Migration and Home Affairs
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W X
absconding
AT/DE/LU: Untertauchen
BG: укриване
CS: útěk
EE: kõrvalehoidumine
ES: fuga
FI: pakeneminen
FR/BE/LU: fuite
GR: απόδραση
HU: megszökik
IE: éalú s.; éalaitheach a.
IT: fuga
LT: pasislėpimas
LV: aizbēgšana
MT: Ħarba / Ħrib / Kontumaċja
NL/BE: onderduiken
NO: unndragelse (b) / unndraging (n)
PL: ucieczka
PT: fuga/evasão
RO: sustragere
SE: avvikande
SI: pobeg
SK: útek

Action by which a person seeks to avoid legal proceedings by not remaining available to the relevant authorities or to the court.


Narrower Term: risk of absconding

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of ‘risk of absconding’, Art. 3(7) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

accelerated international protection procedure
AT/DE/LU: beschleunigtes Verfahren für internationalen Schutz
BG: ускорено производство за предоставяне на международна закрила
CS: zrychlené řízení o mezinárodní ochraně
EE: kiirendatud rahvusvahelise kaitse menetlus
ES: tramitación de urgencia
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskeva nopeutettu menettely
FR/BE/LU: procédure accélérée de traitement d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: gyorsított menedékjogi eljárás
IE: Nós Imeachta Luathaithe um Chosaint Idirnáisiúnta
IT: procedura accelerata di protezione internazionale
LT: paspartinta prieglobsčio procedūra
LV: paātrināta starptautiskās aizsardzības piešķiršanas procedūra
MT: Proċedura aċċellerata għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: versnelde asielprocedure
NO: hurtigprosedyre for behandling av asylsøknader (b) / hurtigprosedyre for handsaming av asylsøknader (n)
PL: procedura przyspieszona w sprawie o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: processo acelerado de protecção internacion
RO: procedura accelerata
SE: påskyndat prövningsförfarande av ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: pospešen postopek za pridobitev statusa mednarodne zaščite
SK: zrýchlený postup posudzovania žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu

An expedited procedure to examine an which is either already deemed manifestly unfounded, which involves serious national security or public order concerns, or which is a subsequent application.


Synonym(s): accelerated procedure for international protection, speedy asylum procedure, speedy international protection procedure


Note:
1. As per the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe's guidelines on human rights protection in the context of accelerated asylum procedures of 1 July 2009, the procedure derogates from normally applicable procedural timescales and/or procedural guarantees with a view to expediting decision-making. For more information see https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1469829&Site=CM
2. Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) recognises, in Recital 18 of the Preamble and in Art. 31(2) that it is in the interest of both Member States and applicants for international protection for decisions to be taken as soon as possible. This Directive does not provide for minimum or maximum time limits for taking a decision on applications for international protection nor does it define the term ‘accelerated procedure'. However, Art. 31(2) does make clear that the speed of the asylum procedure may not prejudice ‘an adequate and complete examination’ of the asylum claim.
3. Accelerated procedures must comply with the basic principles and guarantees laid down in Chapter II of Directive 2013/32/EU and may be conducted only in limited cases laid down in Art. 31(8) of the Directive.

Source:Derived by EMN from the Council of Europe's Guidelines on human rights protection in the context of accelerated asylum procedures 2009

accelerated procedure for international protection
access to healthcare
AT/DE/LU: Zugang zu medizinischer Versorgung
BG: достъп до здравни гриижи
CS: přístup ke zdravotní péči
EE: ligipääs tervishoiule
EL: πρόσβαση στην υγειονομική περίθαλψη
ES: acceso a la asistencia sanitaria
FI: oikeus terveydenhuoltoon
FR/BE/LU: accès aux soins de santé
HU: a migránsok társadalombiztosítási és egészségügyi ellátásokhoz való hozzáférése
IE: Rochtain ar Chúram Sláinte
IT: accesso all'assistenza sanitaria
LT: sveikatos priežiūros paslaugų prieinamumas
LV: piekļuve veselības aprūpei
MT: Aċċess għas-servizzi tas-saħħa/ għall-kura sanitarja
NL/BE: toegang tot gezondheidszorg
NO: tilgang til helsetjenester (b) / tilgang til helsetenester (n)
PL: dostęp do opieki zdrowotnej
PT: acesso aos cuidados de saúde
RO: acces la ingrijirea sanatatii/acces la sistemul medical
SE: tillgång till hälso- och sjukvård
SI: dostop do zdravstvenega varstva
SK: prístup k zdravotnej starostlivosti

Healthcare entitlements enjoyed by third-country nationals(migrants, applicants for international protectionand Refugees) in EU Member States and in their countries of origin.


Synonym(s): healthcare benefits, medical benefits

Broader Term: social protection benefits

Note:
1. In EU Member States, the scope of healthcare to which a third-country national has access depends on their residence or employment status. For further information see EMN: Migrants access to social security and healthcare: policies and practice, 2014.
2. According to Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive), long-term residents enjoy the same access to healthcare as nationals as defined by national law.
3. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) grants access to adequate healthcare, including treatment of mental disorders when needed, to beneficiaries of international protection under the same eligibility conditions as nationals of the Member State that has granted such protection.
4. Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive) establishes minimum standards for access to healthcare for applicants of international protection during the asylum procedure. It requires Member States to ensure that asylum seekers at least receive emergency care and essential treatment for illnesses and serious mental disorders. However, the entitlement of asylum seekers to healthcare services depends on national legislation and varies among Member States. See for example, EMN: Ad-Hoc Query on System of medical treatment of asylum seekers in Member States.
5. Access to healthcare can be a key factor in the process of decision-making on applications for international protection. Subsidiary protection may apply if the asylum-seeker contends that a return to the country of origin is impossible for health reasons, as the return of a sick person which is often connected with the medical standards in the country of return could constitute a breach of Art. 3 ECHR. Thus case workers have to take into account whether medical treatment is available in the country of origin and whether the available medical treatment would also be (e.g. financially) accessible to the concerned person upon return. For further information see the description of the MedCOI project in the List of projects funded by the European Refugee Fund in 2011.

Source: Derived by EMN from Art. 11 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive) and Art. 30 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

access to the procedure for international protection
AT/DE/LU: Zugang zum Verfahren auf internationalen Schutz
BG: достъп до производство за международна закрила
CZ: přístup k řízení ve věci mezinárodní ochrany
FI: pääsy menettelyyn
FR/BE/LU: accès à la procédure d'octroi de la protection internationale
IE: rochtain ar nós imeachta cuí
HU: eljáráshoz való hozzáférés
IT: accesso alla procedura
LV: piekļuve procedūrai
NO: tilgang til søknadsprosedyren for internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / tilgang til søknadsprosedyren for internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: dostęp do procedury
SE: Rätt till prövning av ansökan
SK: prístup ku konaniu o medzinárodnej ochrane
SI: ostop do postopka

The obligation of Member States to ensure that a person who has made an application for international protection has an effective opportunity to lodge it as soon as possible.

Synonym(s): access to the procedure for international protection


Related Term: lodging an application for international protection, making an application for international protection


Note:

1. The word "effective" is key in this definition and encompasses that applicants are ensured the possibility to cooperate and communicate with the competent authorities in a proper and adequate manner.
2. Applicants should be able to present the relevant facts of their case and ensured sufficient procedural guarantees in all stages of the procedure.

 

Source:

Art. 6 (2) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

accommodation centre
AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmeeinrichtung
BG: център за настаняване
CS: pobytové středisko
EE: majutuskeskus
ES: centro de acogida
FI: vastaanottokeskus
FR/BE/LU: centre d'hébergement
GR: κέντρο φιλοξενίας
HU: befogadó állomás
IE: lárionad cóiríochta (gu & ai: lárionaid chóiríochta)
IT: struttura alloggiativa (per richiedenti asilo)
LT: apgyvendinimo centras
LV: izmitināšanas centrs
MT: Ċentru ta' akkomodazzjoni
NL/BE: opvangcentrum (syn: asielzoekerscentrum)
NO: asylmottak/mottakssenter
PL: ośrodek dla osób ubiegających się o status uchodźcy
PT: centro de acolhimento
RO: centru de cazare şi proceduri
SE: förläggning
SI: nastanitveni center
SK: pobytový tábor (national law) / ubytovacie zariadenie

A place used for the collective housing of applicants for international protection.


Broader Term: reception facilities

Related Term:Reception Centre

Note:
1. Such places include decentralised accommodation centres.
2. In FI, the preferred English translation is ‘reception centre’.
3. For more information on categories of reception facilitiesavailable in EU Member States, see EMN: The Organisation of Reception Facilities for Asylum Seekers in different Member States, 2014.

Source:Art. 2(i) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

acculturation
AT/DE/LU: Akkulturation
BG: акултурация
CS: akulturace
EE: kultuuriline kohanemine
EL:εκπολιτισμό
ES: aculturación
FI: akkulturaatio, sopeutuminen vieraaseen kulttuuriin
FR/BE/LU: acculturation
HU: akkulturáció
IE: athchultúrú
IT: acculturazione
LT: akultūracija
LV: akulturācija
MT: Akkulturazzjoni
NL/BE: acculturatie
NO: assimilasjon
PL: akulturacja
PT: aculturação
RO: aculturalizare
SE: ackulturation
SI: akulturacija
SK: akulturácia

A series of changes in cultural mores (ideas, words, values, norms, behaviour, institutions) resulting from direct and continuous contact and interaction between groups of different cultures, particularly through migratory movements or economic exchange, the media and other channels.



Synonym(s): inculturation

Narrower Term: assimiliation, integration.

Source: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011 and IOM Glossary on Migration, 1st ed., 2004

ACP Observatory on Migration
ACP-EC Partnership Agreement

Please see entry for Cotonou Agreement

acquis

Please see entry for EU acquis

Acquis

The body of common rights and obligations that is binding on all EU States. It is constantly evolving and comprises:

  • the content, principles and political objectives of the Treaties,
  • legislation adopted pursuant to the Treaties and the case law of the Court of Justice
  • declarations and resolutions adopted by the Union,
  • instruments under the Common Foreign and Security Policy,
  • instruments under Justice and Home Affairs,
  • international agreements concluded by the EU and those entered into by EU States among themselves within the sphere of the Union's activities.
Source:
acquisition of citizenship
AT/DE/LU: Erwerb der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: придобиване на гражданство
CS: nabytí státního občanství
EE: kodakondsuse omandamine/kodakondsuse saamine
ES: adquisición y atribución de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuuden saaminen
FR/BE/LU: acquisition de la citoyenneté
GR: κτήση ιθαγένειας
HU: állampolgárság megszerzése
IE: saoránacht a fháil
IT: acquisizione di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės įgijimas
LV: pilsonības iegūšana
MT: Ksib ta' ċittadinanza
NL/BE: verkrijging van het staatsburgerschap
NO: erverv av statsborgerskap (b) / erverv av statsborgarskap (n)
PL: nabywanie obywatelstwa
PT: aquisição de nacionalidade
RO: obtinerea cetateniei/dobandirea cetateniei
SE: förvärv av medborgarskap
SI: pridobitev državljanstva
SK: nadobudnutie štátneho občianstva / získanie štátneho občianstva

Any mode of becoming a national, i.e. by birth or at any time after birth, automatic or non-automatic, based on attribution, declaration, option or application.


Narrower Term: naturalisation

Broader Term: citizenship

Related Term: Ius sanguinis, Ius soli

Note:
1. For migration statistical analysis, Art. 3(d) of Regulation (EC) No. 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation) refers or relates to the acquisition of citizenship to those persons having their usual residencein the territory of the Member State and having acquired during the reference year the citizenshipof the Member State and having formerly held the citizenship of another Member State or a third countryor having formerly been a stateless person.
2. One of the possible ways of acquiring citizenship is through naturalisation, which refers more to the decision/administrative process by the relevant authorities for the granting of nationality.

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

Acquisition of citizenship

Any mode of becoming a national, i.e. by birth or at any time after birth, automatic or non-automatic, based on attribution, declaration, option or application.

act of persecution
AT/DE/LU: Verfolgungshandlung
BG: действие на преследване
CS: akt pronásledování
EE: tagakiusamisakt
ES: actos de persecución
FI: vainoksi katsottavat teot
FR/BE/LU: actes de persécution
GR: πράξεις δίωξης
HU: üldöz(tet)ésnek minősülő cselekmények
IE: gníomh géarleanúna (iolra: gníomhartha géarleanúna)
IT: atto di persecuzione
LT: persekiojimo veiksmas
LV: vajāšanas darbība
MT: Att ta' persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: daden van vervolging
NO: forfølgelseshandlinger (b) / forfølgingshandlingar (n)
PL: prześladowanie
PT: actos de perseguição
RO: act de persecutie
SE: förföljelse
SI: dejanje preganjanja
SK: čin prenasledovania / akt prenasledovania

In the global context, acts of human rightsabuses or other serious harm, often, but not always, with a systematic or repetitive element.

In the EU context and within the meaning of Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, acts which are:

  1. sufficiently serious by their nature or repetition as to constitute a severe violation of basic human rights, in particular the rights from which derogation cannot be made under Art. 15(2) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); or
  2. an accumulation of various measures, including violation of human rights which is sufficiently severe as to affect an individual in a similar manner as mentioned in (a).


Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: actor of persecution, group persecution, serious harm

Note:
According to Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive), acts of persecution can, inter alia, take the form of:

  1. acts of physical or mental violence, including acts of sexual violence;
  2. legal, administrative, police, and/or judicial measures which are in themselves discriminatory or which are implemented in a discriminatory manner;
  3. prosecution or punishment which is disproportionate or discriminatory;
  4. denial of judicial redress resulting in a disproportionate or discriminatory punishment;
  5. prosecution or punishment for refusal to perform military service in a conflict, where performing military service would include crimes or acts falling within the scope of the grounds for exclusion as set out in Art. 12(2);
  6. acts of a gender-specific or child-specific nature.

Source: Global context: UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms
EU context: Art. 9 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

Active bribery

The deliberate action of whosoever promises or gives, directly or through an intermediary, an advantage of any kind whatsoever to an official for himself or for a third party for him to act or refrain from acting in accordance with his duty or in the exercise of his functions in breach of his official duties.

Active data

Data in active use. In a database, such data will be checked by search engines and will appear in search results if they meet the search criteria.

Active database

Contains data that is in active use.

actor of persecution
AT/DE/LU: Akteur, von dem eine Verfolgung oder ein ernsthafter Schaden ausgehen kann
BG: субект на преследване
CS: původce pronásledování
EE: tagakiusaja harjoittaja
ES: agentes de persecución
FI: vainon harjoittaja
FR/BE/LU: acteur de la persécution
GR: φορείς δίωξης
HU: üldöz(tet)és forrásai / alanyai
IE: gníomhaí géarleanúna (iolra: gníomhaithe géarleanúna)
IT: responsabile di persecuzione
LT: persekiojimo vykdytojas
LV: vajāšanas dalībnieks
MT: Aġent / Awtur t'att ta' persekuzzjoni
NL/BE: daders van vervolging
NO: aktører som er ansvarlig for forfølgelse / aktører som utøver forfølgelse (b) / aktørar som er ansvarlege for forfølging / aktørar som utøver forfølging (n)
PL: prześladowca
PT: agentes de perseguição
RO: agent de persecutie
SE: aktörer som utövar förföljelse
SI: storilec preganjanja
SK: pôvodca prenasledovania / aktér prenasledovania

Any person causing persecution, such as:

  1. the State;
  2. parties or organisations controlling the State or a substantial part of the territory of the State;
  3. non-State actors, if it can be demonstrated that the actors mentioned in (a) and (b), including international organisations, are unable or unwilling to provide protection against persecution or serious harm as defined in Art. 7 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)


Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: act of persecution, group persecution

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 6 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

actor of protection
AT/DE/LU: Akteur, der Schutz bieten kann
BG: субект на закрила
CS: poskytovatel ochrany
EE: kaitset tagav isik
ES: agentes de protección
FI: suojelun tarjoaja
FR/BE/LU: acteur de la protection
GR: φορείς προστασίας
HU: a védelem szereplői
IE: gníomhaí cosanta (iolra: gníomhaithe cosanta)
IT: soggetto che offre protezione
LT: apsaugos teikėjas
LV: aizsardzības dalībnieks
MT: Aġent t'att ta' protezzjoni
NL/BE: actoren van bescherming
NO: aktører som gir beskyttelse (b) / aktørar som gjev vern (n)
PL: podmiot udzielający ochrony
PT: agentes de protecção
RO: agent de protectie
SE: aktörer som ger skydd
SI: akter nudenja zaščite
SK: aktér ochrany

Any person (individual or legal) providing effective and non-temporary protectionagainst persecutionor serious harm– i.e. the State or parties or organisations, including international organisations, controlling the State or a substantial part of the territory of the State provided they are willing and able to offer protection.


