Asia-EuropaFI: ASEM (Aasian...

Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF)

Definition(s)An EU financial instrument for the period 2014 to 2020, which supports national and EU initiatives that promote the efficient management...

Automated Border Control (ABC)

Definition(s)A system which allows for an automated border passage by authenticating an electronic machine readable travel document (e-MRTD)...

Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

Definition(s)Biometric identification methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyse fingerprint data, and which is...

Bali Process

Definition(s)An international forum dealing with smuggling of migrants and trafficking in human beings, participated in by over 50 countries in the...

Barcelona Process

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Black Sea Synergy

Definition(s)An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation encouraging cooperation between the EU and the countries surrounding the Black Sea and for...

Budapest Process

Definition(s)A consultative forum of more than 50 governments from the wider European region and ten international organisations, which aims to...

CEAS

Please see entry for Common European Asylum System

CH national

Please see entry for third-country national

CIA

Please see entry for Committee on Immigration and Asylum

CIREFI

Please see entry for Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration

COI

Please see entry for country of origin information

CRSR

Please see entry for Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration (CIREFI)

Definition(s)A body assisting the EU Member States in effectively studying legal migration so as to prevent irregular migration and unlawful...

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Definition(s)The formal EU document which combines and declares all the values and fundamental rights of individuals (economic and social as well as...

Civic orientation course

Definition(s)A part of the (national) integration programmes for migrants/third-country nationals residing legally in a host country /an EU Member...

Committee on Immigration and Asylum (CIA)

Definition(s)A European Commission-led expert group aimed at facilitating an informal exchange of views between EU Member State administrations and...

Common Basic Principles for immigrant integration policy

Please see entry for Common Basic Principals

Common Basic Principles

Definition(s)In the context of EU integration policy, a set of 11 simple, non-binding but thoughtful guidelines intended to assist EU Member States in...

Common European Asylum System (CEAS)

Definition(s)A framework of agreed rules which establish common procedures for international protection and a uniform status for those who are granted...

Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)

Definition(s)Policy offering a framework for cooperation between EU Member States within which the EU can conduct operational missions with the aim of...

Community preference

Please see entry for Common Basic Principles

Convention grounds for persecution

Definition(s)The five enumerated grounds listed in Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol : race, religion, nationality, membership...

Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement

Please see entry for Schengen Convention

Convention refugee

Definition(s)Person recognised as a refugee by States under the criteria in Art. 1A of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol, and entitled to the...

Cooperation Platform

Please see entry for Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development

Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development

Definition(s)A concept in the framework of the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM) which bring together migration and development actors...

Cotonou Agreement

Definition(s)The Partnership Agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States of the one part and the...

Cotonou Partnership Agreement

Please see entry for Cotonou Agreement

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

Definition(s)The judicial authority of the European Union which ensures in cooperation with the courts and tribunals of the EU Member States the...

Dialogue (5+5)

Please see entry for 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean

Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration

Definition(s)An interregional intergovernmental consultative forum of migration officials in countries of origin, transit and destination along the...

Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean (5+5)

AT/DE/LU: 5+5 Dialog über Migration im Westlichen MittelmeerraumBG: 5+5 диалог по въпросите на миграцията в Западното СредиземномориеCS: Dialog 5+5 o...

Dublin Convention

Definition(s)Convention determining the EU Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum lodged in one of the EU Member States...

Dublin Regulation

Definition(s)Regulation which lays down the criteria and mechanisms for determining the EU Member State responsible for examining an application for...

Dublin procedure

Definition(s)The process of determining the EU Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the...

Dublin transfer

Definition(s)1. The transfer of responsibility for the examination of the merits of an application for international protection from one EU Member...

EAP

Please see entry for Eastern Partnership

EASO

Please see entry for European Asylum Support Office

ECHR

Please see entry for European Convention on Human Rights

EEA national

Please see entry for third-country national

EMN

Please see entry for European Migration Network

ENP

Please see entry for European Neighbourhood Policy

EU Action Plan on Return

Definition(s)A document presenting a series of concrete actions to enable EU Member States and the European Union to further improve the efficiency of...

EU Blue Card holder

Definition(s)A third-country national who has acquired the authorisation bearing the term ‘EU Blue Card’ entitling them to reside and work in the...

EU Blue Card

Definition(s)The authorisation bearing the term EU Blue Card entitling its holder to reside and work in the territory of a EU Member State under the...

EU Immigration Portal

Definition(s)A website with hands-on information for foreign nationals interested in moving to the European Union acting as a first point of entry for...

EU acquis

Definition(s)The body of common rights and obligations that is binding on all EU Member States and that is constantly evolving, which comprises:- the...

EU citizen

Please see entry for union citizen

EU mobility

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

EU skills profile tool for third-country nationals

Definition(s)Multilingual online tool which supports the early identification and documentation of skills, qualifications and work experiences of...

EU-LAC Structured Dialogue on Migration

Definition(s)A forum for the identification of common challenges and areas for mutual cooperation, as well as building a stronger evidence base for EU...

EUIP

Please see entry for EU Immigration Portal

EUROMED

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

EUROPOL

Definition(s)The European Union’s law enforcement agency which assists EU Member States’ police forces in improving their cooperation on the...

EUROSUR

Please see entry for European Border Surveillance System

Eastern Partnership (EAP)

Definition(s)An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation with its Eastern neighbours whose main goal is to create the necessary conditions to...

Entry/Exit System (EES)

Definition(s)System which registers entry and exit data and refusal of entry data of third-country nationals crossing the external borders of the...

Eurasil

Definition(s)A European Union Network for asylum practitioners providing a forum for the exchange of country of origin information, best practices and...

Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development

Definition(s)A framework for dialogue and consultation between EU Member States and African countries from North, West and Central Africa, as well as...

Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development

Please see entry for Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development

Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED)

Definition(s)A Union of the EU Member States and 16 Southern Mediterranean countries built on cooperation agreements that aims to promote economic...

Eurodac

Definition(s)The name given to an informatic system, the purpose of which, via the collection, transmission and comparison of fingerprints, is to...

European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

AT/DE/LU: Europäische Agentur für die operative Zusammenarbeit an den AußengrenzenBG: Европейска агенция за управление на оперативното сътрудничество...

European Agenda on Migration

Definition(s)A strategic document of the European Union presented in May 2015 outlining a comprehensive approach to migration management addressing...

European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR)

Definition(s)A common framework for the exchange of information and for the cooperation between EU Member States and Frontex to improve situational...

European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex)

Definition(s)A European Union agency tasked with the border control of the Schengen area, in coordination with the national authorities of the...

European Border and Coast Guard

Definition(s)A border control and management system covering the Schengen Area which is composed of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (a...

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Please see entry for European Convention on Human Rights

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

Definition(s)A regional human rights instrument giving effect to certain rights stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, offering...

European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)

Definition(s)International court established by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) which rules on individual or State applications...

European Integration Network (EIN)

Definition(s)Forum bringing together representatives of national public authorities from all EU Member States and IC and NO with the aim to promote...

European Migration Forum (EMF)

Definition(s)A platform for dialogue on integration issues and other topics on immigration and asylum between civil society organisations and European...

European Migration Network (EMN)

Definition(s)A body established by Council Decision 2008/381/EC that serves to meet the information needs of Union institutions and of EU Member...

European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)

Definition(s)A bilateral policy between the European Union and 16 partner countries (the EU’s closest neighbouring countries), further enriched and...

European Return Liaison Officer (EUR-LO)

Definition(s)A specialised liaison officer deployed to third countries in view of representing European Union return interests by verifying the...

European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS)

Definition(s)An automated online system for identifying irregular migration , security or public-health risks associated with visa-exempt third...

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)

Definition(s)An European Union agency which provides independent, evidence-based advice on fundamental rights to the relevant institutions and...

European Union Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF for Africa)

Definition(s)Fund aiming to foster stability in a wide range of countries across Africa that encompass the major migration routes to Europe and to...

European integrated border management

Definition(s)National and international coordination and cooperation among all relevant authorities and agencies involved in border security and trade...

European migration liaison officer (EMLO)

Definition(s)A specialised liaison officer seconded in EU Delegations in third countries tasked to coordinate and represent EU interests in the field...

European travel document for return

Definition(s)A secure and uniform document for the return of illegally staying third-country nationals to facilitate the return and readmission of...

Eurostat

Definition(s)The Statistical Office of the European Union within the European Commission.Source(s) Website of EurostatTranslations BG: ЕвростатCS...

FRA

Please see entry for European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

FRONTEX

Please see entry for European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

False and Authentic Documents Online (FADO)

Definition(s)A European Union internet-based image-archiving system set up to support the rapid sharing between EU Member States of images of genuine...

Five plus Five (5+5) Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean

Definition(s)A trans-Mediterranean forum set up as a security initiative to secure closer cooperation between five EU Member States and five Arab...