Broader Term: protection

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 7 of Directive 2011/95/EC (Recast Qualification Directive)

Acts of terrorism

Intentional acts that, given their nature or context, may seriously damage a country or an international organisation where committed with the aim of seriously intimidating a population, or unduly compelling a government or international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act, or seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation:

  • attacks upon a person’s life which may cause death,
  • attacks upon the physical integrity of a person,
  • kidnapping or hostage taking,
  • causing extensive destruction to a Government or public facility, a transport system, an infrastructure facility, including an information system, a fixed platform located on the continental shelf, a public place or private property likely to endanger human life or result in major economic loss,
  • seizure of aircraft, ships or other means of public or goods transport,
  • manufacture, possession, acquisition, transport, supply or use of weapons, explosives or of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons, as well as research into, and development of, biological and chemical weapons,
  • release of dangerous substances, or causing fires, floods or explosions the effect of which is to endanger human life,
  • interfering with or disrupting the supply of water, power or any other fundamental natural resource the effect of which is to endanger human life,
  • threatening to commit any of the acts listed above.
adaptation
AT/DE/LU: Anpassung, Adaptation
BG: приспособяване
CS: adaptace
EE: kohanemine
ES: adaptación
FI: sopeutuminen
FR/BE/LU: adaptation
GR: προσαρμογή
HU: adaptáció / alkalmazkodás
IE: oiriúnú
IT: adattamento
LT: adaptacija
LV: pielāgošanās
MT: Addattament
NL/BE: aanpassing
NO: tilpasning (b) / tilpassing (n)
PL: adaptacja
PT: adaptação
RO: adaptare
SE: anpassning
SI: prilagajanje/adaptacija
SK: prispôsobenie / adaptácia

Process of modifying some or all of one's beliefs and/or attitudes so as to suit new conditions of life.


Narrower Term: economic adaptation, linguistic adaptation, occupational adaptation, school adaptation

Related Term: integration

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

Adequacy decision

A decision adopted by the European Commission on the basis of Directive 95/46/EC, which establishes that a non-EU country ensures an adequate level of protection of personal data by reason of its domestic law or the international commitments it has entered into.

The effect of such a decision is that personal data can flow from all EU States and the European Economic Area member countries (Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland) to that non-EU country, without any further safeguards.

admission onto the territory
BG: допускане на територията
CS: povolení ke vstupu na území
DE: Zulassung zum Hoheitsgebiet
EL: εισδοχής στο έδαφος
ES: entrada legal al territorio
ET: riiki lubamine
FI: maahantulon salliminen
FR: admission sur le territoire
GA: cead isteach sa chríoch
HU: egy állam területére történő beutazás
IT: ammissione sul territorio
LT: įleidimas į teritoriją
LV: uzņemšana teritorijā
MT: Dħul fit-territorju
NL: toegang tot het grondgebie
PL: przyjęcie / dopuszczenie na terytorium
RO: admisie pe teritoriu
SK: povolenie vstupu na územie štátu
SL: (zakoniti) vstop na ozemlje
SV: tillstånd att resa in i landet
NO: adgang til riket (b) / tilgjenge til riket (n)

The lawful entry of an alien onto the territory of a State after inspection and authorisation by an immigration officer.



Synonym(s): foreigner , non-citizen, non-national

Broader Term: legal entry

Related Terms: non-EU national, third-country national

Note:
In countries signatory to the Schengen Agreement, only citizens from countries which are not signatory to the Schengen Agreement have to go through the admission process, whereas in non-Schengen countries all non-nationals have to be admitted.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of ‘admission’ in IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

adoption (of a child)
AT/DE/LU: Adoption
BG: осиновяване
CS: osvojení (dítěte)
EE: lapsendamine
ES: adopción
FI: adoptio
FR/BE/LU: adoption
GR: υιοθεσία
HU: örökbefogadás
IE: uchtú; uchtáil
IT: adozione (di un bambino)
LT: įvaikinimas
LV: adopcija
MT: Addozzjoni
NL/BE: adoptie
NO: adopsjon
PL: adopcja
PT: adopção
RO: adoptare
SE: adoption
SI: posvojitev
SK: osvojenie / adopcia

In the context of dependants, the statutory process of terminating legal rights and duties between the childand the natural parents, and substituting similar rights and duties between the child and the adoptive parents.

Narrower Term: adoption (of a child) .

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

adoption of convenience
AT/DE/LU: Scheinadoption
BG: no translation
CS: účelové osvojení
EE: mugavuslapsendamine
EL: εικονικού υιοθεσιών/ υιοθεσιών της εύκολα
ES: adopción de conveniencia
FI: harhautustarkoituksessa toteutettu adoptio
FR/BE/LU: adoption de complaisance
HU: névleges örökbefogadás
IE: uchtú áise
IT: adozione fittizia
LT: fiktyvus įvaikinimas
LV: fiktīva adopcija
MT: Addozzjoni ta’ konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnadoptie
NO: proformaadopsjon
PL: adopcja fikcyjna
PT: adopcja fikcyjna
RO: adoptie de convenienta
SE: skenadoption
SI: posvojitev iz koristoljubja
SK: účelové osvojenie

An adoption (of a child)contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person adopted to enter or reside in a Member State.


Broader Term: adoption (of a child)

Related Term: civil partnership of convenience, marriage of convenience,partnership of convenience

Source:Art. 16(2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

adult
AT/DE/LU: Erwachsener
BG: възрастен
CS: dospělá osoba
EE: täisealine
ES: adulto
FI: aikuinen
FR/BE/LU: adulte
GR: ενήλικας
HU: felnőtt
IE: aosach
IT: adulto/ maggiorenne
LT: pilnametis
LV: pieaugušais
MT: Adult(a)
NL/BE: volwassene
NO: voksen (b) / vaksen (n)
PL: osoba pełnoletnia
PT: adulto/ maior de idade
RO: adult
SE: vuxen
SI: odrasel
SK: dospelá osoba

Every human being aged 18 years and older (unless majority is attained later under the law applicable to the adult).




Related Terms: child, Minor

Note:
Adulthood can be defined in terms of biology, psychological adult development, law, personal character or social status. For the purposes of this glossary, a more legal definition is used.

Source: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'child' in EMN Glossary

affirmative action

Please see entry for positive discrimination

Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration
AT/DE/LU: Beobachtungs-stelle für Migration in Afrika, in der Karibik und im pazifischen Raum
BG: Обсерватория по миграция за страните от Африка, Карибите и Тихоокенския басейн
CZ: Observatoř pro migraci států Afriky, Karibiku a Pacifiku
EE: Aafrika, Kariibi mere ja Vaikse ookeani piirkonna riikide rände vaatluskeskus
EL: Αφρική , Καραϊβικής, Ειρηνικός παρατηρητήριο για τη μετανάστευση
ES: Observatorio sobre Migraciones Africa Caribe Pacífico
FI: Afrikan, Karibian ja Tyynenmeren alueen muuttoliikkeiden seurantakeskus
FR/BE/LU: Observatoire Afrique, Caraïbes, Pacifique sur les migrations
HU: Afrikai, Karibi és Csendes-óceáni Migrációs Megfigyelő Központ
IE: Faireachlann Stáit na hAfraice, Mhuir Chairib agus an Aigéin Chiúin um Imirce, Faireachlann ACC um Imirce
IT: Osservatorio Africa, Caraibi e Pacifico sulle migrazioni
LT: Afrikos, Karibų ir Ramiojo vandenyno regiono migracijos stebėsenos tinklas
LV: Āfrikas, Karību jūras reģiona un Klusā okeāna valstu migrācijas novērošanas centrs
MT: Osservatorju (L-) tal-Afrika, Karibew u Paċifiku fuq il-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Africa Caribbean Pacific Obervatory on Migration (no usual translation)
NO: Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration (no usual translation)
PL: Obserwatorium Migracji państw Afryki, Karaibów i Pacyfiku
PT: Observatório das Migrações África, Caraíbas e Pacífico (ACP)
RO: Observator cu privire la migratie Africa Caraibe Pacific
SE: No usual translation
SI: Afriško - Karibsko - Pacifiški observatorij za migracije
SK: Observatórium AKT (Skupiny afrických, karibských a tichomorských štátov) pre migráciu
SV: Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration (no usual translation)

A reference network of migration research institutions and governmental entities dealing with migration in the six regions of the Africa Caribbean Pacific (ACP) Group of States, namely West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific, designed to produce data on South-South ACP migration flows for civil society and policy-makers, and enhance research capacities in ACP countries through networking and cooperation among organisations.


Synonym(s): ACP, ACP Observatory on Migration

Related Term: European Migration Network, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. The ACP was established in 2010 on the initiative of the Secretariat of the ACP Group of States, empowered by the International Organization for Migration (IOM)and funded by the European Union with the financial support of CH.
2. Activities are undertaken in 12 pilot countries (Angola, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Tanzania, Timor-Leste and Trinidad and Tobago).
3. For more information see: http://www.acpmigration-obs.org/

Source:Website of the ACP Observatory on Migration

Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership
AT/DE/LU: Afrika-EU Partnerschaft in den Bereichen Migration, Mobilität und Beschäftigung
BG: Партньорство за миграция, мобилност и заетост между страните на Африка и ЕС
CS: Partnerství EU-Afrika pro migraci, mobilitu a zaměstnanost
EE: Aafrika-EL migratsiooni, mobiilsuse ja tööhõive partnerlus
EL: και της εταιρικής σχέσης Αφρικής-ΕΕ για την μετανάστευση την κινητικότητα και την απασχόληση
ES: Asociación África-UE sobre migración, movilidad y empleo
FI: Afrikan ja EU:n kumppanuus muuttoliikkeen, liikkuvuuden ja työllisyyden aloilla
FR/BE/LU: Partenariat Afrique-UE sur les migrations, la mobilité et l'emploi
HU: Afrika-EU közötti Migrációs, Mobilitási és Foglalkoztatási Partnerség
IE: Comhpháirtíocht an AE agus na hAfraice maidir le hImirce, Soghluaisteacht agus Fostaíocht
IT: Partenariato Africa-UE in materia di Migrazione, Mobilità e Occupazione
LT: ES-Afrikos partnerystė migracijos, mobilumo ir užimtumo srityse
LV: Āfrikas un ES Migrācijas, mobilitātes un nodarbinātības partnerība
MT: Sħubija bejn l-Afrika u l-UE dwar Migrazzjoni, Mobilità u Impiegi
NL/BE: Afrika-EU-Partnerschap inzake migratie, mobiliteit en werkgelegenheid
NO: Afrika–EU migrasjons-, mobilitets- og sysselsettingspartnerskap (b) / Afrika–EU migrasjons-, mobilitets- og sysselsetjingspartnarskap
PL: Partnerstwo UE-Afryka na rzecz migracji, mobilności i zatrudnienia
PT: Parceria Africa-UE para as migrações, mobilidade e emprego
RO: Parteneriatul Africa-EU cu privire la migraţie. mobilitate şi angajare
SE: MME-partnerskapet (migration, rörlighet och sysselsättning)
SI: Afrika - EU Partnerstvo za migracije, mobilnost in zaposlovanje
SK: Partnesrtvo Afrika - EÚ v oblasti migrácie, mobility a zamestnanosti

A partnership that provides comprehensive responses to the issues of migration, mobility and employment, in the interest of all partners, with the particular objectives to create more and better jobs for Africa and to better manage migration flows.


Synonym(s): Africa-EU MME Partnership, MME Partnership

Broader Term: Africa-EU Partnership

Related Term: Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. The MME Partnership was launched during the 2nd Africa-EU Summit of Heads of State and Government in December 2007 in Lisbon, where the Joint EU-Africa Strategy and the First Action Plan (2008-2010) were adopted.
2. The partnership aims to ensure sustainable development and the implementation of relevant international agreements and declarations, relying in particular on the Tripoli Declaration on Migration and Development, the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, especially Women and Children and the Ouagadougou Declaration and Plan of Action for Promotion of Employment and Poverty Alleviation.
3. It covers one of the eight areas of cooperation of the Africa-EU (Strategic) Partnership, which is the formal channel through which the European Union and the African Union work together, and which provides the overarching long-term framework for Africa-EU relations.
4. For more information, see: http://www.africa-eu-partnership.org/

Source:Website of the Africa-EU Partnership

Africa-EU MME Partnership
age assessment
AT/DE/LU: Altersfest-stellung
BG: оценка на възрастта
CS: určení věku
DE: Altersfeststellung
EE: vanuse määramine
EL: ektími̱si̱s ti̱s i̱likías
ES: determinación de la edad
FI: iän määrittäminen, iän selvittäminen
FR/BE/LU: détermination de l'âge
HU: kormeghatározás
IE: measúnú aoise
IT: accertamento dell'età
LT: amžiaus nustatymas
LV: vecuma noteikšana
MT: Valutazzjoni/Stima tal-età
NL/BE: leeftijdsonderzoek
NO: aldersvurdering
PL: ustalenie/ocena wieku
PT: determinação da idade
RO: evaluarea varstei
SE: åldersbedömning
SI: ocenjevanje starosti
SK: posúdenie veku

Process by which authorities seek to establish the chronological age, or range of age, of a person in order to determine whether an individual is a childor not.


Related Terms: child, Minor

Note:
1. Art. 4 (3) of Council Resolution of 26 June 1997 on unaccompanied minors states that in principle, unaccompanied asylum-seekers claiming to be minors must produce evidence of their age. If such evidence is not available or serious doubt persists, Member States may carry out an age assessment. Age assessment should be carried out objectively. For such purposes, Member States may have a medical age-test carried out by qualified medical personnel, with the consent of the minor, a specially appointed adult representative or institution.
2.According to UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 6, the identification of a child as an unaccompanied and separated child (UASC) includes age assessment, which should take into account physical appearance, but also psychological maturity. The assessment must be conducted in a scientific, safe, child and gender-sensitive and fair manner, avoiding any risk of violation of the physical integrity of the child, giving due respect to human dignity.
3. Age assessment can include a variety of processes or procedures either undertaken singularly or in combination, such as: analysis of documentary evidence, interview, X-ray, physical or other form of medical examination.

Source:Derived by EMN from EASO: Age assessment practice in Europe, 2013

Air carrier

In relation to conveyance, the owner or charterer of the conveyance. A carrier usually refers to an airline, bus or rail company, or cruise line. Under the laws of some States, the term includes any owner of a means of conveyance, which carries a person onto its territory.

Source: International Organization for Migration http://ec.europa.eu/wel/images/doc_icons/f_pdf_16.gif

According to Directive 2004/82/EC, "carrier" means any natural or legal person whose occupation it is to provide passenger transport by air.

Source: Council Directive 2004/82/EC

According to Directive 2016/681 (the PNR Directive), "air carrier" means an air transport undertaking with a valid operating licence or equivalent permitting it to carry out carriage of passengers by air.

Airline

Any air transport enterprise offering or operating an international air service.

airport transit visa
AT/DE/LU: Visum für den Flughafentransit
BG: виза за летищен транзит
CS: letištní průjezdní vízum
EE: lennujaama transiidiviisa
EL: θεώρηση διέλευσης από αερολιμένα
ES: visado de tránsito aeroportuario
FI: lentokentän kauttakulkuviisumi
FR/BE/LU: visa de transit aéroportuaire
HU: repülőtéri tranzit vízum
IE: víosa idirthurais aerfoirt
IT: visto di transito aeroportuale
LT: oro uosto tranzitinė viza
LV: lidostas tranzītvīza
MT: Viża għat-transitu fl-ajruport
NL/BE: luchthaventransitvisum
NO: transittvisum for lufthavn (b) / transittvisum for lufthamn (b)
PL: lotniskowa wiza tranzytowa
PT: visto de trânsito aeroportuário
RO: viza de tranzit aeroportuar
SE: visering för flygplatstransitering
SI: letališki tranzitni vizum
SK: letiskové tranzitné vízum

A visavalid for transit through the international transit areas of one or more airports of the Member States.


Broader Term: visa

Related Term: long-stay visa, short-stay visa

Source:Art. 2(m) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

alien
AT/DE/LU: Ausländer
BG: чужденец
CS: cizinec
EE: välismaalane
ES: extranjero
FI: ulkomaalainen
FR/BE/LU: étranger
GR: αλλοδαπός
HU: külföldi
IE: eachtrannach
IT: straniero
LT: užsienietis
LV: ārzemnieks
MT: Persuna barranija / għariba
NL/BE: vreemdeling
NO: utlending / utenlandsk borger (b) / utlending / utanlandsk borgar (n)
PL: cudzoziemiec
PT: estrangeiro
RO: străin
SE: utlänning
SI: tujec
SK: cudzinec

In the global context, a person who is not a national (native or citizen) of a given State.

In the EU context, a person who is not a national of a Member State of the European Union.


Synonym(s): foreigner , non-citizen, non-national

Related Terms: non-EU national, third-country national

Note:
The more frequently used term in the EU context is third-country national.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: Schengen acquis

alternative to detention
AT/DE/LU: Alternative zur Inhaftierung/In-haftnahme, Haftalternative; Alternative zur Schubhaft/gelinderes Mittel (AT)
BG: алтернатива на задържане
CS: alternativa k zajištění
DE: Inhaftnahme
EE: kinnipidamise alternatiivid
EL: τα μη στερητικά της ελευθερίας εναλλακτικά
ES: alternativas al internamiento
FI: säilöönotolle vaihtoehtoiset turvaamistoimet
FR/BE/LU: alternative à la détention/rétention
HU: a fogvatartás alternatívái
IE: malairt ar choinneáil (iolra: malairtí ar choinneáil)
IT: disposizione alternativa al trattenimento
LT: alternatyvi sulaikymui priemonė
LV: alternatīva aizturēšanai
MT: Alternattiva għad-detenzjoni
NL/BE: alternatief voor bewaring
NO: alternativ til forvaring
PL: alternatywa wobec zatrzymania
PT: medidas alternativas à detenção
RO: alternativa la masura detentiei
SE: alternativ till förvar
SI: alternativa k pridržanju/ alternativa k omejitvi gibanja
SK: alternatíva k zaisteniu / alternatíva zaistenia

Non-custodial measures used to monitor and/or limit the movement of third-country nationalsin advance of compulsory return or deciding on the individual’s right to remain in the Member State, such as regular reporting, the surrender of a financial guarantee or travel documents, electronic monitoring.



Related Terms: detention

Note:
1. Alternatives to detention usually provide more favourable ("less coercive") conditions for the potential detainee, and may also be more cost-efficient. They are still subject to human rights standards.
2. Reception facilitiescan be considered an alternative to detention only in cases where the individual concerned has to report regularly to the competent authorities, or if there are residency requirements.
3. For further information see EMN: Use of detention and alternatives to detention in the context of immigration policies, 2014.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 8(4) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

amnesty

Please see entry for regularisation

amnesty (in the context of migration)

Please see entry for regularisation

Amphetamine

A synthetic substance. Normally seen as a white powder, it acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system. Amphetamine has some limited therapeutic use, but most is manufactured in clandestine laboratories in Europe. It is under international control and closely related to methamphetamine.

Source:
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)

Amphetamine-type stimulants encompass some of the most common, well known and used drugs including Ecstasy, Speed and Base, Ice and Methamphetamine. They are synthetic drugs meaning they are not natural and created by processing chemical ingredients.

applicant for international protection
AT/DE/LU: Antragsteller auf internationalen Schutz
BG: кандидат за международна закрила
CS: žadatel o mezinárodní ochranu
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotleja
EL: αιτών διεθνή προστασία
ES: solicitante de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua hakeva
FR/BE/LU: demandeur de protection internationale
HU: menedékkérő
IE: iarratasóir ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: richiedente protezione internazionale
LT: prieglobsčio prašytojas
LV: pieteikuma iesniedzējs, kas lūdz starptautisko aizsardzību
MT: Applikant(a) għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: persoon die om internationale bescherming verzoekt
NO: person som søker om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / person som søkjer om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: wnioskodawca o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: requerente de protecção internacional
RO: solicitant al protectiei internationale
SE: sökande av internationellt skydd
SI: prosilec za mednarodno zaščito
SK: žiadateľ o medzinárodnú ochranu (EU acquis)

A third-country nationalor a stateless person who has made an application for international protection in respect of which a final decision has not yet been taken.


Narrower Term: asylum seeker , applicant in need of special procedural guarantees,applicant with special reception needs,examination of an application for international protection,rejected applicant for international protection to narrower terms

Related Term: beneficiary for international protection,person eligible for subsidiary protection

Source:Art. 2(i) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

applicant in need of special procedural guarantees
AT/DE/LU: Antragsteller, der besondere Verfahrensgarantien benötigt
BG: кандидат, който се нуждае от специални процедурни гаранции
CS: žadatel, který potřebuje zvláštní procesní záruky
EE: spetsiaalseid menetlustagatisi vajav taotleja
EL: αιτών που χρήζει ειδικών διαδικαστικών εγγυήσεων
ES: solicitante que necesita garantías procedimentales especiales
FI: hakija, joka tarvitsee erityisiä menettelyllisiä takeita
FR/BE/LU: demandeur nécessitant des garanties procédurales spéciales
HU: különleges eljárási garanciákat igénylő kérelmező
IE: iarratasóir a bhfuil sainráthaíochtaí nós imeachta de dhíth air
IT: richiedente che necessita di garanzie procedurali particolari
LT: prašytojas, kuriam reikia specialių procedūrinių garantijų
LV: pieteikuma iesniedzējs, kuram nepieciešamas īpašas procesuālās garantijas
MT: Applikant(a) bi ħtieġa / fil-bżonn ta’ garanziji proċedurali speċjali
NL/BE: verzoeker die bijzondere procedurele waarborgen behoeft
NO: søker som har behov for særskilt saksbehandlingsprosedyre (b) / søkjar som treng særskild sakshandsamingsprosedyre (n)
PL: wnioskodawca wymagający specjalnych gwarancji proceduralnych
PT: requerente com necessidade de garantias processuais especiais
RO: solicitant care mecesita garantii procedurale speciale
SE: sökande i behov av särskilda förfarandegarantier
SI: prosilec, ki potrebuje posebna postopkovna jamstva
SK: žiadateľ, ktorý potrebuje osobitné procesné záruky (EU acquis)

An applicant whose ability to benefit from the rights and obligations provided for in Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) is limited due to individual circumstances.


Broader Term: applicant for international protection

Related Term: applicant with special reception needs

Source:Art. 2(d) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

applicant with special reception needs
AT/DE/LU: Antragsteller mit besonderen Bedürfnissen bei der Aufnahme
BG: кандидат със специални потребности за приемане
CS: žadatel se zvláštními potřebami při přijetí
EE: taotleja, kes vajab vastuvõtu eritingimusi
EL: αιτών με ειδικές ανάγκες υποδοχής
ES: solicitante con necesidades de acogida particulares
FI: hakija, jolla on erityisiä vastaanottotarpeita
FR/BE/LU: demandeur ayant des besoins particuliers en matière d'accueil
HU: különleges befogadási igényekkel rendelkező kérelmező
IE: iarratasóir a bhfuil sainriachtanais fáiltithe aige
IT: richiedente con esigenze di accoglienza particolari
LT: specialių priėmimo poreikių turintis prašytojas
LV: pieteikuma iesniedzējs ar īpašām uzņemšanas vajadzībām
MT: Applikant(a) bi bżonnijiet speċjali ta’ akkoljenza
NL/BE: persoon met bijzondere opvangbehoeften
NO: søker som har behov for særskilte innkvarteringsforhold (b) / søkjar som treng særskilde innkvarteringstilhøve (n)
PL: wnioskodawca o szczególnych potrzebach w zakresie przyjmowania
PT: requerente com necessidades de acolhimento especiais
RO: solicitant cu nevoi speciale de primire
SE: sökande med särskilda mottagandebehov
SI: prosilec s posebnimi sprejemnimi potrebami
SK: žiadateľ s osobitnými potrebami pri prijímaní (EU acquis)

Avulnerable person, in accordance with Art. 21 of Directive 2013/33/EU, who is in need of special guarantees in order to benefit from the rights and obligations provided for in Directive 2013/33/EU.


Broader Term: applicant for international protection, vulnerable person

Related Term: applicant in need of special procedural guarantees

Source:Art. 2(k) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

application for asylum
AT/DE/LU: Asylantrag
BG: молба за убежище
CS: žádost o azyl
EE: varjupaigataotlus
ES: solicitud de asilo
FI: turvapaikkahakemus
FR/BE/LU: demande d'asile
GR: αίτηση ασύλου
HU: menedékjog iránti kérelem
IE: iarratas ar thearmann
IT: domanda d'asilo
LT: prašymas suteikti prieglobstį
LV: patvēruma pieteikums
MT: Talba / Applikazzjoni għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielverzoek (syn.: asielaanvraag)
NO: asylsøknad
PL: wniosek o azyl
PT: pedido de asilo
RO: cerere de azil
SE: asylansökan
SI: prošnja za azil
SK: žiadosť o udelenie azylu / žiadosť o azyl

An application made by a foreigner or a stateless personwhich can be understood as a request for protectionunder the Geneva Convention of 1951or national refugee law.


Synonym(s): asylum application

Broader Term: application for international protection

Narrower Term: unfounded application for international protection

Note:
1. In most Member States this term is understood as a synonym to application for international protectionfollowing the adoption of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive). However, UK and IE, which have not adopted the single procedure, continue to use the term 'application for asylum' for an application for protection under the Geneva Conventiononly. In DE the term is still used to include, in addition to the application for international protection according the Qualification Directive, also the application according to the national legislation, Art. 16a Basic Law.
2. Outside EU legislation and in everyday use, the terms 'asylum application' and 'application for asylum' are often used more frequently than 'application for international protection'.
3. According to Protocol 24 of TFEU on asylum for nationals of Member States of the European Union (1997), EU Member States shall be regarded as constituting safe countries of origin in respect of each other for all legal and practical purposes in relation to asylum matters. Accordingly, any application for asylum made by a national of a Member State is normally not taken into consideration. In practice, non-EU countries can receive applications for asylum from EU Member States.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition in Art. 2 (b) of Council Directive 2003/9/EC (Reception Conditions Directive)

application for international protection
AT/DE/LU: Antrag auf internationalen Schutz
BG: молба за международна закрила
CS: žádost o mezinárodní ochranu
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotlus
ES: solicitud de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskeva hakemus
FR/BE/LU: demande de protection internationale
GR: αίτηση για διεθνή προστασία
HU: nemzetközi védelem iránti kérelem
IE: iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: domanda di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymas suteikti prieglobstį
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikums
MT: Talba għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: verzoek om internationale bescherming
NO: søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: wniosek o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: pedido de protecção internacional
RO: cerere de protectie internationala
SE: ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: prošnja za mednarodno zaščito
SK: žiadosť o medzinárodnú ochranu (EU acquis)

A request made by a third-country nationalor a stateless personfor protectionfrom a Member State, who can be understood to seek refugee statusor subsidiary protection status, and who does not explicitly request another kind of protection, outside the scope of Directive 2011/95/EU, that can be applied for separately.


Narrower Term: application for asylum , examination of an application for international protection, subsequent application for international protection, unfounded application for international protection , withdrawal of an application for international protection

Note:
1. In most Member States this term is understood as a synonym to application for international protectionfollowing the adoption of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).
2. In everyday use, the terms 'asylum application' and 'application for asylum' are often used more frequently than 'application for international protection'.
3. According to Protocol 24 of TFEU on asylum for nationals of Member States of the European Union (1997), EU Member States shall be regarded as constituting safe countries of origin in respect of each other for all legal and practical purposes in relation to asylum matters. Accordingly, any application for asylum made by a national of a Member State is normally not taken into consideration.

Source:Art. 2(h) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

apprehension
AT/DE/LU: Aufgriff, Ergreifung, Festnahme
BG: задържане
CS: zadržení
EE: kinnipidamine
EL: ανίχνευση
ES: aprehensión
FI: kiinniottaminen, pidättäminen
FR/BE/LU: appréhension, arrestation
HU: őrizetbe vétel
IE: gabháil
IT: arresto
LT: sulaikymas
LV: aizturēšana
MT: Qbid / Arrest
NL/BE: aanhouding
NO: pågripelse (b) / pågriping (n)
PL: zatrzymanie
PT: detecção
RO: luare in custodie publica
SE: Gripande
SI: prijetje/aretacija
SK: zadržanie (EU acquis) / predvedenie (national law)

In the EU migration context, any action by the relevant national authority(ies) which results in identifying a third-country national found to be illegally present and which may limit the freedom of movement of the person concerned.



Related Terms: irregular migrant, Third-Country National found to be illegally present

 

Source: Developed by EMN

Article 33

“Article 33 mechanism” or “a mechanism for early warning, preparedness and management of asylum crises” – a process set-up by the Dublin Regulation serving to prevent the deterioration in, or the collapse of, asylum systems, by alerting the Union as soon as possible when there is a concern that the smooth functioning of the Dublin system is being jeopardised as a result of particular pressure on, and/or deficiencies in the asylum system(s) of one or more EU State(s), providing remedial actions and steering measures of solidarity in order to assist the affected EU State(s) and the applicants.

ASEM

Please see entry for Asia-Europe meeting

Asia-Europe Meeting
AT/DE/LU: Asien-Europa-Treffen
BG: Среща Азия-Европа
CS: Asijsko-evropské setkání
EE: Aasia-Euroopa kohtumine
ES: Conferencia Asia-Europa
FI: ASEM (Aasian ja Euroopan yhteistyöfoorumi)
FR/BE/LU: Réunion Asie-Europe
GR: Διάσκεψη Ασίας – Ευρώπης
HU: Ázsia-Európa Találkozó
IE: Cruinniú an Áise -an Eoraip
IT: Meeting Asia-Europa
LT: Azijos ir Europos susitikimas
LV: Āzijas un Eiropas sanāksme
MT: Inkontru (L-) Asja-Ewropa (IAsE)
NL/BE: ASEM (Asia Europe Meeting)
NO: ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting)
PL: ASEM (Asia Europe Meeting)
PT: Cimeira Ásia – Europa
RO: ASEM (Reuniunea Asia Europa)
SE: ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting)
SI: Azijsko - Evropski sestanek
SK: Fórum Ázia - Európa / ASEM

An informal process of dialogue and cooperation bringing together countries of the two regions (27 EU Member States, two other European countries and 20 Asian countries), the European Commission and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat which addresses political, economic and cultural issues, with the objective of strengthening the relationship between the two regions, in a spirit of mutual respect and equal partnership.



Synonym(s): ASEM

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. ASEM was initiated in 1996 in Bangkok.
2. In the political field, areas of common interest include the fight against terrorism or the management of migration flows; discussions on human rights, on the protection of children, and on the impact of globalisation.
3. For more information, see: http://www.aseminfoboard.org/

Source:Website of the ASEM

Asset Recovery Office (ARO)

On the basis of Decision 2007/845/JHA, each EU State is to set up or designate a maximum of two Asset Recovery Offices to facilitate the tracing and identification of proceeds of crime and other crime-related property that may become the object of a freezing, seizure or confiscation order made by a competent judicial authority in the course of criminal or civil proceedings.

assimilation
AT/DE/LU: Assimilation
BG: асимилация
CS: asimilace
EE: assimileeruma
EL: αφομοίωση
ES: asimilación
FI: assimilaatio
FR/BE/LU: assimilation
HU: asszimiláció
IE: asamhlú
IT: assimilazione
LT: asimiliacija
LV: asimilācija
MT: Assimilazzjoni
NL/BE: assimilatie
NO: assimilering
PL: asymilacja
PT: assimilação
RO: asimilare
SE: assimilering
SI: asimilacija
SK: asimilácia

The gradual process by which a minority groupadopts the patterns of behaviour of a majority group or host societyand is eventually absorbed by the majority group/host society.