Fundamental Rights Agency

Please see entry for European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group

Please see entry for Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group, Migration Experts Sub-Group

GAM

Please see entry for Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

GAMM

Please see entry for Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

GDISC

Please see entry for General Directors of Immigration Services Conference

GFMD

Please see entry for Global Forum on Migration and Development

General Directors of Immigration Services Conference (GDISC)

Definition(s)A network established in order to facilitate practical cooperation in the field of asylum and migration between the Immigration Services...

Geneva Convention (1951)

Please see entry for Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Geneva Convention and Protocol

Please see entry for Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

AT/DE/LU: Genfer Konvention von 1951 und Protokoll von 1967BG: Женевска конвенция за статута на бежанците от 1951 г. и Протокол от 1967 г.CS: Ženevská...

Geneva Protocol (1967)

Please see entry for Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol

Definition(s)The UN multilateral treaty which is the key legal document defining who is a refugee and who is not, the rights of refugees and the legal...

Global Approach to Migration

Please see entry for Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM)

Definition(s)The overarching framework of the European Union’s external migration policy based on genuine partnership with non-EU countries and...

Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD)

Definition(s)An initiative of the UN Member States to address the migration and development interconnections in practical and action-orientated ways...

Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group, Migration Experts Sub-Group

Definition(s)A working group within the framework of G8 countries which tackles irregular migration and trafficking in human beings in the broader...

HLWG

Please see entry for High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration

High-Level Working Group (HLWG) on Asylum and Migration

Definition(s)A strategic group which works under the auspices of the European Council and which was set up to establish a comprehensive and integrated...

High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration

AT/DE/LU: Hochrangige Arbeitsgruppe Asyl und EinwanderungBG: Работна група на високо равнище "Убежище и миграция"CS: pracovní skupina na vysoké úrovni...

Hotspot Approach

Definition(s)Approach where the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) , the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) , Europol and Eurojust...

Immigration Liaison Officer (ILO)

Definition(s)A representative of one of the EU Member States, posted abroad by the immigration service or other competent authorities in order to...

Indirect discrimination

Definition(s)A situation in which an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of a racial or ethnic origin at a...

Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services (ICONet)

Definition(s)A secure web-based information and coordination network for the rapid information exchange between EU Member States on irregular...

Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees (IGC)

Definition(s)An informal, non-decision making forum for intergovernmental information exchange and policy debate on issues of relevance to the...

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) format

Definition(s)Specifications set out by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) in relation to machine readable travel documents...

International Civil Aviation Organization

A measurable unique, physical characteristic or personal behavioural trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of a person...

International Organization for Migration

Any entrance of a person from one country to another, whether voluntary or involuntary, authorised or unauthorised.

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Definition(s)An intergovernmental organisation in the field of migration dedicated to ensuring the orderly and humane management of migration, to...

Irregular Migration Management Application (IRMA)

Definition(s)A restricted and secure information exchange platform developed by the European Commission which connects EU Member and Schengen States...

Joint Valletta Action Plan (JVAP)

Definition(s)A set of political and operational measures to enhance cooperation between African and European countries with the aim to provide a...

Khartoum Process

Definition(s)A platform for political cooperation amongst the countries along the migration route between the Horn of Africa and Europe with a focus...

LGB(TI)

Definition(s)An acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, (trans and intersex) people.Source(s) Derived by EMN from EASO: Researching the situation of...

Lisbon Treaty

Definition(s)An international agreement - initially known as the Reform Treaty - which amends the two treaties that form the constitutional basis of...

MARRI

Please see entry for Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative

MIM

Please see entry for mutual information mechanism

MME Partnership

Please see entry for Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership

MP

Please see entry formobility partnership

MRA

Please see entry for mutual recognition agreement

MTM

Please see entry for Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration

Migration Integration Policy Index (MIPEX)

Definition(s)A tool which measures policies to integrate migrants in all EU Member States and CH, IC, NO as well as Australia, Canada, Japan, New...

Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative (MARRI)

Definition(s)An initiative forming part of the South-East European Cooperation Process, which aims to enhance regional cooperation in the field of...

NCPI

Please see entry for National Contact Points on Integration

NRM

Please see entry for national referral mechanism

National Contact Points on Integration

Definition(s)A network of authorities responsible for integration issues which serves to facilitate exchange of information and good practice at EU...

New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants

Definition(s)United Nations General Assembly Declaration comprising a set of commitments to enhance the protection of refugees and migrants.Source(s...

Palermo Protocol

Definition(s)A United Nations (UN) protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in human beings , especially women and children, supplementing...

Prague Process

Definition(s)A process to strengthen cooperation in migration management between the European Union (EU) and 19 partner countries to the East (the...

Prague Process – Building Migration Partnerships

Please see entry for Prague Process

Programme refugee

Please see entry for resettled refugee

Public Register of Authentic Travel and Identity Documents Online (PRADO)

Definition(s)A reference database containing information about authentic travel and identity documents and other important documents issued by...

RABIT

Please see entry for Rapid Border Intervention Team

Rabat Process

Please see entry for Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development

Rapid Border Intervention Team (RABIT)

Definition(s)A mechanism providing rapid operational assistance for a limited period to a requesting EU Member State facing a situation of urgent and...

Reform Treaty

Please see entry for Lisbon Treaty

Refugee Convention

Please see entry for Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Roma-Lyon Group

Please see entry for Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group, Migration Experts Sub-Group

SCIFA

Please see entry for Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum

SIS II

Please see entry for Schengen Information System

SIS

Please see entry for Schengen Information System

Schengen Agreement

Definition(s)An agreement between some EU Member States and some neighbouring non-Member States to gradually remove controls at their common borders...

Schengen Borders Code

Definition(s)The rules governing border control of persons crossing the external EU borders of the EU Member States.Source(s)Derived by the EMN from...

Schengen Convention

Definition(s)Legislation supplementing the Schengen Agreement and laying down the arrangements and safeguards for implementing freedom of movement...

Schengen Information System (SIS)

Definition(s)A joint information system that enables the relevant authorities in each EU Member State, by means of an automated search procedure, to...

Schengen Visa Code

Please see entry for Visa Code

Schengen evaluation and monitoring mechanism

Definition(s)A mechanism established to verify the application of the Schengen acquis in the Schengen Member States to which it applies in full as...

Sirene Bureau

Definition(s)An administrative structure built to deal with the exchange of information supplementary to the Schengen Information System (SIS) alerts...

Smart Borders Package

Definition(s)A set of measures consisting of an Entry/Exit System (EES) and modifications to the Schengen Borders Code in addition to existing border...

Standard operating procedures applicable in hotspots

Definition(s)Operational and technical guidelines on the implementation of the Hotspot Approach in case of disproportionate migratory pressure at the...

Stockholm Programme

Definition(s)A five-year political, strategic document describing the focus of cooperation in the policy areas of justice and home affairs of the EU...

Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA)

Definition(s)A forum for the exchange of information amongst the EU Member States, consisting of senior officials in the fields of asylum, immigration...

Söderköping Process

Please see entry for Eastern Partnership

The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees

Please see entry for Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Treaty of Lisbon

Please see entry for Lisbon Treaty

UAM

Please see entry for unaccompanied minor

UASC

Please see entry for unaccompanied minor

UNHCR

Please see entry for United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Ufm

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Union for the Mediterranean

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)

Definition(s)An international human rights treaty setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children.Source(s) Derived...

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

Definition(s)The refugee agency of the United Nations (UN) mandated to lead and coordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve...

VIS

Please see entry for Visa Information System

Visa Code

Definition(s)Regulation outlining the procedures and conditions for issuing visas for transit through or intended stays in the territory of the...

Visa Information System (VIS)

Definition(s)A system for the exchange of visa data between EU Member States, which enables authorised national authorities to enter and update visa...

Western Mediterranean Forum

Please see entry for 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean

Zaragoza Declaration on Integration

Definition(s)A declaration of the European Ministerial Conference on Integration to further develop the core idea ofintegrationas a driver for...

absconding

Definition(s)Action by which a person seeks to avoid administrative measures and/or legal proceedings by not remaining available to the relevant...

accelerated international protection procedure

Definition(s)An expedited procedure to examine an application for international protection which is either already deemed manifestly unfounded, which...

accelerated procedure for international protection

Please see entry for accelerated international protection procedure

access to healthcare

Definition(s)Healthcare entitlements enjoyed by third-country nationals (migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees) in EU Member...

access to the procedure for international protection

Definition(s)The obligation of EU Member States to ensure that a person who has made an application for international protection has an effective...

accommodation centre

Definition(s)A place used for the collective housing of applicants for international protection.Source(s)Art. 2(i) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast...

acculturation

Definition(s)A series of changes in cultural mores (ideas, words, values, norms, behaviour, institutions) resulting from direct and continuous contact...

acquis

Please see entry for EU acquis

acquisition of citizenship

Definition(s)Any mode of becoming a national, i.e. by birth or at any time after birth, automatic or non-automatic, based on attribution, declaration...

act of persecution

Definition(s)Source(s)TranslationsBroader Term(s)Related Term(s)Note(s)In the global context, acts of human rights abuses or other serious harm, often...

active citizenship

Definition(s)Civic and political participation by immigrants and the consequent acquisition and exercise of equal rights and responsibilities.Source(s...

actor of persecution or serious harm

Definition(s)Any person (individual or legal) causing persecution or serious harm, such as:(a) the State;(b) parties or organisations controlling the...

actor of protection

Definition(s)Source(s)Any person (individual or legal) providing effective and non-temporary protection against persecution or serious harm such asa)...

adaptation

Definition(s)Process of modifying some or all of one’s beliefs and / or attitudes so as to suit new conditions of life.Source(s) UNHCR International...

admission onto the territory

Definition(s)The lawful entry of an alien onto the territory of a State after inspection and authorisation by an immigration officer.Source(s)Derived...

adoption (of a child)

Definition(s)In the context of dependants, the statutory process of terminating legal rights and duties between the child and the natural parents, and...

adoption (of legal acts)

Definition(s)In the context of accords, in public international law, the formal act by which negotiating parties establish the form and content of a...

adoption of convenience

Definition(s)An adoption (of a child) contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person adopted to enter or reside in an EU Member State.Source(s...

adult

Definition(s)Every human being aged 18 years and older (unless majority is attained later under the law applicable to the adult).Source(s)Derived by...

advance passenger information (API)

Definition(s)Information concerning the passengers whom carriers will transport to an authorised border crossing point through which these persons...

affirmative action

Please see entry for positive discrimination

age assessment

Definition(s)Process by which authorities seek to establish the chronological age, or range of age, of a person in order to determine whether an...

airport transit visa

Definition(s)A visa valid for transit through the international transit areas of one or more airports of the EU Member States.Source(s) Art. 2(m) of...

alien

Definition(s)Source(s)TranslationsSynonym(s)Related Term(s)Note(s)In the global context, a person who is not a national (native or citizen) of a given...

alternative to detention

Definition(s)Non-custodial measures used to monitor and / or limit the movement of third-country nationals in advance of forced return or deciding on...

amnesty (in the context of migration)

Please see entry for regularisation

amnesty

Please see entry for regularisation

applicant for international protection

Definition(s)A third-country national or a stateless person who has made an application for international protection in respect of which a final...

applicant in need of special procedural guarantees

Definition(s)An applicant whose ability to benefit from the rights and obligations provided for in Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures...

applicant with special reception needs

Definition(s)A vulnerable person, in accordance with Art. 21 of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive), who is in need of...

application for asylum

Definition(s)An application made by a foreigner or a stateless person which can be understood as a request for protection under the Geneva Refugee...

application for international protection

Definition(s)A request made by a third-country national or a stateless person for protection from a EU Member State, who can be understood to seek...

apprehension

Definition(s)In the EU migration context, any action by the relevant national authority(ies) which results in identifying a third-country national...

assigned area of residence

Definition(s)Assignment of applicants for international protection and/or beneficiaries of international protection to a particular area of residence...

assimilation

Definition(s)The gradual process by which a minority group adopts the patterns of behaviour of a majority group or host society and is eventually...

assisted voluntary return

Definition(s)Voluntary return or voluntary departure supported by logistical, financial and / or other material assistance.Source(s) Developed by...

asylum application

Please see entry for application for asylum

asylum case worker

Please see entry for case worker in procedures for international protection

asylum determination officer

Please see entry for case worker in procedures for international protection

asylum

Definition(s)A form of protection given by a State on its territory, based on the principle of non-refoulement and internationally or nationally...

asylum seeker

Definition(s)Source(s)TranslationsSynonym(s)Broader Term(s)Related Term(s)Note(s)In the global context, a person who seeks protection from persecution...

asylum shopping

Definition(s)In the context of the Dublin Regulation, the phenomenon where a third-country national applies for international protection in more than...

au pair

Definition(s)A third-country national who is temporarily received by a family in the territory of an EU Member State in exchange for light housework...

beneficiary of international protection

Definition(s)A person who has been granted refugee status or subsidiary protection status.Source(s) Art. 2(b) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast...

beneficiary of subsidiary protection

Definition(s)A person who has been granted subsidiary protection status .Source(s) Derived by EMN from the definition of 'beneficiary of international...

best interests of the child (BIC)

Definition(s)A threefold concept which includes a substantive right, a fundamental and interpretative legal principle and a rule of procedure that is...

biometric data

Definition(s)Data relating to the physical, physiological or behavioural characteristics of an individual which allow their unique identification...

biometrics

Please see entry for biometric data

black market

Please see entry for informal economy

border area

Definition(s)An area that extends no more than 30 kilometres from the border.Source(s) Art. 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic...

border control

Definition(s)The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for the purposes of Regulation (EU) 2016/399 (Schengen Borders Code), in...

border crossing

Definition(s)The physical act of crossing a border either at a border crossing point or another point along the border.Source(s) Developed by...

border crossing point

Definition(s)Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for the crossing of external EU borders .Source(s) Art. 2(8) of Regulation (EU...

border resident

Definition(s)In the EU migration context, a third–country national who has been lawfully resident in the border area of a country neighbouring an EU...

brain circulation

Definition(s)The possibility for developing countries to draw on the skills, know-how and other forms of experience gained by their migrants - whether...

brain drain

Definition(s)The loss suffered by a country as a result of the emigration of a (highly) qualified person.Source(s) ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed...

brain gain

Definition(s)The benefit to a country as a result of the immigration of a highly qualified person.Source(s) Derived by EMN from the definition of...

brain waste

Definition(s)The non-recognition of the skills (and qualifications) acquired by a migrant outside of the EU, which prevents them from fully using...

breeder documents

Definition(s)Documents used to support applications for identity, residence and travel documents, such as birth, marriage and death certificates...

burden of proof

Definition(s)In the global context, a party’s duty to prove a disputed assertion or charge.In the migration context, the duty of a non-national...

business migrant

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

carrier

Definition(s)In relation to conveyance (or transport), the owner or charterer of the conveyance.Source(s) IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed...

carriers’ liability

Definition(s)In the migration context , obligation of carriers to return third-country nationals who are not in possession of the necessary travel...

case officer

Please see entry for case worker in procedures for international protection

case worker in procedures for international protection

Definition(s)Personnel of the determining authority responsible for examining and assessing an application for international protection and...

case worker

Please see entry for case worker in procedures for international protection

chain migration

Definition(s)The practice where those who have settled on a family reunification basis can themselves sponsor further family members, consistent with...

change of status

Definition(s)A change in the legal status, due to a change in the purpose of stay, of a third-country national present in EU and/or EFTA Member States...

child labour

Definition(s)Any work performed by a child which deprives them of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to their...

child

Definition(s)Every human being below the age of 18 years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier or later.Source(s...

circular migration

Definition(s)A repetition of legal migration by the same person between two or more countries.Source(s) European Commission Communication on Circular...

citizenship

Definition(s)The particular legal bond between an individual and their State, acquired by birth or naturalisation, whether by declaration, choice...

civil partnership of convenience

Definition(s)A civil partnership contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in a EU Member State.Source(s)...

clandestine employment

Please see entry for illegal employment AND informal economy

clandestine migrant

Please see entry for irregular migrant

clandestine migration

Please see entry for irregular migration

compulsory return

AT/DE/LU: zwangsweise Rückführung, Zwangsrückführung, erzwungene RückkehrBG: принудително връщанеCS: nucený návratEE: sunnitud tagasipöördumineEL...

compulsory work

Please see entry for forced labour

concept of safe country of origin

Please see entry for safe country of origin

contract migrant worker

Definition(s)Person working in a country other than their own under contractual arrangements that set limits on the period of employment and on the...

contract worker

Please see entry for contract migrant worker

country information

Please see entry for country of origin information

country of birth

Definition(s)The country of residence (in its current borders, if the information is available) of the mother at the time of the birth or, in default...

country of destination

Definition(s)The country that is a destination for migration flows (regular or irregular).Source(s) IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed...

country of first asylum

Please see entry for first country of asylum

country of nationality

Definition(s)The country (or countries) of which a person holds citizenship .Source(s) Developed by EMNTranslations BG: страна на гражданствоCS: země...

country of origin information (COI)

Definition(s)Information used by the EU Member States authorities to analyse the socio-political situation in countries of origin of applicants for...

country of origin

Definition(s)The country of nationality or, for stateless persons , of former habitual residence.Source(s) Art. 2(n) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast...

country of return

Definition(s)In the EU context, a third country to which a third-country national returns.Source(s) EMN: Return migration, 2007Translations BG: страна...

country of transit

Definition(s)The country through which migration flows (regular or irregular) move; this means the country (or countries), different from the country...