Synonym(s): cultural assimiliation

Broader Term: acculturation

Source: Malgesini and Giménez: Guía de conceptos sobre migraciones racismo e inteculturalidad, 2000

assisted voluntary return
AT/DE/LU: unterstützte freiwillige Rückkehr
BG: подпомогнато/ асистирано доброволно връщане
CS: asistovaný dobrovolný návrat
EE: toetatud vabatahtlik lahkumine
ES: retorno (voluntario asistido)
FI: tuettu vapaaehtoinen paluu
FR/BE/LU: aide au retour volontaire
GR: υποβοηθούμενη εθελούσια επιστροφή
HU: támogatott önkéntes hazatérés
IE: filleadh deonach cuidithe
IT: ritorno volontario assistito
LT: savanoriškas grįžimas (remiamas)
LV: atbalstīta brīvprātīga atgriešanās
MT: Ritorn volontarju assistit
NL/BE: gefaciliteerde vrijwillige terugkeer
NO: assistert retur
PL: wspomagany dobrowolny powrót
PT: regresso voluntário
RO: returnare voluntară asistată
SE: självmant återvändande
SI: prostovoljno vračanje s pomočjo
SK: asistovaný dobrovoľný návrat

Voluntary returnor voluntary departuresupported by logistical, financial and/or other material assistance.


Broader Term: voluntary departure, Voluntary return

Source: Developed by EMN

asylum
AT/DE/LU: Asyl
BG: убежище
CS: azyl
EE: varjupaik
ES: asilo
FI: turvapaikka
FR/BE/LU: asile
GR: άσυλο
HU: menedékjog
IE: tearmann
IT: asilo
LT: prieglobstis
LV: patvērums
MT: Ażil
NL/BE: asiel
NO: asyl
PL: azyl
PT: asilo
RO: azil
SE: asyl
SI: azil
SK: azyl

A form of protectiongiven by a State on its territory, based on the principle of non-refoulementand internationally or nationally recognised refugee rights and which is granted to a person who is unable to seek protection in their country of citizenship and/or residence, in particular for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.


Broader Term: international protection

Narrower Term: right of asylum

Related Term: refugee

Note:
: The literal translation of this term
in Bulgarian (the word ‘убежище’) refers to a specific
kind of protection which is granted by the President
of the Republic of Bulgaria and differs from the
protection granted on the basis of the Geneva
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
(1951).

Source:Developed by EMN

Asylum

A form of protection given by a State, on its territory, based on the principle of non-refoulement and internationally or nationally recognised refugee rights (e.g. access to employment, social welfare and health care). It is granted to a person who is unable or unwilling to seek protection in his/her country of citizenship and/or residence, in particular, for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.

Asylum applicant

A non-EU national or a stateless person who has made an application for asylum in respect of which a final decision has not yet been taken.

asylum application

Please see entry for application for asylum

Asylum application

An application made by a non-EU national or a stateless person that can be understood as a request for international protection from an EU State, under the Geneva Convention. Any application for international protection is presumed to be an application for asylum unless a non-EU national or a stateless person explicitly requests another kind of protection that can be applied for separately.

asylum case worker
asylum determination officer
asylum seeker
AT/DE/LU: Asylbewerber (EU acquis
BG: търсещ убежище
CS: žadatel o azyl
DE: Asylbewerber (EU Acquis), Asylwerber (AT)
EE: varjupaigataotleja
ES: solicitante de asilo
FI: turvapaikanhakija
FR/BE/LU: demandeur d'asile
GR: αιτών άσυλο
HU: menedékkérő
IE: iarratasóir ar thearmann
IT: richiedente asilo
LT: prieglobsčio prašytojas
LV: patvēruma meklētājs
MT: Applikant(a) għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielzoeker
NO: asylsøker (b) / asylsøkjar (n)
PL: osoba ubiegająca się o nadanie statusu uchodźcy (azyl)
PT: requerente de asilo
RO: solicitant de azil
SE: asylsökande
SI: prosilec za azil
SK: žiadateľ o udelenie azylu / žiadateľ o azyl

In the global context, a person who seeks safety from persecutionor serious harmin a country other than their own and awaits a decision on the application for refugee statusunder relevant international and national instruments.

In the EU context, a person who has made an application for protection under the Geneva Conventionin respect of which a final decision has not yet been taken.


Synonym(s): asylum applicant

Broader Term: applicant for international protection

Related Terms: refugee

Note:
1. This definition generally refers to all who apply for protection on an individual basis, irrespective of whether they lodge their application on arrival at an airport or land border, or from inside the country, and irrespective of whether they entered the territory legally or illegally.
2. In most Member States this term is understood as a synonym to applicant for international protection following the adoption of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive). However, other Member States, such as the UK and IE which have not adopted the single procedure, continue to use the term 'asylum seeker' for an applicant who requests protection under the Geneva Convention only. In DE the term is still used to include, in addition to the provisions of Directive 2011/95/EU, those of the national legislation, Art. 16a Basic Law.
3. Outside EU legislation, the terms 'asylum seeker' or 'asylum applicant' are often used more frequently than 'applicant for international protection' in the everyday use of the term.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM glossary on migration, 2nd ed. 2011
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2003/9/EC (Reception Conditions Directive)

Asylum seeker

A non-EU national or a stateless person who has made an application for asylum in respect of which a final decision has not yet been taken.

asylum shopping
AT/DE/LU: Asyl-Shopping
BG: пазаруване на убежище
CS: zneužívání azylových systémů členských států podáváním žádostí o mezinárodní ochranu ve více státech
EE: varjupaigaostlemine
ES: compra de asilo
FI: turvapaikkashoppailu, edullisimman kohtelun tarjoavan maan etsintä
FR/BE/LU: No usual translation
GR: υποβολή πολλών αιτήσεων ασύλου σε περισσότερα από ένα κ-μ
HU: No usual translation
IE: siopadóireacht tearmainn
IT: asylum shopping
LT: ieškojimas, kur geriau gauti prieglobstį
LV: izdevīgāko patvēruma noteikumu meklēšana
MT: Sajda għall-ażil
NL/BE: asielshoppen
NO: asylshopping
PL: asylum shopping /no usual translation
PT: asylum shopping
RO: "asylum shopping"
SE: No usual translation
SI: Azilni “šoping”
SK: zneužívanie azylového systému / azylový turizmus

In the context of the Dublin Regulation, the phenomenon where third-country nationals apply for international protection in more than one Member State with or without having already received in one of those Member States.


Broader Term: secondary movement of migrants

Related Term: Dublin Regulation

Note:
1. The term 'asylum-shopping' has no legal definition, but is used in an informal sense and also in Commission Communications. It is often used with a negative connotation, as it implies an abuse of the asylum procedure through the lodging of more than one application for international protectionin different Member States (choosing the Member State which may grant the most appealing social, humanitarian and economic standards).
2. A second meaning understands asylum shopping as a comparison and selection of one asylum rule among several (see European University Institute: the Development of the EU Asylum Policy: Revisiting the Venue-shopping Argument).
3. Commission Staff Working Document SEC/2008/2029 provides not only some examples of what 'asylum shopping' means but also an assessment of the impacts of the Dublin system (which comprises the Dublin Regulation and Eurodac Regulation and their implementing regulations).

Source:Derived by EMN from Commission Staff Working Document SEC/2008/2029

Asylum shopping

The phenomenon where an asylum seeker applies for asylum in more than one EU State or chooses one EU State in preference to others on the basis of a perceived higher standard of reception conditions or social security assistance.

Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund

A financial instrument for the period 2014 to 2020, which supports national and EU initiatives that promote the efficient management of migration flows and the implementation, strengthening and development of a common Union approach to asylum and immigration.

Source:
au pair
AT/DE/LU: Au-pair
BG: детегледачка
CS: au pair
EE: au pair lapsehoidja
EL: εσωτερικός άμισθος βοηθός (au pair)
ES: au pair
FI: au pair
FR/BE/LU: au pair
HU: au pair
IE: au pair
IT: persona collocata alla pari
LT: au pair auklė
LV: viesaukle
MT: au pair
NL/BE: au pair
NO: au pair
PL: au pair
PT: au pair
RO: lucrator "au pair"
SE: au pair
SI: varuška
SK: au pair / au-pair

A third-country nationalwho is temporarily received by a family in the territory of a Member State in exchange for light housework and taking care of children in order to improve their linguistic skills and knowledge of the host country.

Source:Art. 2(i) of Proposal for a Directive on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, pupil exchange, remunerated and unremunerated training, voluntary service and au pairing, COM(2013) 151 final

Automated analysis file

Files containing specific data, which are designed to allow for automated searches and comparisons, e.g. DNA files.

Automated border control

The use of automatic or semi-automatic systems that can verify the identity of passengers crossing the borders at border crossing points, without the need for human intervention.

Automated exchange of data

Exchange of data by means of specially designed IT systems and without requiring human intervention.

Automated fingerprint identification system

An IT system that uses digital imaging technology to facilitate the identification of an individual by making a comparison of a provided fingerprint or latent with the fingerprint records available in the connected database.

Automated identification system

An IT system that facilitates the identification of an individual or other (depending on the purpose and design of the system) by comparing provided elements of data with the data records available in the system's database.

Automated processing of data

Processing of data (which may include browsing, comparison, deletion, etc.) by means of specialised IT programmes and tools.

Balanced approach to drug policies

The EU's drugs policy is based on two main pillars – drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction. Therefore law enforcement and public health considerations are mutually reinforcing elements in this policy. Furthermore, the drugs policy fully respects the European Convention on Human Rights, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and obligations arising from the United Nations International Conventions.

Bali Process
AT/DE/LU: Bali-Prozess
BG: Процесът "Бали"
CS: Balijský proces; Proces Bali
EE: Bali protsess
ES: Proceso de Bali
FI: Balin prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Bali
GR: Διαδικασία του Μπαλί
HU: Bali Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Bali
IT: Processo di Bali
LT: Balio procesas
LV: Bali process
MT: Proċess (Il-) ta' Bali
NL/BE: Bali proces
NO: Bali-prosessen
PL: Proces Bali
PT: Processo de Bali
RO: Procesul Bali
SE: Baliprocessen
SI: Baliski proces
SK: Balijský proces

An international forum dealing with smuggling of migrantsand trafficking in human beings, participated in by over 50 countries in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.


Synonym(s): Bali Process on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility , smuggling of migrants , trafficking in human beings


Note:
1. The Bali Process was established through a framework agreement that was initiated at the Regional Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime' held in Bali, Indonesia in February 2002.
2. It aims to facilitate discussion and information sharing about issues relating to people smuggling, human trafficking, and related transnational crime and appropriate responses to these issues.
3. For more information, see: http://www.baliprocess.net/

Source:Website of the Bali Process

Barcelona Process

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Basic act

Act of secondary law (regulation, directive or decision) laying down the objectives and conditions for budget implementation.

Source:
beneficiary of international protection
AT/DE/LU: Person, der internationaler Schutz zuerkannt wurde
BG: лице, на което е предоставена международна закрила
CS: osoba požívající mezinárodní ochrany
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse saaja
EL: δικαιούχου διεθνούς προστασίας
ES: beneficiario de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua saava
FR/BE/LU: bénéficiaire d'une protection internationale
HU: nemzetközi védelemben részesülő személy
IE: tairbhí den chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: beneficiario di protezione internazionale
LT: prieglobstį gavęs asmuo
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības saņēmējs
MT: Benefiċjarju(-a) tal-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: persoon die internationale bescherming geniet
NO: mottaker av internasjonal beskyttelse (asyl) (b) / mottakar av internasjonalt vern (asyl) (n)
PL: beneficjent ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: beneficiário de protecção internacional
RO: beneficiar al protectiei internationale
SE: person som beviljats internationellt skydd
SI: upravičenec do mednarodne zaščite
SK: osoba s postavením medzinárodnej ochrany (EU acquis) / osoba s udelenou medzinárodnou ochranou

A person who has been granted refugee statusor subsidiary protection status.


Narrower Term: Convention refugee

Related Term: applicant for international protection, person eligible for subsidiary protection

Source:Art. 2(b) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

Better Regulation

"Better Regulation" means designing EU policies and laws so that they achieve their objectives at minimum cost. The Better Regulation agenda seeks to ensure that political decisions are prepared in an open, transparent manner, informed by the best available evidence and backed by the comprehensive involvement of stakeholders. This is necessary to ensure that the Union's interventions respect the overarching principles of subsidiary and proportionality i.e. acting only where necessary and in a way that does not go beyond what is needed to resolve the problem.

Better Regulation covers the whole policy cycle – policy design and preparation, adoption; implementation (transposition, complementary non-regulatory actions), application (including enforcement), evaluation and revision. For each phase of the policy cycle, there are a number of Better Regulation principles, objectives, tools and procedures to make sure that the EU has the best regulation possible. These relate to planning, impact assessment, stakeholder consultation, implementation and evaluation.

The Commission's approach to Better Regulation is outlined in the Better Regulation package of 19 May 2015. It notably includes the communication "Better regulation for better results – An EU agenda", as well as the Better Regulation guidelines and toolbox.

Biometric

A measurable unique, physical characteristic or personal behavioural trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of a person.

biometric data
AT/DE/LU: biometrische Daten
BG: биометрични данни
CS: biometrické údaje
EE: biomeetrilised andmed
EL: βιομετρικά δεδομένα
ES: datos biométricos
FI: biometriset tiedot
FR/BE/LU: données biométriques
HU: biometrikus adat
IE: sonraí bithmhéadracha
IT: dati biometrici
LT: biometriniai duomenys
LV: biometriskie dati
MT: Data/Dejta bijometrika
NL/BE: biometrische gegevens
NO: biometriske data
PL: dane biometryczne
PT: dados biométricos
RO: date biometrice
SE: biometriska data
SI: biometrični podatki
SK: biometrický údaj

Data relating to the physical, physiological or behavioural characteristics of an individual which allow their unique identification, such as facial images or dactyloscopic data.


Synonym(s): biometrics

Source:Art. 3(11) of Proposal for a Directive on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and the free movement of such data - COM(2012) 10 final

biometrics

Please see entry for biometric data

black market

Please see entry for informal economy

Black Sea Synergy
AT/DE/LU: Schwarzmeer- synergie
BG: Черноморско сътрудничество
CS: Černomořská synergie
DE: Schwarzmeersynergie
EE: Musta mere sünergia (koostöö)
EL: Συνέργεια του Ευξείνου Πόντου
ES: Sinergia del mar Negro
FI: Mustanmeren synergia
FR/BE/LU: Synergie de la mer Noire
HU: Fekete-tengeri szinergia
IE: Sineirge na Mara Duibhe
IT: Sinergia del Mar Nero
LT: Juodosios jūros sinergija
LV: Melnās jūras reģiona sinerģija
MT: Sinerġija tal-Baħar l-Iswed
NL/BE: Black Sea synergy (no usual translation)
NO: Svartehavssynergien
PL: Synergia Czarnomorska
PT: Sinergia do Mar Negro
RO: Sinergia Marii Negre
SE: Svartahavssynergin
SI: Črnomorska Sinergija
SK: Čiernomorská synergia

An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation encouraging cooperation between the EU and the countries surrounding the Black Sea and for tackling common problems while encouraging political and economic reform.


Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy

Related Term: Eastern Partnership, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Note:
1.The Black Sea synergy is part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)of the EU and is intended as a flexible framework complementing existing EU policy, seeking to tackle the significant opportunities and challenges in the Black Sea area that require coordinated action at the regional level in the sectors such as energy, transport, environment, movement and security.
2. A conference between EU and Black Sea Foreign Affairs Ministers in Kiev (Ukraine) in 2008 initiated the synergy.
3. For more information, see: Black Sea synergy – A new regional cooperation initiative, COM(2007) 160 final, 11 April 2007.

Source:Website of the Black Sea synergy

Border

A line separating land territory or maritime zones of two States or subparts of States. It can also refer to a region that is found at the margin of settled and developed territory.

border area
AT/DE/LU: Grenzgebiet, Grenzregion
BG: гранична зона
CS: pohraniční oblast
EE: piiriala
ES: zona fronteriza
FI: raja-alue
FR/BE/LU: zone frontalière
GR: συνοριακή ζώνη
HU: határmenti terület
IE: ceantar teorann
IT: zona di frontiera
LT: pasienio teritorija
LV: pierobeža
MT:  Żona ta' mal-konfini
NL/BE: grensgebied
NO: grenseområde
PL: strefa przygraniczna
PT: zona fronteiriça
RO: zonă de frontieră
SE: gränsområde
SI: obmejno območje
SK: pohraničná oblasť (EU acquis) / prihraničné územie (national law)

An area that extends no more than 30 kilometres from the border.


Related Term: local border traffic , border resident

Note:
Subsequent to Art. 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation), a Member State may specify the local administrative districts that are to be considered part of 'the border area' in a bilateral agreements with its neighbouring third country(s). If part of any such district lies between 30 and 50 kilometres from the border line, it shall nevertheless be considered as part of the border area.

Source:Art. 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

Border checks

Checks carried out at border crossing points to ensure that persons, including their means of transport and the objects in their possession, may be authorised to enter the territory of the Schengen States or authorised to leave it.

border control
AT/DE/LU: Grenzkontrolle
BG: граничен контрол
CS: pohraniční kontrola
EE: piirikontroll
ES: control fronterizo
FI: rajavalvonta
FR/BE/LU: contrôle aux frontières
GR: συνοριακός έλεγχος / έλεγχος των συνόρων
HU: határellenőrzés
IE: rialú teorann
IT: controllo di frontiera
LT: pasienio kontrolė
LV: robežkontrole
MT: Kontroll mal-konfini / mal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grenstoezicht (syn.: grensbewaking, grenscontrole)
NO: grensekontroll
PL: kontrola graniczna
PT: controlo de fronteira
RO: control de frontieră
SE: gränskontroll
SI: nadzor meje
SK: kontrola hraníc

The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for the purposes of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code), in response exclusively to an intention to cross or the act of crossing that border, regardless of any other consideration, consisting of border checks and border surveillance.



Related Terms: European Border Surveillance System, external EU border, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code

Source:Art. 2(9) of Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border control

The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for the purposes of Regulation 562/2006, exclusively in response to an intention to cross or the act of crossing that border, regardless of any other consideration, consisting of border checks and border surveillance.

border crossing
AT/DE/LU: Grenzübertritt
BG: пресичане на границата
CS: překročení hranice
EE: piiriületus
ES: cruce de frontera
FI: rajanylitys
FR/BE/LU: franchissement de la frontière
GR: συνοριακή διέλευση
HU: határátlépés
IE: trasnú teorann
IT: attraversamento della frontiera
LT: sienos kirtimas
LV: robežšķērsošana
MT: Qsim tal-konfini / tal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grensoverschrijding
NO: grensepassering
PL: przekraczanie granicy
PT: passagem de fronteira
RO: trecerea frontierei
SE: gränspassage
SI: prečkanje meje
SK: prekročenie hranice / prekročenie štátnej hranice

The physical act of crossing a border either at a border crossing point or another point along the border.


Narrower Term: border crossing point

Source: Developed by EMN

Border crossing

The physical act of crossing a border either at a border crossing point or another point along the border.

border crossing point
AT/DE/LU: Grenzübergang, Grenzübergangsstelle
BG: гранично-пропускателен пункт
CS: hraniční přechod
EE: piiriületuspunkt
ES: paso fronterizo
FI: rajanylityspaikka
FR/BE/LU: point de passage frontalier
GR: σημείο συνοριακής διέλευσης
HU: határátkelőhely
IE: pointe trasnaithe teorann
IT: valico di frontiera
LT: sienos perėjimo punktas
LV: robežšķērsošanas vieta
MT: Il-Punt / Il-Post ta' qsim il-fruntiera/ il-konfini
NL/BE: grensovergang (syn.: grensdoorlaatpost, grenspost)
NO: grensepasseringssted (b) / grensepasseringsstad (n)
PL: przejście graniczne
PT: ponto de passagem fronteiriço
RO: punct de trecere a frontierei
SE: gränsövergångsställe
SI: mejni prehod
SK: hraničný priechod

Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for the crossing of external EU borders.


Broader Term: border crossing

Source:Art. 2(8) of Regulation No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border crossing point

Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for crossing external borders.

border resident
AT/DE/LU: Grenzbewohner
BG: граничен жител
CS: obyvatel pohraniční oblasti
EE: piiriala elanik
ES: residente fronterizo
FI: raja-alueen asukas
FR/BE/LU: frontalier
GR: κάτοικος της μεθορίου
HU: határ menti lakos
IE: cónaitheoir teorann
IT: frontaliero
LT: pasienio gyventojas
LV: pierobežas iedzīvotājs
MT: Resident(a) ta' mal-konfini / mal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grensbewoner
NO: grenseboer (b) / grensebuar (n)
PL: mieszkaniec strefy przygranicznej
PT: residente fronteiriço
RO: locuitor din zona de frontieră
SE: gränsboende
SI: obmejni prebivalec
SK: obyvateľ pohraničnej oblasti

In the EU migration context, a third–country nationalwho has been lawfully resident in the border areaof a country neighbouring a Member State for a period specified in a bilateral agreement between a Member State(s) and neighbouring third country, which shall be at least one year.

Related Term:  border area, frontier worker, local border traffic

Source:Art. 3(6) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

Border resident

Non-EU national who has been lawfully resident in the border area of a country neighbouring a Schengen State for a period specified in a bilateral Agreement between a Schengen State(s) and a neighbouring non-EU country, which shall be at least one year.

Border surveillance

The surveillance of borders between border crossing points and the surveillance of border crossing points outside the fixed opening hours, in order to prevent persons from circumventing border checks.

Botnet

A network of computers or devices that have been infected by malicious software (e.g. a computer virus), which can be activated without the computer or device users' knowledge in order to perform specific actions, such as large-scale attacks of information systems (cyber attacks).

brain circulation
AT/DE/LU: Brain Circulation
BG: cirkulace mozků
CS: cirkulace mozků
EE: oskustööjõu ringlus
ES: circulación de cerebros
FI: aivokierto
FR/BE/LU: circulation des cerveaux
GR: κυκλοφορία εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό)
HU: there is no widely accepted term: "agykörforgás" is used in some documents
IE: cúrsaíocht daoine oilte
IT: circolazione di cervelli
LT: protų apykaita
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka aprite
MT: Ċirkolazzjoni ta' mħuħ / ta' nies bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: mobiliteit van hoogopgeleide personen (syn.: brain circulation)
NO: kunnskapsmobilitet/kunnskapssirkulasjon
PL: cyrkulacja mózgów
PT: circulação de cérebros
RO: circulaţia creierelor
SE: kunskapsspridning
SI: "kroženje možganov"
SK: cirkulácia mozgov

The possibility for developing countries to draw on the skills, know-how and other forms of experience gained by their migrants – whether they have returned to their country of origin or not – and members of their diaspora.


Related Term: brain drain, brain gain, brain waste, circular migration

Source:Annex 5 of Communication on Migration and Development, COM(2005) 390

Brain drain

The loss suffered by a country as a result of the emigration of (highly) qualified persons.

brain gain
AT/DE/LU: Brain Gain
BG: привличане на мозъци
CS: příliv mozků
EE: oskustööjõu sissevool
ES: captación de cerebros
FI: aivotuonti
FR/BE/LU: afflux de cerveaux
GR: κέρδος εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό) -
HU: there is no widely accepted term, several can be used: agyvisszaszívás / tudásnyerés / brain gain
IE: inimirce daoine oilte
IT: acquisizione di cervelli
LT: protų pritraukimas
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka pieplūdums
MT:  Akkwist / Ksib ta' mħuħ // ta' nies bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: brain gain
NO: kunnskapsgevinst
PL: No usual translation
PT: brain gain
RO: atragerea creierelor/"brain gain"
SE: No usual translation
SI: "pridobitev možganov"
SK: získavanie mozgov

The benefit to a country as a result of the immigration of a highly qualified person.




Synonym(s): reverse brain drain

Related Term: brain drain, brain waste, brain circulation, circular migration


Note :
This can apply to, for example, a EU Member State receiving a highly qualified migrant, as well as a third-country national returning to their country of origin.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'brain drain' in the EMN Glossary

brain waste
AT/DE/LU: Brain Waste
BG: разхищение на мозъци
CS: plýtvání mozky
EE: oskustööjõu alarakendatus
ES: subempleo
FI: aivotuhlaus
FR/BE/LU: gaspillage des cerveaux
GR: διαρροή εγκεφάλων
HU:  képességek elpazarlása
IE: cur amú éirime
IT:  spreco di cervelli
LT: protų švaistymas
LV: intelektuālā potenciāla izšķērdēšana
MT: Ħela ta' mħuħ / ta' nies bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: brain waste
NO: kunnskapssløsing
PL: marnotrawstwo mózgów
PT: brain waste
RO: "brain waste"
SE: No usual translation
SI: "izguba možganov"
SK: plytvanie mozgami (EU acquis) / mrhanie mozgami

The non-recognition of the skills (and qualifications) acquired by a migrant outside of the EU, which prevents them from fully using their potential.


Related Term: brain drain, brain gain, brain circulation

Source:Derived by EMN from Footnote 28 of Communication on Migration and Development, COM(2005) 390 final

Brain waste

The non-recognition of the skills and qualifications acquired by migrants outside of the EU, which prevents them from fully using their potential.

Budapest Convention on Cybercrime

The main international treaty of 2001 on crimes committed via the Internet and other computer networks, dealing particularly with infringements of copyright, computer-related fraud, child pornography and violations of network security. It also contains a series of powers and procedures such as the search of computer networks and interception. The Budapest Convention on Cybercrime is a Council of Europe convention open for signature by its member States and non-member States which have participated in its elaboration and for accession by other non-member States.

Budapest Process
AT/DE/LU: Budapest-Prozess
BG: Будапещенски процес
CS: Budapešťský proces
EE: Budapesti protsess
ES: Proceso de Budapest
FI: Budapestin prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Budapest
GR: Διαδικασία της Βουδαπέστης
HU: Budapest Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Bhúdaipeist
IT: Processo di Budapest
LT: Budapešto procesas
LV:  Budapeštas process
MT: Proċess (Il-) ta' Budapest
NL/BE: Boedapest proces
NO: Budapest-prosessen
PL: Proces Budapeszteński
PT: Processo de Budapeste
RO: Procesul Budapesta
SE: Budapestprocessen
SI: Budimpeštanski proces
SK: Budapeštiansky proces

A consultative forum of more than 50 governments from the wider European region and ten international organisations, which aims to promote good governance in the field of migration, to develop comprehensive and sustainable systems for orderly migration and to exchange information and best practices on a wide range of migration issues (legal migration,irregular migration, asylum, visa, border management, trafficking in human beingsand smuggling of migrants, readmission and return).



Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility


Note:
1. The Budapest Process was initiated by DE in 1991.
2. Through this dialogue, the Process promotes a harmonised approach in dealing with irregular migration challenges and support for the transfer and common understanding of migration concepts and policies.
3. For more information see the website of the Budapest Process.

Source: Derived by the EMN from the page describing Budapest Process of the Website of ICMPD and the website of the Budapest Process

Budapest process

A consultative forum of more than fifty Governments from the wider European region and ten international organisations, which aims to promote good governance in the field of migration, a harmonised approach in dealing with irregular migration challenges and support for the transfer and common understanding of migration concepts and policies.

burden of proof
AT/DE/LU: Beweislast
BG: тежест на доказване
CS: důkazní břemeno
EE: tõendamiskoormis
ES:  carga de la prueba
FI: todistustaakka
FR/BE/LU: charge de la preuve
GR: υποχρέωση της απόδειξης της βασιμότητας του ισχυρισμού
HU: bizonyítási teher
IE: dualgas cruthúnais
IT: onere della prova
LT: įrodinėjimo pareiga
LV: pierādīšanas pienākums
MT: Piż (Il-) tal-prova / Obbligu (L-) li jinġiebu l-provi
NL/BE: bewijslast
NO: bevisbyrde
PL: ciężar dowodu
PT: ónus da prova
RO: sarcina dovezii
SE: bevisbörda
SI: dokazno breme
SK: dôkazné bremeno

In the global context, a party’s duty to prove a disputed assertion or charge. In the migration context, the duty of a non-national seeking entry into a foreign State to prove that they are entitled to enter and not inadmissible under the laws of that State. In the context of refugee statusdetermination procedures, the duty of the applicant to establish their case, to produce evidence that they have a well-founded fear of persecution.



Note :
1. In refugee status determination procedures, it is the applicant who has the burden of establishing the veracity of their allegations and the accuracy of the facts on which the refugee claim is based. The burden of proof is discharged by the applicant rendering a truthful account of facts relevant to the claim so that, based on the facts, a proper decision may be reached.
2. For further information see UNHCR: Note on Burden and Standard of Proof in Refugee Claims, 16 December 1998.

Source:Derived by EMN from the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

business migrant

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

Cannabis

Cannabis is a natural product, the main psychoactive constituent of which is tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) is broadly distributed and grows in temperate and tropical areas. Together with tobacco, alcohol and caffeine, it is one of the most widely consumed drugs throughout the world, and has been used as a drug and a source of fiber since historical times. Herbal cannabis consists of the dried flowering tops and leaves. Cannabis resin is a compressed solid made from the resinous parts of the plant, and cannabis (hash) oil is a solvent extract of cannabis. Cannabis is almost always smoked, often mixed with tobacco. Almost all consumption of herbal cannabis and resin is of illicit material. Some therapeutic benefit as an analgesic has been claimed for cannabis, and dronabinol is a licensed medicine in some countries for the treatment of nausea in cancer chemotherapy. Cannabis products and Δ9-THC are under international control.

Source:
Card-not-present fraud

Card-Not-Present (CNP) fraud involves the unauthorized use of payment card data (the credit or debit card number, the security code printed on the card and the expiration date) to purchase products and services in a non-face-to-face setting, such as e-commerce websites. In the majority of cases, the victims maintain possession of their card, unaware of the unauthorized activity. This illegal activity is often referred to as carding.

carrier
AT/DE/LU: Transportunternehmer
BG: превозвач
CS: dopravce
EE: vedaja
ES: operador de transporte
FI: liikenteenharjoittaja
FR/BE/LU: transporteur
GR: μεταφορέας
HU: fuvarozó
IE: iompróir
IT: vettore
LT: vežėjas
LV: pārvadātājs
MT: Operatur tat-trasport
NL/BE: vervoerder
NO: transportør
PL: przewoźnik
PT: transportador
RO: transportator
SE: transportör
SI: prevoznik
SK: dopravca

In relation to conveyance (or transport), the owner or charterer of the conveyance.


Note:
1. A carrier usually refers to an airline, bus or rail company, or cruise line. Under the laws of some States, the term includes any owner of a means of conveyance, which carries a person onto its territory.
2. The definition given in Art. 2(a) of Council Directive 2004/82/EC (API Directive) is more restrictive in that it refers explicitly to passenger transport by air and there is uncertainty as to what 'any natural or legal person' actually refers to, e.g. if this is the owner of the company only.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed., 2011

case officer
case worker in procedures for international protection
AT/DE/LU: Sachbearbeiter in Verfahren für internationalen Schutz
BG: интервюист
CS: rozhodčí v řízení o udělení mezinárodní ochrany
DE: Sachbearbeiter in Verfahren furinternationalen Schutz, Referent in Verfahren für internationalen Schutz (AT)
EE: Rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse menetleja
EL: Υπεύθυνος αξιωματικός της διεθνούς αίτησης
ES: trabajador social en procedimientos de protección internacional
FI: päätöksen tekijä/hakemuksen käsittelijä kansainvälisen suojelun menettelyssä
FR/BE/LU: agent responsable du traitement d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: menekültügyi eljárás során eljáró ügyintézők
IE: cásoibrí nósanna imeachta um chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: operatore impegnato nella procedura di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymą nagrinėti ir sprendimą dėl prieglobsčio suteikimo priimti įgaliotas valstybės tarnautojas
LV: ierēdnis, kas izskata starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikumus
MT: Operatur(-triċi) soċjali fi proċeduri għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: hoor- en beslisambtenaar in asielzaken (BE: protection officer)
NO: saksbehandler for søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (asyl) (b) / sakshandsamar for søknad om internasjonalt vern (asyl) (n)
PL: pracownik / urzędnik prowadzący postępowanie w sprawach z zakresu ochrony międzynardowej
PT: agente responsável pelo procedimento de protecção internacional
RO: ofiter de decizie
SE: handläggare av ansökningar om internationellt skydd
SI: pristojna uradna oseba v postopku za mednarodno zaščito
SK: rozhodovač

Personnel of the determining authorityresponsible for examining and assessing an application for international protectionand competent to take a decision at first instance in such a case.