credibility assessment

Definition(s)The process of gathering relevant information from the applicant for international protection, examining it in the light of all the...

crime against humanity

Definition(s)Act committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack.Source...

cross-border commuter

Please see entry for cross-border worker

cross-border worker

Definition(s)A person who works as an employee or self-employed person in one EU Member State but is recognised as residing in another (neighbouring)...

crude rate of net migration

Definition(s)The ratio of net migration plus adjustment during the year to the average population in that year.Source(s) Eurostat’s Concepts and...

cultural assimilation

Please see entry for assimilation

cultural diversity

Definition(s)The diversity of forms of culture in a society composed of groups of people from many different cultural backgrounds.Source(s) Developed...

cultural mediator

Definition(s)In the migration context, a professional who facilitates the communication (including interpretation) between people speaking different...

cultural pluralism

Definition(s)A policy aimed at the ensuring of harmonious interaction among people and groups with plural, varied and dynamic cultural identities as...

culture

Definition(s)The set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or a social group encompassing, in addition...

de facto population

Definition(s)A concept under which individuals (or vital events) are recorded (or are attributed) to the geographical area where they were present (or...

de facto refugee

Definition(s)Person not recognised as a refugee (within the meaning of Art. 1A of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol) and who is unable or...

de jure population

Definition(s)A concept under which individuals (or vital events) are recorded (or are attributed) to a geographical area on the basis of the place of...

decision-maker

Please see entry for case worker in procedures for international protection

degrading treatment or punishment

Definition(s)Treatment that humiliates or debases an individual, showing a lack of respect for, or diminishing, their human dignity, or when it...

dependant

Definition(s)A person who has filed an application for family reunification and who is granted entry and residence by the Member State to stay with a...

deportation

AT/DE/LU: AbschiebungBG: депортиранеCS: nucený návrat/vyhoštěníEE: väljasaatmineES: expulsiónFI: karkottaminenFR/BE/LU: éloignementGR: απέλασηHU...

deportation order

Please see entry for removal order

detainee

Definition(s)A person in detention.Source(s)Developed by EMNTranslationsBG: задържанCS: zajištěný cizinecDE: HäftlingEL: κρατούμενοςEN: detaineeES...

detection of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Definition(s)The process of identifying a possible situation of trafficking in human beings.Source(s)Derived by EMN from Varandas, I. & J. Martins...

detention centre

Please see entry for detention facility

detention facility

Definition(s)Source(s)TranslationsSynonym(s)Broader Term(s)Note(s)In the global context, a specialised facility used for the detention of third...

detention

Definition(s)In the global migration context, non-punitive administrative measure ordered by an administrative or judicial authority(ies) in order to...

detention standards and conditions

Definition(s)In the context of migration, all basic principles relating to the fundamental rights and treatment of migrants held in administrative...

determining asylum authority

Please see entry for determining authority

determining authority

Definition(s)In the context of international protection, any quasi-judicial or administrative body in an EU Member State responsible for examining...

diaspora

Definition(s)Individuals and members of networks, associations and communities, who have left their country of origin, but maintain links with their...

direct discrimination

Definition(s)A situation in which one person is treated less favourably than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation on...

displaced person

Definition(s)In the EU context, a third-country national or stateless person who has had to leave their country or region of origin, or has been...

displacement

Definition(s)In the global context, the forced removal of a person from their home or country, often due to armed conficts or natural disaster.In the...

distribution key

Definition(s)The method used to determine the acceptance quota and to allocate applicants for international protection to different regions of a...

dual citizenship

Definition(s)The simultaneous possession of two or more citizenships by the same person.Source(s) Derived by EMN from Art. 2b of the European...

durable solutions

Definition(s)Any means by which the situation of refugees can be satisfactorily and permanently resolved to enable them to live normal lives.Source(s...

economic migrant

Definition(s)A person who leaves their country of origin purely for economic reasons that are not in any way related to the refugee definition, in...

economic migration

Definition(s)Migration mainly for economic reasons or in order to seek material improvements to livelihood.Source(s) Derived by EMN from the...

economic refugee

Please see entry for economic migrant

emergency response system

Definition(s)Provisional measures in the event of EU Member State(s) being confronted with an emergency situation characterised by a sudden inflow of...

emigrant

Definition(s)In the global context , a resident (national or alien ) departing or exiting from one State intending to remain abroad for a period...

emigration

Definition(s)In the global context , the act of departing or exiting from one State with the intention to remain abroad for a period exceeding one...

employee

Definition(s)Worker holding an explicit or implicit employment contract, which gives them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the...

employer

Definition(s)Any natural person or any legal entity, including temporary work agencies, for or under the direction and / or supervision of whom the...

employer sanction

Definition(s)In the migration context , penalties, including fines, repayments to victims / the State and incarceration, imposed on employers by the...

employment

Definition(s)The exercise of activities covering whatever form of labour or work regulated under national law or in accordance with established...

enforcement measure

Definition(s)Any measure taken by the enforcing EU Member State with a view to implementing an expulsion decision .Source(s) Art. 2(c) of Council...

entry ban

Definition(s)An administrative or judicial decision or act prohibiting entry into and stay in the territory of the EU Member States for a specified...

environmental refugee

Please see entry for environmentally-displaced person

environmentally displaced person

Definition(s)A person subject to forced migration as a result of sudden, drastic environmental changes.Source(s) Derived by EMN from the definition...

environmentally-driven migrant

Please see entry for environmentally displaced person

equal opportunities

Please see entry for principle of equal treatment

establishment of identity

Definition(s)Process which is commonly carried out for identification and identity-verification purposes in different procedures on the basis of a...

ethnic cleansing

Definition(s)Rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or...

ethnic nationality

Definition(s)A synonym of ethnicity or nationality, used in some EU Member States in addition to citizenship .Source(s) Towards Harmonised European...

ethnicity

Please see entry for ethnic nationality

evidence assessment

Definition(s)Primary method of establishing the facts of an individual case through the process of examining and comparing available pieces of...

ex-nunc examination

Definition(s)In appeals procedures, a court's or tribunal's consideration of the evidence of the situation (all elements, facts and points of law)...

examination of an application for international protection

Definition(s)Any examination of, or decision or ruling concerning, an application for international protection by the competent authorities in...

exclusion clause

Definition(s)Specifically, any of the provisions of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol , such as articles 1D, 1E and 1F, which mandatorily...

exodus

Definition(s)Movements in groups (isolated and sporadic) out of a country of origin in large numbers or of a section of the community at a given time...

exploitation

Definition(s)The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e...

expulsion decision

Definition(s)Any decision which orders an expulsion taken by a competent administrative (or judicial) authority of an issuing EU Member State.Source(s...

expulsion

Definition(s)The removal of:(a) a third-country national subject to an expulsion decision based on a serious and present threat to public order or to...

expulsion order

Please see entry for expulsion decision

external EU border

Definition(s)The parts of a Schengen Member State’s border, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river...

failed applicant

Please see entry for rejected applicant for international protection

failed asylum seeker

Please see entry for rejected applicant for international protection

false declaration of parenthood

Definition(s)An untruthful declaration of a relationship of parenthood which does not actually exist either(a) between a minor who is an union citizen...

false identity document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

false travel document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

family formation

Definition(s)The entry into and residence in an EU Member State of a third-country national on the basis of the establishment of a family relationship...

family member

Definition(s)In the general migration context, a person either married to, or having a relationship legally recognised as equivalent to marriage, to a...

family migration

Definition(s)In the global context , a general concept encompassing family reunification , family formation , and migration of an entire family at the...

family reunification

Definition(s)The establishment of a family relationship which is either:a) the entry into and residence in an EU Member State, in accordance with...

family reunion

Please see entry for family reunification

family tracing

Definition(s)Search for family members, including relatives or former caregivers of unaccompanied minors and separated children, with the aim of...

female genital mutilation

Definition(s)All procedures which involve the partial or total removal of the external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether...

final decision

Definition(s)A decision on whether the third-country national or stateless person be granted refugee status or subsidiary protection status by virtue...

first asylum principle

Please see entry for first country of asylum

first country of asylum

Definition(s)A country in which an applicant for international protection has either(a) been recognised as a refugee and they can still avail...

forced labour

Definition(s)All work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered...

forced marriage

Definition(s)The union of two persons, at least one of whom has not given their full and free consent to the marriage.Source(s) Art. 4 of Council of...

forced migrant

Definition(s)A person subject to a migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether...

forced migration

Definition(s)A migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or...

forced return

Definition(s)In the global context , compulsory return of an individual to the country of origin , transit or third country (i.e. country of return)...

forced return monitoring

Definition(s)All monitoring activities undertaken in respect of removal from the territory of an EU/EFTA Member State of a third-country national...

foreign population of a country

Definition(s)All persons who have a certain country as their country of usual residence and who are citizens of another country.Source(s) OECD...