Synonym(s): asylum case worker, asylum determination officer, case officer, case worker, decision-maker

Related Term: determining authority

Note:
This term specifically refers to persons examining and assessing applications for international protection. There are other types of case workers e.g. for processing visa applications, which are not explicitely mentioned in the glossary with an extra term.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'decision maker' in UNHCR: Beyond Proof – Credibility Assessment in EU Asylum Systems, 2013

CBRN

CBRN is an acronym for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials that could harm the society through their accidental or deliberate release, dissemination or impacts.

There have not been many terrorist attacks with the usage of CBRN agents or materials. Nevertheless, incidents such as 1987 Goiana accident when mishandling of a radioactive source resulted in 4 deaths and significant contamination of 249 people or the Ebola crisis which since its inception in 2013 led to the death of more than 11.000 persons, show potential scale of the results of CBRN terrorist attack.

CBRN is often used as synonym of the Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), however in some cases such an attack could cause rather panic and significant disruption of economic activity than destruction per se.

CBRN Action Plan

The EU CBRN Action Plan was adopted in December 2009 by the EU Council and aimed to strengthen CBRN security throughout the EU. Based on an all-hazard approach, the Action Plan's overall goal was to reduce the threat of and damage from CBRN incidents of accidental, natural and intentional origin, including terrorist acts.

The implementation of the Action Plan was envisaged for the period 2010-2015. The Commission prepared the Progress Report on the implementation of the Action Plan which will be annexed to the new Communication on CBRN-E policy planned for the end of 2016.

CEAS

Please see entry for Common European Asylum System

Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration
AT/DE/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Център за информация, дискусии и обмен оносно преминаването на границите и имиграцията
CS: Centrum pro informace, diskusi a výměnu názorů k překračování hranic a imigraci
EE: piiriületuse- ja sisserändealase teabe, analüüsi ja infovahetuse keskus
ES: CIREFI
FI: Rajanylitys- ja maahanmuuttoasioiden tiedotus-, tarkastelu- ja tietojenvaihtokeskus
FR/BE/LU: Centre d'information, de réflexion et d'échanges en matière de franchissement des frontières et d'immigration
GR: Κέντρο Ενημέρωσης, Συζήτησης και Ανταλλαγής για τη Μετανάστευση και την Συνοριακή Διέλευση
HU: Külső Határok Átlépésével és Bevándorlással foglalkozó Információ-,Vita-, és Véleménycsere Központ
IE: Lárionad um Fhaisnéis, Phlé agus Mhalartú i dtaca le Trasnú Imeallchríche agus Inimirce
IT: Centro di Informazione, di Riflessione e di Scambi in materia di Attraversamento delle Frontiere e di Immigrazione
LT: Informacijos, diskusijų ir keitimosi duomenimis sienų kirtimo ir imigracijos klausimais centras
LV: Centrs informācijai, apspriedēm un apmaiņām par robežšķērsošanu un imigrāciju
MT: Ċentru (Iċ-) ta' Informazzjoni, Diskussjoni u Skambji dwar il-Qsim ta' Fruntieri u l-Immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: Centrum voor informatie, beraad en gegevensuitwisseling inzake grensoverschrijding en immigratie (CIBGGI) [in daily practice: CIREFI]
NO: Senter for informasjon, diskusjon og utveksling om grensepassering og innvandring
PL: Centrum Wymiany Informacji nt. Przekraczania Granic i Imigracji
PT: Centro de Informação, Reflexão e Intercâmbio em matéria de Passagem das Fronteiras e Imigração
RO: Centrul de informare, reflecţie şi schimb de informaţii cu privire la trecerea frontierei şi imigraţie
SE: Centrum för information, diskussion och utbyte i frågor som rör passage av gränser och invandring (Cirefi)
SI: Center za podatke, razprave in izmenjave glede prečkanja meje in priseljevanja
SK: Centrum pre informácie, diskusiu a výmenu v oblasti prekračovania hraníc a prisťahovalectva / CIREFI

A body assisting the EU Member States in effectively studying legal immigration so as to prevent illegal immigration and unlawful residence, in effectively combating immigration crime, in better detecting forged documents and in improving expulsion practice.


Synonym(s): CIREFI

Related Term: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union


Note:
1. CIREFI started its work on 1 January 1995 based on the Council conclusions of 30 November 1994.
2. In December 2009, as a consequence of the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, COREPER decided to abolish CIREFI and to transfer its functions to FRONTEX.

Source:Council Conclusions of 30 November 1994

CH national

Please see entry for third-country national

chain migration
AT/DE/LU: Kettenmigration
BG: верижна миграция
CS: řetězová migrace
EE: ahelränne
EL: αλυσίδα μετανάστευση
ES: cadena migratoria
FI: ketjumaahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration en chaîne
HU: lánc-migráció
IE: imirce shlabhrúil
IT: catena migratoria
LT: grandininė migracija
LV: ķēdes migrācija
MT: Katina ta’ migrazzjoni
NL/BE: kettingmigratie
NO: kjedemigrasjon
PL: migracja łańcuchowa
PT: migração em cadeia
RO: migratie in lant
SE: kedjemigration
SI: verižna migracija
SK: reťazová migrácia

The practice where those who have settled on a family reunificationbasis can themselves sponsor further family members, consistent with European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) obligations.


Related Term: family formation, family migration, family reunification, right to family life, right to family unity

Note:
1. Originally chain migration refers to a process in which initial movements of migrants lead to further movements from the same area to the same area. In a chain migration system, individual members of a community migrate and then encourage or assist further movements of migration (see Migration, Citizenship, Education Glossary).
2.Chain migration may also be based on ethnic or family ties with members of the same family migrating at different times, usually with primary wage earners migrating first, followed by secondary or non-wage earners. In countries with more or less liberal regulations on the rights of migrants to family reunificationusually in accordance with international conventions, family reunification as an incidence of chain migration explains much of the growth in the total migrant population.

Source:EMN: Family Reunification Study, 2008

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
AT/DE/LU: Charta der Grundrechte der Europäischen Union
BG: Харта на основните права на Европейския съюз
CS: Listina základních práv Evropské unie
EE: Euroopa Liidu põhiõiguste harta
ES: Carta de los Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea
FI: Euroopan unionin perusoikeuskirja
FR/BE/LU: Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne
GR: Ευρωπαϊκός Χάρτης Θεμελιωδών Δικαιωμάτων
HU: Az Európai Unió Alapjogi Chartája
IE: Cairt um Chearta Bunúsacha an Aontais Eorpaigh
IT: Carta dei Diritti Fondamentali dell'Unione Europea
LT: ES pagrindinių teisių chartija
LV: Eiropas Savienības Pamattiesību harta
MT: Karta tad-Drittijiet Fundamentali tal-Unjoni Ewropea
NL/BE: Handvest van de grondrechten van de Europese Unie
NO: Den europeiske unions pakt om grunnleggende rettigheter (b) / pakta til Den europeiske unionen om grunnleggjande rettar (n)
PL: Karta Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej
PT: Carta Europeia dos Direitos Fundamentais
RO: Carta Drepturilor Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene
SE: Europeiska unionens stadga om de grundläggande rättigheterna
SI: Listina Evropske Unije o temeljnih pravicah
SK: Charta základných práv Európskej únie

The formal EU document which combines and declares all the values and fundamental rights of individuals (economic and social as well as civil and political) to which Member States are obliged.



Related Term: European Convention on Human Rights, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rightshuman rights

Note:
1. The Charter was proclaimed in December 2000 and became binding in December 2009 when the Lisbon Treaty came into force.
2. The Charter does not establish new rights, but assembles existing rights that were previously scattered over a range of international sources and thus makes them more visible. The Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks of the Union and for the principle of subsidiarity, the rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and international obligations common to the Member States, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Social Charters adopted by the Union and by the Council of Europe and the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of the European Court of Human Rights.
3. For more information, see: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf

Source:Derived by EMN from the European Charter of Fundamental Rights

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks of the Union and for the principle of subsidiarity, the rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and international obligations common to EU States, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Social Charters adopted by the Union and by the Council of Europe and the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of the European Court of Human Rights.

Child

Every human being below the age of eighteen years, unless majority is attained earlier under the law applicable to the child.

child
AT/DE/LU: Kind
BG: дете
CS: dítě
EE: laps
ES: población infantil
FI: lapsi
FR/BE/LU: enfant
GR: παιδί
HU: gyermek
IE: leanbh
IT: bambino
LT: vaikas
LV: bērns
MT: Tifel (Tifla) / Wild
NL/BE: kind
NO: barn
PL: dziecko
PT: criança
RO: copil
SE: barn
SI: otrok
SK: dieťa

Every human being below the age of 18 years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier or later.

Narrower Term: child labour

Related Term: adult, age assessmentMinor


Note:
1. There is still no concrete, consistent definition of ‘child’ under EU law. The Treaty of Lisbonintroduced an objective for the EU to promote children's rights. Moreover the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Unionguarantees the protection of children's rights by EU institutions, as well as by EU countries when they implement EU law. For further information, see the webpage of the DG Justice on the Rights of the Child and Fundamental Rights Agency: Developing indicators for the protection, respect and promotion of the rights of the child in the European Union, March 2009.
2. The term should be used to describe relationship with other family members. When referring to an individual and in a more legal context, the term minor should be used.

Source:Art. 1 of UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

child labour
AT/DE/LU: Kinderarbeit
BG: детски труд
CS: dětská práce
EE: lapstööjõu kasutamine
ES: trabajo infantil
FI: lapsityö
FR/BE/LU: travail des enfants
GR: παιδική εργασία
HU: gyerekmunka
IE: fostú leanaí
IT: lavoro infantile
LT: vaikų darbas
LV: bērnu darbs
MT: Tħaddim ta' tfal / ta' minorenni // Sfruttament ta' xogħol it-tfal
NL/BE: kinderarbeid
NO: barnearbeid
PL: praca dzieci
PT: trabalho infantil
RO: munca pentru copii
SE: barnarbete
SI: delo otrok
SK: detská práca

Any work performed by a childwhich deprives them of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to their physical and mental development.


Broader Term: child

Related Term: forced labour


Note:
1. The definition does allow for a childto work (e.g. in a shop outside school hours) as long as it does not conflict with the above. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children and interferes with their schooling by:

  • depriving them of the opportunity to attend school;
  • obliging them to leave school prematurely; or
  • requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.

2. The ILO Convention No 138 specifies 15 years as the age above which, in normal circumstances, a person may participate in economic activity. According to Art. 32 of the Charter of Fundamentals Rights of the European Union, the employment of children is prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not be lower than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as may be more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations.
3. Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination. The ILO distinguishes between 'child work' and 'child labour', the latter being used to describe the more pejorative part of 'child work', whereas 'child work' in itself could include doing light household chores and, as long as it does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, can actually have some learning value.

Source:Webpage of the ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)

Child pornography

Any material that visually depicts a child engaged in real or simulated sexually explicit conduct, or any depiction of the sexual organs of a child for primarily sexual purposes, or any material that visually depicts any person appearing to be a child engaged in real or simulated sexually explicit conduct or any depiction of the sexual organs of any person appearing to be a child, for primarily sexual purposes, or realistic images of a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct or realistic images of the sexual organs of a child, for primarily sexual purposes.

Child prostitution

The use of a child for sexual activities where money or any other form of remuneration or consideration is given or promised as payment in exchange for the child engaging in sexual activities, regardless of whether that payment, promise or consideration is made to the child or to a third party

CIA
circular migration
AT/DE/LU: zirkuläre Migration
BG: циркулярна миграция
CS: cirkulární migrace
EE: korduvränne
ES: migración circular
FI: kiertomuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration circulaire
GR: κυκλική μετανάστευση
HU: körkörös migráció
IE: imirce chiorclach
IT: migrazione circolare
LT: apykaitinė migracija
LV: cirkulārā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni ċirkolari
NL/BE: circulaire migratie
NO: sirkulær migrasjon
PL: migracja cyrkulacyjna
PT: migração circular
RO: migraţie circulară
SE: cirkulär migration
SI: krožna migracija
SK: okružná migrácia / cirkulárna migrácia

A repetition of legal migrationby the same person between two or more countries.


Related Term: brain drain, brain gain, brain circulation, contract migrant worker, diasporamobility Partnership , seasonal worker

Note:
The two main forms of circular migration which could be most relevant in the EU context are:
(1) Circular migration of third-country nationals settled in the EU

This category of circular migration gives people the opportunity to engage in an activity (business, professional, voluntary or other) in their country of origin while retaining their main residence in one of the Member States. This covers various groups, e.g.:

  • business persons working in the EU and wishing to start an activity in their country of origin (or in another third country); and
  • doctors, professors or other professionals willing to support their country of origin by conducting part of their professional activity there.

(2) Circular migration of persons residing in a third country

Circular migration could create an opportunity for persons residing in a third country to come to the EU temporarily for work, study, training or a combination of these, on the condition that, at the end of the period for which they were granted entry, they must re-establish their main residence and their main activity in their country of origin. Circularity can be enhanced by giving migrants the possibility, once they have returned, to retain some form of privileged mobility to and from the Member States where they were formerly residing, for example in the form of simplified admission/re-entry procedures. This category covers a wide array of situations, spanning the whole spectrum of migrants, including:

  • third-country nationals wishing to work temporarily in the EU, e.g. in seasonal employment;
  • third-country nationals wishing to study or train in Europe before returning to their country;
  • third-country nationals who, after having completed their studies, wish to be employed in the EU (e.g. as trainees) to acquire professional experience which is difficult to obtain at home, before returning;
  • third-country researchers wishing to carry out a research project in the EU;
  • third-country nationals, who wish to take part in intercultural people-to-people exchanges and other activities in the field of culture, active citizenship, education and youth (such as, for example, training courses, seminars, events, study visits);
  • third-country nationals who wish to carry out an unremunerated voluntary service pursuing objectives of general interest in the EU.

Source:Communication on Circular Migration and Mobility Partnerships, COM(2007) 248 final

Circular migration

A form of migration that is managed in a way allowing some degree of legal mobility back and forth between two countries.

Circular movement

The fluid movement of people between countries, including temporary or long-term movement that may be beneficial to all involved, if occurring voluntarily and linked to the labour needs of countries of origin and destination.

citizenship
AT/DE/LU: Staatsangehörigkeit, Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: гражданство
CS: státní občanství
EE: kodakondsus
ES: nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuus
FR/BE/LU: citoyenneté
GR: ιθαγένεια; υπηκοότητα
HU: állampolgárság
IE: saoránacht
IT: cittadinanza
LT: pilietybė
LV: pilsonība
MT: Ċittadinanza
NL/BE: staatsburgerschap
NO: statsborgerskap (b) / statsborgarskap (n)
PL: obywatelstwo
PT: nacionalidade
RO: cetăţenie
SE: medborgarskap
SI: državljanstvo
SK: štátne občianstvo / štátna príslušnosť

The particular legal bond between an individual and their State, acquired by birth or naturalisation, whether by declaration, choice, marriage or other means according to national legislation.



Synonym(s): nationality

Narrower Term: acquisition of citizenship, dual citizenship, loss of citizenship , union citizen

Related Term: country of nationality , ethnic nationality

Note:
1. Whilst in some Member States a distinction is made between citizenship and nationality, in the EU context and for the purpose of this glossary, no distinction is made and the two terms are considered to be interchangeable. In countries which distinguish between citizenship and nationality, the term citizenship refers specifically to the legal rights and duties of nationals. The European Convention on Nationality, the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011 and the EUDO Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality prefer the term 'nationality'.
2. According to Art. 1 of the Hague Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Law, 1930, it is for each State to determine under its own laws who are its nationals.
3.The tie of nationality confers individual rights and imposes obligations that a State reserves for its population. Nationality carries with it certain consequences as regards migration, such as the right of a State to protect its nationals against violations of their individual rights committed by foreign authorities (particularly by means of diplomatic protection), the duty to accept its nationals onto its territory, and the prohibition to expel them.

Source:Art. 2(d) ofRegulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

Citizenship

The particular legal bond between an individual and his or her State, acquired by birth or naturalisation, whether by declaration, choice, marriage or other means according to national legislation.

civil partnership of convenience
AT/DE/LU: Schein- partnerschaft
BG: no translation
CS: účelové partnerství
EE: tsiviilpartnerlus (riigis seadusliku viibimise aluse saamiseks)
EL: εικονικού σχέση συμβίωσης/ σχέση συμβίωσης της εύκολα
ES: unión civil de conveniencia
FI: harhautustarkoituksessa solmittu rekisteröity parisuhde
FR/BE/LU: partenariat civil de complaisance
HU: névleges élettársi kapcsolat
IE: páirtnéireacht shibhialta áise
IT: unione civile fittizia
LT: fiktyvi registruota partnerystė
LV: fiktīvas partnerattiecības
MT: Sħubija / Unjoni ċivili ta’ konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnpartnerschap
NO: proformapartnerskap (b) / proformapartnarskap (n)
PL: fikcyjny związek partnerski
PT: união de conveniência
RO: parteneriat (civil) de convenienta
SE: skenpartnerskap
SI: partnerska skupnost iz koristoljubja
SK: účelové registrované partnerstvo

A civil partnership contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in a Member State.


Related Term: adoption of convenience, false declaration of parenthoodmarriage of convenience, partnership of convenience

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition for 'partnership' in Art. 16(2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

Civil protection

Protection of people, their environment, property and cultural heritage in the event of major natural or manmade disasters occurring both inside and outside the EU.

The fundamental approach to an effective civil protection operation relies on three key modes of action: disaster prevention, preparedness of those responsible for civil protection and response in the event of disaster.

Civil security

Law enforcement, crime fighting and counter terrorism (e.g. activities of police and forensics, customs and border control, etc.) and "first responder" tasks (e.g. fire-fighting, ambulance/health-emergency, etc.), as well as the protection of critical infrastructure and utilities.

clandestine employment

Please see entry for illegal employment AND informal economy

 

clandestine migrant

Please see entry for irregular migrant

clandestine migration

Please see entry for irregular migration

Cocaine

Cocaine is a natural product extracted from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam (coca leaves). This tropical shrub is cultivated widely on the Andean ridge in South America and is the only known natural source of cocaine. Normally produced as the hydrochloride salt, it has limited medical use as a topical anaesthetic. The free base, sometimes known as crack, is a smokable form of cocaine. Coca leaves have been used as a stimulant by some indigenous people of South America since historical times. Purified cocaine has been misused as a central nervous system stimulant since the early years of the twentieth century. Cocaine is under international control.

Source:
COI

Please see entry for country of origin information

Committee on Immigration and Asylum
AT/DE/LU: Ausschuss für Einwanderung und Asyl
BG: Комитет по имиграция и убежище
CS: Výbor pro přistěhovalectví a azyl
EE: sisserände- ja varjupaigakomitee
ES: Comité de Inmigración y Asilo (CIA)
FI: Maahanmuutto- ja turvapaikka-asioiden komitea (CIA)
FR/BE/LU: Comité sur l’immigration et l’asile (CIA)
GR: Επιτροπή για τη Μετανάστευση και το Άσυλο
HU: Bevándorlási és Menekültügyi Bizottság
IE: An Coiste um Inimrice agus Thearmann (CIA)
IT: Comitato Immigrazione e Asilo (CIA)
LT: Imigracijos ir prieglobsčio komitetas
LV: Imigrācijas un patvēruma komiteja
MT: Kumitat dwar l-Immigrazzjoni u l-Ażil (KIA)
NL/BE: Comité voor immigratie en asiel (CIA)
NO: Komiteen for innvandrings- og asylspørsmål (CIA)
PL: Komitet ds. Imigracji i Azylu
PT: Comité Imigração e Asilo (CIA)
RO: Comitetul Imigraţie şi Azil (CIA)
SE: kommittén för frågor om invandring och asyl
SI: Odbor za priseljevanje in azil
SK: Výbor pre prisťahovalectvo a azyl / CIA

A European Commission-led expert group aimed at facilitating an informal exchange of views between Member State administrations and the Commission services on political and legal issues related to migration, border and asylum.



Synonym(s): CIA, Immigration and Asylum Committee


Note:
1. Frequently the CIA discusses upcoming legislative or other proposals in order to 'measure the temperature' of Member State feelings before submitting a formal Commission proposal.
2. The CIA is also used as a forum for collecting information on the situation in Member States (via questionnaires) on selected policy-relevant issues and where the Commission can report to Member States on its activities.
3. Participants from Member States are nominated on an ad-hoc basis; normally both 'generalists' from the Permanent Representations and 'specialists' from the capitals are present.Non-governmental organisations ( NGOs) and international organisations such as UNHCR or IOM are sometimes invited to join discussions of the CIA as active observers.
4. For more information, see: http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regexpert/index.cfm

Source: Developed by EMN

Common Basic Principles
AT/DE/LU: Gemeinsame Grundprinzipien
BG: Общи основни принципи
CS: společné základní principy
EE: ühtsed aluspõhimõtted
ES: principios básicos comunes
FI: yhteiset perusperiaatteet
FR/BE/LU: principes de base communs
GR: κοινές βασικές αρχές
HU: közös alapelvek
IE: comhphrionsabail bhunúsacha
IT: Principi Comuni di Base
LT: bendrieji pagrindiniai principai
LV: kopīgie pamatprincipi
MT: Prinċipji Bażiċi Komuni
NL/BE: gemeenschappelijke basisprincipes
NO: felles grunnleggende prinsipper (b) / Felles grunnleggjande prinsipp (n)
PL: Wspólne Podstawowe Zasady
PT: princípios básicos comuns
RO: principii comune de bază
SE: gemensamma grundprinciper
SI: Skupna temeljna načela
SK: spoločné základné princípy / spoločné základné zásady

In the context of EU integration policy, a set of 11 simple, non-binding but thoughtful guidelines intended to assist Member States in formulating their integrationpolicies.


Synonym(s): Common Basic Principles for immigrant integration policy
Broader Term: integration

Related Term: host society, National Contact Points on Integration

Note:
1. The Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU were adopted by the Justice and Home Affairs Council in November 2004 and form the foundations of EU initiatives in the field of integration.
2. The Common Basic Principles offer a guide for Member States against which they can judge and assess their own efforts. They can also use these basic principles to set priorities and further develop their own measurable goals. The principles are relevant both for Member States with considerable experience of substantial immigration as well as for those that have more recently become destinations for significant numbers of immigrants.
3. For more information, see the European website on integration.

Source: Derived by the EMN from the European Website on Integration and JHA Council Conclusions of 19 November 2004

Common Basic Principles

Within the context of EU integration policy, a set of (11) simple, non-binding but thoughtful guidelines of basic principles intended to assist EU States in formulating their integration policies. They also serve to:

  • give EU States a means by which they can judge and assess their own efforts,
  • enable EU States to set priorities and further develop their own measurable goals,
  • serve as a basis for EU States to explore how EU, national, regional, and local authorities can interact in the development and implementation of integration policies,
  • determine how these policies can best engage other actors involved in integration (for example, social partners, NGOs, women's and migrants' organisations, businesses and other private institutions),
  • be complementary and in full synergy with existing legislative frameworks, including the international instruments on Human Rights, Union instruments containing integration provisions, EU objectives on gender equality and non-discrimination and other EU policies,
  • assist in structuring the regular dialogue between governments and all other relevant institutions and stakeholders at the EU-level,
  • act as a basis for and assist the EU to explore how existing EU-instruments related to integration can be developed further,
  • assist the Council to reflect upon and, over time, agree on EU-level mechanisms and policies needed to support national and local-level integration policy efforts, particularly through EU-wide learning and knowledge-sharing."
Common Basic Principles for immigrant integration policy

Please see entry for Common Basic Principals

Common European Asylum System
AT/DE/LU: Gemeinsames Europäisches Asylsystem
BG: Обща европейска система за убежище
CS: Společný evropský azylový systém
EE: ühtne Euroopa varjupaigasüsteem
ES: Sistema Europeo Común de Asilo
FI: Euroopan yhteinen turvapaikkajärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: régime d'asile européen commun (RAEC)
GR: Κοινό Ευρωπαϊκό Σύστημα Ασύλου (ΚΕΣΑ)
HU: Közös Európai Menekültügyi Rendszer
IE: Comhchóras Tearmainn Eorpach
IT: Sistema europeo comune di asilo
LT: bendra Europos prieglobsčio sistema
LV: Kopējā Eiropas patvēruma sistēma
MT: Sistema Ewropea Komuni għall-Ażil (SEKA)
NL/BE: Gemeenschappelijk Europees Asielstelsel (GEAS)
NO: Det felles europeiske asylsystemet (CEAS)
PL: Wspólny Europejski System Azylowy
PT: Sistema Europeu Comum de Asilo
RO: Sistemul European Comun de Azil
SE: gemensamt europeiskt asylsystem
SI: Skupni evropski azilni sistem
SK: Spoločný európsky azylový systém / CEAS

A framework of agreed rules which establish common procedures for international protectionand a uniform status for those who are granted refugee statusor subsidiary protectionbased on the full and inclusive application of the Geneva Conventionand which aims to ensure fair and humane treatment of applicants for international protection, to harmonise asylum systems in the EU and reduce the differences between Member States on the basis of binding legislation, as well as to strengthen practical cooperation between national asylum administrations and the external dimension of asylum.


Synonym(s): CEAS

Related Term: Eurasil, European Asylum Support Office, minimum standards, Lisbon Treaty

Note:
According to Art. 78 of Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, the Common European Asylum System shall comprise:

  1. a uniform status of asylumfor nationals of third countries, valid throughout the Union;
  2. a uniform status of subsidiary protectionfor nationals of third countries who, without obtaining European asylum, are in need of international protection;
  3. a common system of temporary protectionfor displaced personsin the event of a massive inflow;
  4. common procedures for the granting and withdrawing of uniform asylum or subsidiary protection status;
  5. criteria and mechanisms for determining which Member State is responsible for considering an application for asylum or subsidiary protection;
  6. standards concerning the conditions for the reception of applicants for asylum or subsidiary protection;
  7. partnership and cooperation with third countries for the purpose of managing inflows of people applying for asylum or subsidiary or temporary protection.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 78 of TFEU

Common European Asylum System (CEAS)

The establishment of a common asylum procedure and a uniform status for those who are granted asylum or subsidiary protection in the EU, as well as strengthening practical cooperation between national asylum administrations and the external dimension of asylum.

Common Security and Defence Policy
AT/DE/LU: Gemeinsame Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik
BG: достъп до производство за международна закрила
CZ: Společná bezpečnostní a obranná politika
FI: yhteinen turavallisuus-  ja puolustuspolitiikka
FR/BE/LU: politique de sécurité et de défense commune
IE: Comhbheartas Slándála agus Cosanta
HU: közös biztonság- és védelempolitikai műveletek
IT: politica di sicurezza e di difesa comune
LV: Kopējās drošības un aizsardzības politika
PL: Wspólna Polityka Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony
SE: Gemensamma säkerhets- och försvarspolitiken (GFSP)
SK: Spoločná bezpečnostná a obranná politika / SBOP
SI: Skupna varnostna in obrambna politika
NO: Felles sikkerhets- og forsvarspolitikk (b) / felles tryggleiks- og forsvarspolitikk

Policy offering a framework for cooperation between EU Member States within which the EU can conduct operational missions with the aim of peace-keeping and strengthening international security in third countries by relying on civil and military assets provided by Member States.


Synonym(s): CSDP


Note:
1. The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) replaces the former European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) and was introduced by the Lisbon Treaty as an integral part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).
2. As in the preceding Treaties, the CSDP remains a fundamentally intergovernmental issue.
3. The European Agenda on Migration of May 2015 envisages  CSDP operations in the Mediterranean to dismantle traffickers' networks and fight smuggling of migrants in accordance with international law. For further information see the DG HOME official website, webpage on the European Agenda on Migration.

Source: The EU's Common Security and Defence Policy

Community policing practices

A partnership-based, collaborative effort between the police and the community to more effectively and efficiently identify, prevent and solve problems of crime, the fear of crime, physical and social disorder and neighbourhood decay in order to improve the quality of life for everyone.

Community preference

Please see entry for Common Basic Principles

compulsory return
AT/DE/LU: zwangsweise Rückführung, Zwangsrückführung, erzwungene Rückkehr
BG: принудително връщане
CS: nucený návrat
EE: sunnitud tagasipöördumine
EL: αναγκαστική επιστροφή
ES: retorno forzoso
FI: pakkopalautus/pakkoon perustuva paluu
FR/BE/LU: obligation de retour
HU: kötelező visszatérés
IE: filleadh éigeantach
IT: ritorno obbligato
LT: priverstinis grąžinimas
LV: piespiedu atgriešana (EU acquis) / piespiedu izraidīšana (national)
MT: Ritorn obbligatorju //Ripatrijazzjoni obbligatorja
NL/BE: gedwongen terugkeer
NO: tvangsretur
PL: przymusowy powrót
PT: obrigação de regresso
RO: returnare (fortata)/returnare sub escortă
SE: tvångsmässigt återvändande
SI: obvezno vračanje
SK: nútený návrat

In the global context, obligatory returnof an individual to the country of origin, transit or third country (i.e. country of return), on the basis of an administrative or judicial act.

In the EU context, the process of going back –  whether in voluntary or enforced compliance with an obligation to return– to:

  • one's country of origin; or
  • a country of transitin accordance with EU or bilateral readmission agreements or other arrangements; or
  • another third country, to which the third-country national concerned voluntarily decides to return and in which they will be accepted.


Synonym(s): forced return, refoulement

Narrower Term: removal , voluntary departure

Broader Term: return

Related Term: refoulement , Voluntary return


Note:
1. Compulsory return is understood as return which occurs once a return decision has been issued. Art. 3(3) of Directive 2008/115 (Return Decision) calls this ‘return’ (not ‘compulsory return’) but so as to avoid confusion with the return of migrants based on their free will and without any direction from the State, we have named ‘return’ when occurring in compliance with a return decision, ‘compulsory return’.

2.  Outside of EU legislation the term ‘forced return’ is more commonly used and understood as a synonym with ‘compulsory return’ – i.e. return which occurs in compliance with a return decision.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'forced return' in the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011
EU context: Art. 3(3) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

compulsory work

Please see entry for forced labour

Computer data

A representation of facts, information or concepts in a form suitable for processing in an information system, including a programme suitable for causing an information system to perform a function.

concept of safe country of origin

Please see entry for safe country of origin

Confiscation

A penalty or measure, ordered by a court following proceedings in relation to a criminal offence or criminal offences, resulting in the final deprivation of property.

contract migrant worker
AT/DE/LU: Vertragsarbeitnehmer
BG: работник мигрант на трудов договор
CS: pracující migrant se smluvním vztahem
EE: lepinguline võõrtöötaja
ES: No translation
FI: maahanmuuttaja, jolla on rajoitettu työnteko-oikeus
FR/BE/LU: travailleur migrant sous contrat
GR: μισθωτός μετανάστης εργαζόμενος / Εργατικός Μετανάστης
HU: szerződéssel rendelkező / szerződéses migráns munkavállaló
IE: oibrí imirceach conartha
IT: lavoratore migrante a contratto
LT: migrantas darbuotojas pagal sutartį
LV: līgumdarbinieks migrants
MT: Migrant ħaddiem b'kuntratt tax-xogħol
NL/BE: buitenlandse contractarbeider
NO: migrant med begrenset arbeidsavtale (b) / migrant med avgrensa arbeidsavtale (n)
PL: migrant / pracownik kontraktowy
PT: trabalhador migrante por conta de outrem
RO: lucrator migrant cu contract
SE: no translation
SI: pogodbeni delavec migrant
SK: pracujúci migrant so zmluvou na dobu určitú

Person working in a country other than their own under contractual arrangements that set limits on the period of employment and on the specific job held by the migrant.