foreign worker

Please see entry for migrant worker

foreigner

Please see entry for alien and admission onto the territory

forged identity document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

forged travel document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

fraudulent identity document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

fraudulent travel document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

fraudulent travel or identity document

Definition(s)Any travel or identity document:(i) that has been falsely made or altered in some material way by anyone other than a person or agency...

free movement

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

freedom of movement

Please see entry for right to freedom of movement

frontier worker

Definition(s)In the EU context , a worker who is employed in the frontier zone of an EU Member State but who returns each day or at least once a week...

fundamental rights

Definition(s)Universal legal guarantees without which individuals and groups cannot secure their fundamental freedoms and human dignity and which...

gender

Definition(s)The socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and needs predominantly connected to being male or female in...

gender-based persecution

Definition(s)The causal relationship between gender and persecution i.e. when the reason for persecution is related to a person's gender.Source(s)...

gender-specific violence

Definition(s)Different types and forms of harm and human right violations which are gender-specific but which do not necessarily constitute...

genocide

Definition(s)An act committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.Source(s) Art. 2 of the UN...

grounds for persecution

Please see entry for Convention grounds for persecution

group determination of refugee status

Definition(s)A practice by which all persons forming part of a large-scale influx are regarded as refugees on a prima facie basis, ensuring that...

group persecution

Definition(s)A concept- which recognises that persecution can be enacted against members of a section of the population (a ‘group’) that is suffering...

guest worker

Please see entry for migrant worker

guest worker

Definition(s)An economic migrant recruited for a restricted time of settlement and employment .Source(s) Developed by EMNTranslations BG: гост...

habitual residence

Please see entry for usual residence

harassment

Definition(s)Unwanted conduct related to racial or ethnic origin with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person and of creating an...

harmful onward movement

Definition(s)The movement of refugees and migrants by dangerous means from one location to another.Source(s) Derived by EMN from UNHCR: Draft Proposal...

healthcare benefits

Please see entry for access to healthcare

highly qualified employment

Definition(s)The employment of a person who:(a) in the EU Member State concerned, is protected as an employee under national employment law and / or...

highly qualified migrant

Definition(s)In the global context, a person falling within ILO ISCO-88 Classes 1, 2 and 3, e.g. a person qualified as a manager, executive...

highly qualified migrant worker

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

highly skilled migrant

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

host Member State

Definition(s)The EU Member State to which a union citizen moves in order to exercise their right to free movement and residence.Source(s) Art. 2(3) of...

host country

Definition(s)The EU Member State / country in which a third-country national / non-national takes up residence.Source(s) Developed by EMNTranslations...

host entity

Definition(s)A research organisation, a higher education institution, an education establishment, an organisation responsible for a voluntary service...

host society

Definition(s)In the EU context, residents (both nationals and non-nationals) of a national / regional / local community within an EU Member State...

hotspot area

Definition(s)An area in which the host EU Member State, the European Commission, relevant EU agencies and participating EU Member States cooperate...

human rights law

Definition(s)The body of customary international law, human rights instruments and national law that recognises and protects human rights .Source(s...

human rights

Definition(s)Agreed international standards that recognise and protect the dignity and integrity of every individual, without any distinction.Source(s...

human trafficking

Please see entry for trafficking in human beings

humanitarian protection

Definition(s)A form of non-EU harmonised protection nowadays normally replaced by subsidiary protection , except in some EU Member States.Source(s)...

identification mission

Definition(s)In the context of return, an operation conducted at the national level, on the basis of bilateral agreements or Memoranda of...

identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Definition(s)The process of confirming and characterising a situation of trafficking in human beings for further implementation of support.Source(s)...

identified victim of trafficking in human beings

Definition(s)A person who has been formally identified as a victim of trafficking in human beings according to the relevant formal authority in EU...

identity document

Definition(s)A document issued by a State authority to an individual for providing evidence of the identity of that individual.Source(s) Developed by...

illegal employment

Definition(s)Economic activity carried out in violation of provisions set by legislation.Source(s) Derived by EMN from definition for ‘clandestine...

illegal employment of a legally staying third-country national

Definition(s)Employment of a legally staying third-country national working outside the conditions of their residence permit and / or without a work...

illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national

Definition(s)Employment of an illegally staying third-country national .Source(s) Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions...

immigrant

Definition(s)In the global context , a non-resident (both national or alien ) arriving in a State with the intention to remain for a period exceeding...

immigration

Definition(s)In the global context , the act of arriving in a State with the intention to remain for a period exceeding one year.In the EU context...

immigration programme

Definition(s)Programme to facilitate migration which is organised or supported with the assistance of a government, governments or an international...

immigration quota

Definition(s)A quota established for and by the country, normally for the purposes of labour migration , for the entry of immigrants .Source(s)...

impostor

Definition(s)A person claiming the identity of another person, for instance by using the other person's authentic identity documents .Source(s)...

inadmissible application for international protection

Definition(s)An application for international protection which an EU Member State authority may decide not to examine in the following cases:(a)...

indiscriminate violence

Definition(s)Violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict which presents a serious and individual threat to a civilian's life...

informal economy

Definition(s)All economic activities by workers and economic units that are – in law or in practice – not covered or insufficiently covered by formal...

inhuman treatment or punishment

Definition(s)Ill-treatment which is premeditated and applied for hours at a stretch and causing either actual bodily injury or intense physical and...

integration indicators

Definition(s)Benchmarks used to measure the integration of migrants in specific policy areas, such as employment, education, social inclusion and...

integration

Definition(s)In the EU context , a dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrants and residents of EU Member States.Source(s)...

integration programme

Definition(s)Set of measures put in place by the State and/or civil society organisations to support the integration of legally residing migrants...

intercultural dialogue

Definition(s)An open and respectful exchange of views between individuals and groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic...

internal EU border

Definition(s)Schengen Member States’ common borders, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea...

internal protection

Definition(s)The concept that an applicant is not in need of international protection if in a part of the country of origin , they(a) have no well...

internally displaced person

Definition(s)A person or groups of persons who has been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in...

interpreter

Definition(s)In the migration context, a professional who is expected to convert oral communication from a source language (language/s of the country...

intra-EU mobility

Definition(s)Action of persons (EU nationals or legally resident third-country nationals ) undertaking their right to free movement by moving from one...

intra-corporate transferee

Definition(s)A third-country national subject to a temporary secondment from an undertaking established outside the territory of a EU Member State and...

irregular entry

Definition(s)In the global context , crossing borders without complying with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.In...

irregular migrant

Definition(s)In the global context , a person who, owing to irregular entry , breach of a condition of entry or the expiry of their legal basis for...

irregular migration

Definition(s)Movement of persons to a new place of residence or transit that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and...

irregular stay

Definition(s)The presence on the territory of an EU Member State, of a third-country national who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils the conditions...

ius sanguinis

Definition(s)The determination of a person’s nationality on the basis of the nationality of their parents (or one parent or one particular parent) at...

ius soli

Definition(s)The principle that the nationality of a person is determined on the basis of their country of birth .Source(s) EUDO Online Glossary on...

jus sanguinis

Please see entry for ius sanguinis

jus soli

Please see entry for ius soli

labour market integration

Definition(s)The extent to which migrants will achieve the same range of labour market participation as nationals of EU Member States by using their...

labour market test

Definition(s)Mechanism that aims to ensure that migrant workers are only admitted after employers have unsuccessfully searched for national workers...

labour matching

Definition(s)The process by which the skills and qualifications of a worker is compared with the requirements of a particular job vacancy, to...

labour migrant

Please see entry for migrant worker

labour migration

Definition(s)Movement of persons from one state to another, or within their own country of residence, for the purpose of employment.Source(s) IOM...

labour shortage

Definition(s)Shortage of labour of a particular type in a particular labour market which may be said to exist when the number of vacancies has been...

language analysis for the determination of origin (LADO)

Definition(s)Analysis of mainly spoken, but also written, language as amethod for helping to establish the nationality, region or ethnic origin of...

language training

Definition(s)In the migration context, a training course to help migrants (legally residing migrants and applicants for international protection) to...

legal entry

Definition(s)In the global context , the entry of an alien into a foreign country in compliance with the necessary requirements for legal entry into...

legal migration

Definition(s)Migration in accordance with the applicable legal framework.Source(s) Developed by EMNTranslations BG: законна миграцияCS: legální...

legal remedy

Please see entry for suspensive effect

legalisation

Please see entry for regularisation

local border traffic

Definition(s)The regular crossing of an external land border by border residents in order to stay in a border area , for example for social, cultural...

lodging an application for international protection

Definition(s)The act of formalising the application for international protection with the determining authority or any other body charged with lodging...

long-stay visa

Definition(s)The authorisation or decision issued by one of the EU Member States in accordance with its national law or Union law required for entry...

long-term migrant

Definition(s)A person who moves to a country other than that of their usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country...

long-term migration

Definition(s)Movement of individuals who change their country of usual residence for a period of at least one year, so that the country of destination...

long-term mobility

Definition(s)In the context of Directive 2016/801/EU (Recast Researcher's Directive) , the action of a third-country national , already authorised...

long-term resident

Definition(s)A third-country national who has long-term resident status as provided for under Arts. 4 to 7 of Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2003/109...

loss of citizenship

Definition(s)Any mode of loss of the status as citizen of a country, voluntarily or involuntarily, automatically or by an act by the public...

loss of nationality

Please see entry for loss of citizenship

making an application for international protection

Definition(s)The expression of intent to apply for international protection .Source(s) Derived by EMN from Art. 6 (1) and 6 (5) of Directive 2013/32...

managed migration

Definition(s)An approach used by the EU and EU Member States to structure the management of all aspects of migration into and within the EU of both...

mandate refugee

Definition(s)A person who meets the criteria of the UNHCR Statute and qualifies for the protection of the UN provided by the High Commissioner for...

manifestly unfounded application for international protection

Definition(s)In the global context , an application which isa) not related to the criteria for granting refugee status laid down in Art. 1(A2) of the...

marriage of convenience

Definition(s)A marriage contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in an EU Member State.Source(s) Art. 16...

mass influx

Definition(s)Arrival in the Community of a large number of displaced persons , who come from a specific country or geographical area, whether their...

material reception conditions

Definition(s)The reception conditions that include housing, food and clothing provided in kind, or as financial allowances or in vouchers, or a...

medical benefits

Please see entry for access to healthcare

migrant in an irregular situation

Please see entry for irregular migrant

migrant

Definition(s)In the global context, a person who is outside the territory of the State of which they are nationals or citizens and who has resided in...

migrant stock

Definition(s)The number of migrants in a given area on a certain date (e.g. 1 January or 31 December) of the year in question.Source(s) Derived by EMN...

migrant with irregular status

Please see entry for irregular migrant

migrant worker

Definition(s)A person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which they are not nationals.Source...

migration flow

Definition(s)The number of migrants crossing a boundary, within a specific time period, for the purpose of establishing residence.Source(s) Developed...

migration management

Please see entry for managed migration

migration management support team

Definition(s)Team of experts which provides technical and operational reinforcement to EU Member States at hotspot areas and which is composed of...

migration

Definition(s)In the global context , movement of a person either across an international border (international migration), or within a state (internal...

migration profile

Definition(s)A tool to bring together and analyse all the relevant information needed to develop policy in the field of migration and development and...

migration route

Definition(s)The geographic route along which migrants and refugees move via hubs in transit areas from their country of origin to their country of...

migration routes initiative

Definition(s)An initiative by which work along the main migratory routes through a particular region and towards the EU is identified and which takes...

migratory flow

Please see entry for migration flow

minimum standards

Definition(s)In an asylum context, a number of principles in relation to procedures for international protection , to reception conditions , and to...

minor

Definition(s)In a legal context and in contrast to a child , a person who, according to the law of their respective country, is under the age of...

minority

Definition(s)A non-dominant group which is usually numerically less than the majority population of a State or region regarding their ethnic...

mixed migration flow

Definition(s)Complex migratory population movement including refugees , asylum-seekers, economic migrants and other types of migrants as opposed to...

mobility partnership

Definition(s)A cooperation arrangement, on the basis of political declarations, that provides the bilateral framework for dialogue and practical...

multiculturalism

Definition(s)A policy that endorses the principle of cultural diversity and supports the right of different cultural and ethnic groups to retain...

multiple citizenship

Please see entry for dual citizenship

multiple nationality

Please see entry for dual citizenship

mutual information mechanism

Definition(s)A mechanism for the mutual exchange of information concerning national measures in the areas of asylum and immigration that are likely to...

mutual recognition agreement

Definition(s)Agreements on the recognition of foreign qualifications negotiated by governments and professional organisations in several countries by...

national cooperation mechanism

Please see entry for national referral mechanism

national liaison officer

Please see entry for Immigration Liaison Officer

national referral mechanism

Definition(s)Mechanism aimed at identifying, protecting and assisting victims of trafficking in human beings, through referral, and involving relevant...

nationality

Please see entry for ethnic nationality

nationality

Please see entry for citizenship

naturalisation

Definition(s)Any mode of acquisition after birth of a nationality not previously held by the target person that requires an application by this person...

net migration

Definition(s)The difference between immigration into and emigration from a given area during the year.Source(s) Eurostat’s Concepts and Definitions...

non-EU national

Definition(s)Any person not having the nationality of an EU Member State.Source(s)Derived by EMN from Art. 20(1) of Treaty on the Functioning of the...

non-citizen

Please see entry for alien and admission onto the territory

non-national

Please see entry for alien and admission onto the territory

non-refoulement

Definition(s)In the global context, a core principle of international refugee and human rights law that prohibits States from returning individuals to...

non-removable returnee

Definition(s)Third country national who has no legal right to stay in the territory of one of the EU Member States and who is subject to a return...

nuclear family

Definition(s)The spouse and the minor children of a family.Source(s) Recital 9 of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive...

obligation to cooperate

Definition(s)Obligation imposed by EU Member States upon the applicant for international protection to cooperate with the competent authorities...

obligation to leave

Please see entry for return decision

obligation to report

Definition(s)In the context of return, the obligation of a migrant/third-country national who is subject to a return decision to report to the...

obligation to return

Please see entry for return decision

occupation

Definition(s)A set of jobs whose main tasks and duties are characterised by a high degree of similarity.Source(s) ILO: ISCO-88, International Standard...

organised crime

Definition(s)Large-scale and complex illicit activities carried out by an organised criminal group.Source(s)Derived by EMN from the IOM Glossary on...

organised criminal group

Definition(s)A structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting cooperatively with the aim of committing one or...

overstayer

Definition(s)Source(s)TranslationsBroader Term(s)Related Term(s)In the global context, a person who remains in a country beyond the period for which...

partnership of convenience

Definition(s)A partnership contracted for the sole purpose of enabling one of the persons concerned to enter or reside in an EU Member State.Source(s)...

permanent migration

Please see entry for long-term migration

permanent-type migration

Please see entry for long-term migration

persecution

Definition(s)Human rights abuses or other serious harm, often, but not always, with a systematic or repetitive element.Source(s) UNHCR Master Glossary...

person eligible for subsidiary protection

Definition(s)A third-country national or a stateless person who does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom substantial grounds have been...

person in a migratory context

Please see entry for person with a migratory background

person of migrant origin

Please see entry for person with a migratory background

person with a migratory background

Definition(s)A person who has:(a) migrated into their present country of residence; and / or(b) previously had a different nationality from their...

personal interview for international protection

Definition(s)Interview with the applicant on the substance of their application for international protection which has to be conducted by the...

population stock

Definition(s)The inhabitants of a given area on a certain date (e.g. 1 January or 31 December) of the year in question.Source(s) Derived by EMN from...

positive action

Please see entry for positive discrimination

positive discrimination

Definition(s)A policy or a programme providing advantages for certain groups of people who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against...

posted worker

Definition(s)A worker who, for a limited period, carries out his work in the territory of an EU Member State other than the State in which they...

postponement of removal

Definition(s)(Temporary) suspension of removal of a third-country national who has received a return decision but whose removal is not possible either...

preparatory class

Definition(s)Separate classes or lessons in which newly arrived migrant children are provided with intensive language teaching and, in some cases, an...

presumed victim of trafficking in human beings

Definition(s)A person who has met the criteria of EU regulations and international Conventions but has not been formally identified by the relevant...

prima facie determination of refugee status

Please see entry for group determination of refugee status

prima facie refugee

Definition(s)Person recognised as a refugee, by a State or the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), on the basis of objective...

principle of equal treatment

Definition(s)The principle that there shall be no direct or indirect discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin, sex, religion or belief...

principle of family unity

Please see entry for right to family unity

procedural guarantees

Definition(s)In the EU asylum context , special guarantees addressing the legal rights of applicants for international protection as outlined in...

procedure for international protection

Definition(s)Set of measures described in the Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) which encompasses all necessary steps for...

protection

Definition(s)A concept that encompasses all activities aimed at obtaining full respect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter...

pull factor

Definition(s)The condition(s) or circumstance(s) that attract a migrant to another country.Source(s) Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration...

push factor

Definition(s)The condition(s) or circumstance(s) in a country of origin that impel or stimulate emigration .Source(s) Derived by EMN from IOM...

push-pull factor

Definition(s)Factors which initiate and influence the decision to migrate, either by attracting them to another country (pull factors) or by impelling...

qualifications (recognition of foreign)

Please see entry for recognition of foreign qualifications

quota

Definition(s)A quantitative restriction in the migration or asylum context.Source(s) IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011Translations BG: квотаCS...

quota refugee

Please see entry for resettled refugee

racial discrimination

Definition(s)Any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose...

racism

Definition(s)Ideas or theories of superiority of one race or group of persons of one colour or ethnic origin.Source(s)Art. 4 of UN Convention on the...

re-entry ban

Please see entry for entry ban

re-entry

Definition(s)In the context of Directive 2016/801/EU (Recast Researcher's Directive) , the return of a researcher or a student from a second EU Member...

readmission agreement

Definition(s)An agreement between the European Union (EU) and / or an EU Member State with a third country, on the basis of reciprocity, establishing...

readmission

Definition(s)Act by a State accepting the re-entry of an individual (own national, third-country national or stateless person).Source(s)IOM Glossary...

real risk of suffering serious harm

Definition(s)Risk of serious harm experienced by an applicant for international protection which is considered to be both real and likely to occur...

reasons for persecution

Please see entry for Convention grounds for persecution

receiving country

Please see entry for host country

reception centre

Definition(s)A location with facilities for receiving, processing and attending to the immediate needs of refugees or asylum seekers as they arrive in...

reception conditions

Definition(s)The full set of measures that EU Member States grant to applicants for international protection .Source(s) Art. 2(f) of Directive 2013/33...

reception facilities

Definition(s)All forms of premises used for the housing of applicants for international protection and other categories of migrants and refugees...

recognised refugee

Please see entry for Convention refugee

recognition of foreign qualifications

Definition(s)A formal acknowledgement by a competent authority of the validity of a foreign qualification with a view to access to educational and /...

recognition rate (in procedures for international protection)

Definition(s)The number of positive decisions on applications for international protection as a proportion of the total number of decisions issued for...

reflection period

Definition(s)A period of time determined according to national law granted to third-country nationals officially identified as victims of trafficking...

refoulement

Please see entry forForced Return

refugee in orbit

Definition(s)A refugee who, although not returned directly to a country where they may be persecuted, is denied asylum or unable to find a State...

refugee in transit

Definition(s)A refugee who is temporarily admitted in the territory of a State under the condition that they are resettled elsewhere.Source(s)UNHCR...

refugee law

Definition(s)The body of customary international and European Union (EU) law and instruments that establish standards for refugee protection.Source(s...

refugee

Definition(s)In theglobal context, either a person who, owing to awell-founded fear of persecutionfor reasons of race, religion, nationality...

refugee status

Definition(s)The recognition by an EU Member State of a third-country national or stateless person as a refugee.Source(s)Art. 2(e) of Directive 2011...

refugee sur place

Definition(s)In theglobal context, a person who is not arefugeewhen they leave theircountry of origin, but who becomes a refugee, that is, acquires...

refusal of entry

Definition(s)In theglobal context,refusal of entry of a person who does not fulfil all the entry conditions laid down in the national legislation of...

regional development and protection programme (RDPP)

Definition(s)International protection initiative set up by the European Union and its Member States to enhance the capacity of third countries in the...

regional protection programme

Definition(s)A programme designed to enhance the capacity of non-EU countries in the regions from which many refugees originate, or through which they...

regular migration

Please see entry for legal migration

regularisation

Definition(s)In the EU context, state procedure by which illegally staying third-country nationals are awarded a legal status.Source(s)ICMPD: Study on...

regulated profession

Definition(s)A professional activity or group of professional activities, access to which, the pursuit of which, or one of the modes of pursuit of...

reintegration

Definition(s)Re-inclusion or re-incorporation of a person into a group or a process, e.g. of a migrant into the society of their country of return...

rejected applicant for international protection

Definition(s)A person covered by a first instance decision rejecting an application for international protection, including decisions considering...

rejected applicant

Please see entry for rejected applicant for international protection

relocation

Definition(s)Source(s)In the general EU-context, the transfer of persons having a status defined by the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol...

remain in the Member State

Definition(s)To remain in the territory, including at the border or in transit zones, of the EU Member State in which the application for...

remittance

Definition(s)In theglobal context, a cross-border person-to-person payment of relatively low value.In theEU context, a financial transfer from...

removal

Definition(s)In theglobal context, the act of a state in the exercise of its sovereignty in removing analienfrom its territory to a certain place...

removal order

Definition(s)An administrative or judicial decision or act ordering a removal.Source(s)Art. 8(3) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive...

remunerated trainee

Definition(s)A third-country national who has been admitted to the territory of an EU Member State for a training period with remuneration in...

repatriation assistance

Definition(s)Financial or in-kind assistance to beneficiaries of international protection who are in the possession of a long-term residence permit...

repatriation

Definition(s)The personal right of a refugee or a prisoner of war to return to their country of nationality under specific conditions laid down in...

representative

Definition(s)A person or an organisation appointed by the competent bodies in order to assist and represent an unaccompanied minor in procedures...

researcher

Definition(s)In the EU migration context, a third-country national holding an appropriate higher education qualification, which gives access to...

resettled person

Please see entry for resettled refugee

resettled refugee

Definition(s)In theglobal context, arefugeewho is identified by theUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR)and who is transferred from the...

resettlement

Definition(s)In theglobal context, the selection and transfer ofrefugeesfrom a State in which they have soughtprotectionto a third state which has...

resettlement programme

Definition(s)In theglobal context, a coordinated activity undertaken in partnership withUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)and other...

residence document

Definition(s)A document issued by the authorities of an EU Member State authorising a third-country national to stay in its territory, including the...

residence permit

Definition(s)Any authorisation issued by the authorities of an EU Member State allowing a non-EU national to stay legally in its territory, in...

return counselling

Definition(s)Individual return advice to potential returnees, including – depending on the circumstances of the case - information on the obligation...

return decision

Definition(s)An administrative or judicial decision or act, stating or declaring the stay of a third-country national to be illegal and imposing or...

return intervention

Definition(s)An activity of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) providing EU Member States with enhanced technical and operational...

return

Definition(s)The movement of a person going from a host country back to a country of origin, country of nationality or habitual residence usually...

return migration

Please see entry for return

return operation

Definition(s)An operation that is coordinated by the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and involves technical and operational...

returnee

Definition(s)A person going from a host country back to a country of origin , country of nationality or habitual residence usually after spending a...

reverse brain drain

Please see entry for brain gain

right of asylum

Definition(s)The right of the State, in virtue of its territorial sovereignty and in the exercise of its discretion, to allow a non-national to enter...

right of residence

Definition(s)The right to regularly reside in a given country, according to the migration law of that country.Source(s) Developed by EMNTranslations...

right to an effective remedy

Definition(s)A general principle of European Union law set out in Art. 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union which gives...

right to appeal

Definition(s)A general principle of European Union law set out in Art. 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union which gives...

right to asylum

Definition(s)The right of a person to seek asylum, guaranteed with due respect by the rules of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol and in...

right to family life

Definition(s)A right enshrined in Arts. 7, 9 and 33 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and Art. 8 of the European Convention...

right to family unity

Definition(s)In the context of a refugee, a right provisioned in Art. 23 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and in Art. 12 of...

right to free movement

Definition(s)The right of EU citizens and legally resident third-country nationals (in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community)...

right to grant asylum

Please see entry for right of asylum

right to remain pending the decision

Please see entry for suspensive effect

right to remain pending the examination of an application

Please see entry for suspensive effect

right to reside

Please see entry for right of residence

right to seek asylum

Please see entry for right to asylum

risk of absconding

Definition(s)In the EU context , existence of reasons in an individual case which are based on objective criteria defined by law to believe that a...

safe country of origin

Definition(s)A country where, on the basis of the legal situation, the application of the law within a democratic system and the general political...

safe third country

Definition(s)A third country that treats a person seeking international protection in accordance with the following principles:(a) life and liberty...

school pupil

Definition(s)In the EU migration context, a third-country national admitted to the territory of a EU Member State to follow a recognised programme of...

search and rescue (SAR) operation

Definition(s)In theglobal context, operation to render assistance to persons in distress at sea regardless of the nationality or status of such a...

seasonal migrant, seasonal worker migrant

Please see entry for seasonal worker

seasonal worker

Definition(s)A third-country national who retains their principal place of residence in a third country and stays legally and temporarily in the...

second generation Schengen Information System

Please see entry for Schengen Information System

second-generation immigrant

Please see entry for second-generation migrant

second-generation migrant

Definition(s)A person who was born in and is residing in a country that at least one of their parents previously entered as a migrant .Source(s)...

secondary migrant

Please see entry for secondary movement of migrants

secondary movement of asylum seekers and refugees

Please see entry for secondary movement of migrants

secondary movement of migrants

Definition(s)The movement of migrants , including refugees and asylum seekers , who for different reasons move from the country in which they first...

segregation

Definition(s)The act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons on the basis of race, colour, language, religion, nationality or...

self-employed person

Definition(s)A person who is the sole or joint owner of the unincorporated enterprise (one that has not been incorporated, i.e. formed into a legal...

separated child

Definition(s)A child under 18 years of age who is outside their country of origin and separated from both parents or their previous legal / customary...

serious harm

Definition(s)Harm consisting of(a) the death penalty or execution; or(b) torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment of an applicant in...

sex

Definition(s)The biological characteristics of a person, predominantly female or male.Source(s) Derived by EMN from the gender equality glossary of...

short-stay visa

Definition(s)The authorisation or decision of an EU Member State with a view to transit through or an intended stay on the territory of one or more or...

short-term migrant

Definition(s)A person who moves to a country other than that of their usual residence for a period of at least three months but less than a year (12...

short-term migration

Definition(s)Movement of individuals who change their country of usual residence for a period of at least three months but less than a year (12 months...

short-term mobility

Definition(s)In the context of Directive 2016/801/EU (Recast Researcher's Directive) , the right of a third-country national authorised to stay in...

short-term visa

Please see entry for short-stay visa

single application procedure

Definition(s)A procedure leading, on the basis of a single application made by a third-country national, or by their employer , for the authorisation...

single permit

Definition(s)A residence permit issued by the authorities of an EU Member State after a single application procedure allowing a third-country national...

smuggling of migrants

Definition(s)The procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the irregular entry of a person...

social dumping

Definition(s)The practice whereby workers are given pay and / or working and living conditions which are sub-standard compared to those specified by...

social exclusion

Definition(s)In the EU context, a situation whereby a person is prevented (or excluded) from contributing to and benefiting from economic and social...

social group

Definition(s)In the global context, a group of persons who share a common characteristic other than their risk of being persecuted which often is...

social inclusion

Definition(s)In the EU-context, a framework for national strategy development, as well as for policy coordination between the EU Member States, on...

social partners

Definition(s)Bodies representing employers, workers and governments when meeting for the purpose of consultations and negotiations on labour, social...

social protection benefits

Definition(s)Transfers, in cash or in kind, by social protection schemes to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of one or more of...

social security

Definition(s)A right to which every member of society is entitled to realise through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance...

speedy asylum procedure

Please see entry for accelerated international protection procedure

speedy international protection procedure

Please see entry for accelerated international protection procedure

sponsor

Definition(s)In the global context, a person or entity which undertakes a (legal, financial or personal) engagement, promise or pledge, on behalf of...

spontaneous migration

Definition(s)The movement of a person or a group of persons who initiate and proceed with their migration plans without any outside assistance.Source...

standard of proof

Definition(s)In theglobal context, the degree or level of persuasiveness of the evidence required in a specific case.In thecontext of international...

state liaison officer

Please see entry for Immigration Liaison Officer

state of nationality

Please see entry for country of nationality

stateless person

Definition(s)Person who is not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law.Source(s) Art. 1 of UN Convention relating to the...

statutory refugee

Definition(s)Person considered to be a refugee (according to the criteria of Art. 1A(I) of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol) under the...

stock of foreigners

Definition(s)The number of foreign nationals in a given area on a certain date (e.g. 1 January or 31 December) of the year in question.Source(s)...

stock of migrants

Please see entry for migrant stock

stock of pending cases (in procedures for international protection)

Definition(s)The number of formally lodged applications for international protection which have not yet received a decisionin each stage of the...

stranded migrant

Definition(s)A migrant who for reasons beyond their control has been unintentionally forced to stay in a country.Source(s) Developed by...

student

Definition(s)In the EU migration context, a third-country national accepted by an establishment of higher education and admitted to the territory of...

subsequent application for international protection

Definition(s)A further application for international protection made after a final decision has been taken on a previous application, including cases...

subsidiary protection

Definition(s)The protection given to a third-country national or a stateless person who does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom...

subsidiary protection status

Definition(s)The recognition by an EU Member State of a third-country national or a stateless person as a person eligible for subsidiary protection...

suspension of removal

Please see entry for postponement of removal

suspensive effect

Definition(s)A consequence of an appeal, which suspends the enforceability of a challenged decision allowing the appellant to remain in a host country...

sustainable return

Definition(s)In the global context, policy which deters new irregular migration of returnees by reintegration of the returnee in the country of origin...

temporary external border

Definition(s)(a) The common border between an EU Member State fully implementing the Schengen acquis and a EU Member State bound to apply the Schengen...

temporary migration

Definition(s)Migration for a specific motivation and / or purpose with the intention that afterwards there will be a return to the country of origin...

temporary protection

Definition(s)A procedure of exceptional character to provide, in the event of a mass influx or imminent mass influx of displaced persons from third...

third country

Definition(s)A country that is not a member of the European Union as well as a country or territory whose citizens do not enjoy the European Union...

third-country national found to be illegally present

Definition(s)A third-country national who is officially found to be on the territory of an EU Member State and who does not fullfil, or no longer...

third-country national

Definition(s)Any person who is not a citizen of the European Union within the meaning of Art. 20(1) of TFEU and who is not a person enjoying the...

third-country national mobility

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

tolerated stay

Please see entry for postponement of removal

torture

Definition(s)Any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as...

total migration

Definition(s)The sum of the immigrations and emigrations which yields the total volume of migration.Source(s) Towards Harmonised European Statistics...

trafficking in human beings

Definition(s)The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer of control over those...

trainee

Definition(s)In the EU migration context, a worker whose presence in the territory of an EU Member State is strictly limited in duration and closely...

transfer order

Definition(s)The formal obligation of an applicant for international protection to leave an EU Member State and, within a specified period, go to the...

transit

Definition(s)In thecontext of migration, passage through a country of transit of athird-country nationaltravelling from theircountry of originto an EU...

transit visa

Please see entry for visa

travel document

Definition(s)A document issued by a government or international treaty organisation which is acceptable proof of identity for the purpose of entering...

unaccompanied and separated child

Please see entry for unaccompanied minor

unaccompanied minor

Definition(s)A minor who arrives on the territory of an EU Member unaccompanied by the adult responsible for them by law or by the practice of the EU...

unauthorised migrant

Please see entry for irregular migrant

unauthorised migration

Please see entry for irregular migration

undocumented migrant

Please see entry for irregular migrant

undocumented migration

Please see entry for irregular migrant

unfounded application for international protection

Definition(s)An application which the determining authority has established as unfounded because the applicant does not qualify for international...

union citizen

Definition(s)Any person having the citizenship of an EU Member State.Source(s) Art. 20 (1) of Treaty of the Functioning of the EU (TFEU)Translations...

union preference

Definition(s)The preference given by an EU Member State to workers who are nationals of other EU Member States over workers who are nationals of third...

unremunerated trainee

Definition(s)A third-country national who has been admitted to the territory of an EU Member State for a training period without remuneration in...

usual residence

Definition(s)The place at which a person normally spends the daily period of rest, regardless of temporary absences for purposes of recreation...

usually resident population

Definition(s)The number of persons who, on a given reference date, are usually resident in a defined geographical area (e.g. national, regional or...

victim of trafficking in human beings (presumed)

Please see entry for presumed victim of trafficking in human beings

victimisation

Definition(s)Adverse treatment or adverse consequence as a reaction to a complaint or to proceedings aimed at enforcing compliance with the principle...

visa facilitation agreement

Definition(s)Agreement between the EU and a non-EU country that facilitates the issuance by an EU Member State of authorisations to the citizens of...

visa

Definition(s)The authorisation or decision of an EU Member State required for transit or entry for an intended stay in that EU Member State or in...

voluntary departure

Definition(s)Compliance with the obligation to return within the time-limit fixed for that purpose in the return decision.Source(s)Art. 3(8) of...

voluntary repatriation

Please see entry for voluntary return

voluntary return

Definition(s)The assisted or independent return to the country of origin, transit or third country, based on the free will of the returnee.Source(s)...

vulnerable person

Definition(s)Minors, unaccompanied minors, disabled people, elderly people, pregnant women, single parents with minor children, victims of trafficking...

wage dumping

Please see entry for social dumping

war crime

Definition(s)Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions or other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflicts...

war refugee (Civil)

AT/DE/LU: (Bürger-)KriegsflüchtlingBG: бежанец вследствие на (гражданска) войнаCS: válečný uprchlíkEE: sõjapõgenikES: refugiado por conflictos...

well-founded fear of persecution

Definition(s)The fear of persecution experienced by an applicant for international protection that is considered both genuine and objectively...

withdrawal of an application for international protection

Definition(s)The actions by which the applicant terminates the procedures initiated by the submission of their application for international...

withdrawal of international protection

Definition(s)The decision by a competent authority to revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee or subsidiary protection status of a person in...

withdrawal of refugee status

Definition(s)The decision by a competent authority to revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee status of a person in accordance with Directive 2011...

work permit

Definition(s)In the global context, a legal document issued by a competent authority of a State giving authorisation for employment of migrant workers...

xenophobia

Definition(s)Attitudes, prejudices and behaviour that reject, exclude and often vilify persons, based on the perception that they are outsiders or...