Synonym(s): contract worker

Broader Term: migrant worker

Related Term: circular migration, seasonal worker

Note:
1. Contract migrant workers cannot change jobs without permission granted by the authorities of the receiving state.
2. This full term is not commonly used; 'contract worker', which does not necessarily apply to migrants only, is more common.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

contract worker

Please see entry for contract migrant worker

Convention grounds for persecution
AT/DE/LU: Verfolgungsgründe (nach) der Genfer Konvention, Konventionsgründe
BG: основания за преследване, посочени в Конвенцията за статута на бежанците
CS: důvody pronásledování podle Ženevské úmluvy
EE: Genfi konventsioonis sätestatud tagakiusamise alused
ES: motivos de persecución Convenio de Ginebra de 1951 y Protocolo de 1967
FI: Geneven yleissopimuksen mukaiset vainon perusteet
FR/BE/LU: Motifs de persécution au sens de la Convention de Genève
IE: bonn géarleanúna de réir Choinbhinsiún na Ginéive
IT: cause di persecuzione ex Convenzione di Ginevra
LT: persekiojimo pagrindai pagal Konvenciją
LV: Ženēvas konvencijas noteiktie vajāšanas pamati
MT: Motivi għall-persekuzzjoni skont il-Konvenzjoni
NL/BE: gronden voor vervolging in de zin van het Vluchtelingenverdrag
NO: konvensjonsgrunnene for forfølgelse (b) / konvensjonsgrunnane for forfølging (n)
PT: motivos de perseguição na acepção da Convenção de Genebra
RO: motive de persecutie stabilite de Conventia de la Geneva din 1951
SE: konventionsgrunder för förföljelse
SI: konvencijski razlogi za preganjanje / razlogi za preganjanje po Ženevski konvenciji iz 1951
SK: dôvody prenasledovania podľa Ženevského dohovoru

The five enumerated grounds listed in Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951: race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion which must be the reason for persecution.


Synonym(s): grounds for persecution, reasons for persecution

Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967, refugee

Note:
1. Not every person who is outside their own country and has a well-founded fear of persecutionis a Convention refugee. One of the conditions for qualification for refugee statuswithin the meaning of Art. 1(A) of the Geneva Conventionis the existence of a causal link between the reasons for persecution, namely race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, and the acts of persecution or the absence of protection against such acts. Persecution based on any other ground will not be considered. The risk of being persecuted may sometimes arise in circumstances where two or more Convention grounds combine in the same person, in which case the combination of such grounds defines the causal connection to the well-founded fear of being persecuted.
2.The following definitions come into play when States attempt to determine who is and who is not a refugee:

  • race is used in the broadest sense and includes ethnic and social groups of common descent;
  • religion also has a broad meaning, including identification with a group that tends to share common traditions or beliefs, as well as the active practice of religion;
  • nationality includes an individual’s citizenship. Persecution of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups within a population also may be termed persecution based on nationality;
  • a particular social group refers to people who share a similar background, habits or social status. This category often overlaps with persecution based on one of the other four grounds. It has applied to families of capitalists, landowners, homosexuals, entrepreneurs and former members of the military;
  • political opinion refers to ideas not tolerated by the authorities, including opinions critical of government policies and methods. It includes opinions attributed to individuals even if the individual does not in fact hold that opinion. Individuals who conceal their political opinions until after they have fled their countries may qualify for refugee status if they can show that their views are likely to subject them to persecution if they return home.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951

Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement

Please see entry for Schengen Convention

Convention of 1951 Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees and its New York Protocol of 31 January 1967
Convention refugee
AT/DE/LU: Konventionsflüchtling
BG: бежанец съгласно Конвенцията за статута на бежанците от 1951 г.
CS: azylant/uprchlík podle Úmluvy
EE: konventsioonipagulane
ES: refugiado (en términos de la Convención de Ginebra)
FI: Geneven yleissopimuksen mukainen pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié au sens de la Convention de Genève
GR: πρόσφυγας (σύμφωνα με την συνθήκη της Γενέυης)
HU: konvenciós menekült
IE: dídeanaí Coinbhinsiúin
IT: rifugiato ex Convenzione di Ginevra
LT: pabėgėlis pagal Konvenciją
LV: bēglis Ženēvas konvencijas izpratnē
MT: Rifuġjat(a) skont il-Konvenzjoni ta' Ġinevra
NL/BE: verdragsvluchteling
NO: konvensjonsflyktning
PL: uchodźca konwencyjny
PT: refugiado (na acepção da Convenção de Genebra de 1951 relativa aos refugiados)
RO: refugiat în baza convenţiei de la Geneva
SE: konventionsflykting
SI: konvencijski begunec /begunec po Ženevski konvenciji
SK: utečenec podľa Ženevského dohovoru

Person recognised as a refugeeby States under the criteria in Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, and entitled to the enjoyment of a variety of rights under that Convention.


Synonym(s): recognised refugee

Broader Term: beneficiary of international protection , refugee

Related Term: mandate refugee,  refugee status , relocation

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

Conventional weapon

Specific types of weapons that are considered to cause unnecessary or unjustifiable suffering to combatants or to affect civilians indiscriminately. There are seven categories of arms that are deemed the most lethal ones:

  • battle tanks,
  • armoured combat vehicles,
  • large-calibre artillery systems,
  • combat aircraft,
  • attack helicopters,
  • warships,
  • missiles and missiles launchers.
Cooperation Platform
Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development
AT/DE/LU: Kooperationsplatt-form für Migration und Entwicklung
BG: Платформа за сътрудничество по въпросите на миграцията и развитието
CS: Platforma pro spolupráci - migrace a rozvoj
DE: Kooperationsplattform für Migration und Entwicklung
EE: rände ja arenguabi koostööplatvorm
ES: Plataforma de Cooperación sobre Migración y Desarrollo
FI: muuttoliikettä ja kehitystä käsittelevä yhteistyöfoorumi
FR/BE/LU: Plate-forme de coopération sur la migration et le développement
GR: πλατφόρμες συνεργασίας
HU: Együttműködési Platform a migráció és jejlesztés területén
IE: Clár Comhoibrithe um Imirce agus Fhorbairt
IT: Piattaforma di cooperazione sulla migrazione e lo sviluppo
LT: Migracijos ir vystymosi bendradarbiavimo platforma
LV: sadarbības platforma par migrāciju un attīstību
MT: Pjattaforma ta’ Kooperazzjoni fuq il-Migrazzjoni u l-Iżvilupp
NL/BE: samenwerkingsplatform
NO: Samarbeidsplattform om migrasjon og utvikling
PL: Platforma Współpracy na rzecz Migracji i Rozwoju
PT: plataformas de cooperação
RO: Platforma de cooperare cu privire la Migratie si dezvoltare
SE: samarbetsplattform för migration och utveckling
SI: Platforma za sodelovanje na področju migracij in razvoja
SK: Platforma spolupráce v oblasti migrácie a rozvoja

A concept in the framework of the Global Approach to Migration and Mobilitywhichs bring together migration and development actors in a country or region to manage migration more effectively, in the interests of all, along specific migratory routes.


Synonym(s): Cooperation Platform


Broader Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Global Forum on Migration and Development , migration routes initiative


Related Term:  migration profile, mobility partnership

Note:
1. This concept was proposed in the Communication on the Global Approach (COM(2006)735) and endorsed by the December 2006 European Council.
2. Such platforms bring together representatives of the country or countries concerned with Member States, the Commission and international organisations.

Source: Derived by EMN from Annex I of Communication on the Global Approach to Migration, COM(2006) 735 final and the Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final

Corruption

The abuse of power for private gain (in both the public and the private sector).

Cotonou Agreement
AT/DE/LU: Cotonou-Abkommen
BG: Споразумението от Котону
CS: Dohoda z Cotonou
EE: Cotonou leping
ES: Acuerdo de Cotonou
FI: Cotonoun sopimus
FR/BE/LU: Accord de Cotonou
GA: Comhaontú Cotonou
GR: Συμφωνία Κοτονού
HU: Cotonou-i Egyezmény
IE: Comhaontú Cotonou
IT: Accordo di Cotonou
LT: Kotonu susitarimas
LV: Kotonū nolīgums
MT: Ftehim (Il-) ta' Cotonou
NL/BE: overeenkomst van Cotonou
NO: Cotonou-avtalen
PL: Porozumienie z Cotonou
PT: Acordo de Cotonou
RO: Acordul Cotonou
SE: Cotonou-avtalet
SI: Kotonoujski sporazum
SK: Dohoda z Cotonou

The Partnership Agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States of the one part and the European Union and its Member States of the other part, in order to promote and expedite the economic, cultural and social development of the ACP States, with a view to contributing to peace and security and to promoting a stable and democratic political environment.



Synonym(s): ACP-EC Partnership Agreement, Cotonou Partnership Agreement

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility , Global Forum on Migration and Development

Note:
1. The Cotonou Agreement is the most comprehensive Partnership Agreement between developing countries and the EU. It was signed on 23 June 2000 in Cotonou, Benin as a global agreement, introducing important changes and ambitious objectives while preserving the 'acquis' of 25 years of ACP-EC cooperation. It was revised in Luxembourg on 25 June 2005.
2. Art. 13 of this agreement refers to the issue of migration which shall be the subject of in-depth dialogue in the framework of the ACP-EU Partnership.
3. For more information, see the description of the Agreement on the EuropeAid website.

Source:Cotonou Agreement

Cotonou Partnership Agreement

Please see entry for Cotonou Agreement

Counterfeiting

Unauthorized representation of a registered trademark carried on goods identical or similar to goods for which the trademark is registered, with a view to deceiving the purchaser into believing that he/she is buying the original goods.

country information

Please see entry for country of origin information

country of birth
AT/DE/LU: Geburtsland
BG: страна на раждане
CS: země narození
EE: sünniriik
EL: χώρα γέννησης
ES: país de nacimiento
FI: syntymämaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de naissance
GR: χώρα γέννησης
HU: születés helye szerinti ország
IE: tír bhreithe
IT: paese di nascita
LT: valstybė, kurioje gimė
LV: dzimšanas valsts
MT:  Art twelidek / Pajjiżek
NL/BE: geboorteland
NO: fødeland
PL: kraj urodzenia
PT: país de nascimento
RO: ţara de naştere
SE: födelseland
SI: država rojstva
SK: krajina narodenia

The country of residence (in its current borders, if the information is available) of the mother at the time of the birth or, in default, the country (in its current borders, if the information is available) in which the birth took place.


Related Term: country of nationality, country of origin

Source:Art.2 (e) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

country of destination
AT/DE/LU: Zielland
BG: страна на дестинация
CS: cílová země
EE: sihtriik
ES: país de destino
FI: kohdemaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de destination
GR: χώρα προορισμού
HU: célország
IE: tír cheann scríbe (iolra: tíortha ceann scríbe)
IT: paese di destinazione
LT: tikslo valstybė
LV: mērķa valsts
MT: Pajjiż fid-destinazzjoni
NL/BE: land van bestemming
NO: destinasjonsland
PL: kraj docelowy
PT: país de destino
RO: ţara de destinaţie
SE: destinationsland
SI: ciljna država
SK: cieľová krajina

The country that is a destination for migratory flows(regular or irregular).


Related Term: country of origin, country of transit

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011

country of first asylum

Please see entry for first country of asylum

Country of first asylum

Country in which a refugee or asylum seeker arrives and in which he/she finds, is deemed to have found or might have found protection from persecution, protection of his/her rights as a refugee, including non-refoulement, and the opportunity for a durable solution in accordance with applicable standards of international law.

country of nationality
AT/DE/LU: Land der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: страна на гражданство
CS: země státní příslušnosti
EE: kodakondsusjärgne riik
ES: país de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuusvaltio
FR/BE/LU: pays de nationalité
HU: állampolgárság szerinti ország
IE: tír náisiúntachta
IT: paese di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės valstybė
LV: pilsonības valsts
MT: Pajjiż tan-nazzjonalità
NL/BE: land waarvan iemand onderdaan is (syn.: land waarvan iemand het staatsburgerschap heeft)
NO: statsborgerskapsland (b) / statsborgarskapsland (n)
PL: państwo, którego obywatelem jest cudzoziemiec
PT: país de nacionalidade
RO:  ţara de cetăţenie
SE: medborgarskapsland
SI: država katere oseba je državljan
SK: krajina štátneho občianstva / krajina štátnej príslušnosti

The country (or countries) of which a person holds citizenship.


Synonym(s): state of nationality

Related Term: citizenship, country of birth, country of origin


Note:
1. A person may have a different country of nationality from their country of origin and/or country of birth owing, for example, to the acquisition of citizenshipin a country different from their country of birth.
2. In some Member States, this term is used in the context of return.

Source: Developed by EMN

country of origin
AT/DE/LU: Herkunftsland, Herkunftsstaat
BG: страна на произход
CS: země původu
EE: päritoluriik
ES: país de origen
FI: alkuperämaa/lähtömaa
FR/BE/LU: pays d'origine
GR: χώρα προέλευσης
HU: származási ország
IE: tír bhunaidh
IT: paese di origine
LT: kilmės valstybė
LV: izcelsmes valsts
MT: Pajjiż tal-oriġini
NL/BE: land van herkomst
NO: opprinnelseslandd (b) / opphavsland (n)
PL: kraj pochodzenia
PT: país de origem
RO: ţara de origine
SE: ursprungsland
SI: izvorna država
SK: krajina pôvodu

The country of nationalityor, for stateless persons, of former habitual residence.


Narrower Term: country of origin information, safe country of origin

Related Term: country of birth, country of nationality

Note:
A person may have more than one country of origin.

Source:Art. 2(n) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

Country of origin

The country that is a source of migratory flows (regular or irregular).

According to Directive 2004/83/EC, ""country of origin"" means the country or countries of nationality or, for stateless persons, of former habitual residence.

country of origin information
AT/DE/LU: Herkunftsländerinformation (EU acquis, DE, LU)
BG: информация за страни на произход
CS: informace o zemích původu
EE: päritoluriigi info
ES: información del país de origen
FI: alkuperämaita koskeva tieto/lähtömaatieto
FR/BE/LU: information sur le pays d’origine
GR: πληροφορίες για τις χώρες καταγωγής
HU: származási országinformáció
IE: eolas faoin tír bhunaidh
IT: informazioni sul paese di origine
LT: informacija apie kilmės valstybę
LV: izcelsmes valsts informācija
MT: Informazzjoni dwar il-pajjiż tal-oriġini
NL/BE: landeninformatie
NO: landinformasjon
PL: informacje o kraju pochodzenia
PT: informação sobre países de origem
RO: informaţii din ţara de origine
SE: landinformation
SI: podatki o izvorni državi
SK: informácie o krajine pôvodu

Information used by the Member States authorities to analyse the socio-political situation in countries of origin of applicants for international protection(and, where necessary, in countries through which they have transited) in the assessment, carried out on an individual basis, of an application for international protection.



Synonym(s): COI, country information

Broader Term: country of origin

Related Term: European Asylum Support Office

Note:
1. All relevant facts as they relate to the country of origin at the time of taking a decision on the application are used. The relevant facts are obtained from various sources, such as the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), UNHCRand relevant international human rightsorganisations, general public sources such as reports from (inter)national organisations, governmental and non-governmental organisations, media, bi-lateral contacts in countries of origin, embassy reports including the laws and regulations of the country of origin and the manner in which they are applied.
2. The information used by the Member States authorities is made available to the personnel responsible for examining applications and taking decisions.
3. This information is also used inter alia for taking decisions on other migration issues, e.g. on return, as well as by researchers.
4. According to Art. 4 of Council Regulation (EU) No 439/2010,  EASO has taken over responsibility for collecting, preparing, analysing and disseminating this information. For more information, see and the website of EASO.

Source:Derived by EMN from Annex C of COM(2006) 67 final, Art. 4 (3a) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Art. 10 (3b) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

Country of Origin Information

Information used by EU States' asylum authorities to analyse the socio-political situation in countries of origin of applicants for international protection (and, where necessary, in countries through which they have transited) in the assessment, carried out on an individual basis, of an application for international protection.

country of return
AT/DE/LU: Rückkehrland
BG: страна на връщане
CS: země návratu
EE: vastuvõttev riik
ES: país de retorno
FI: paluumaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de retour
GR: χώρα επιστροφής
HU: visszatérési ország
IE: tír fhillidh
IT: paese di ritorno
LT: valstybė, į kurią grįžta
LV: atgriešanas valsts (EU acquis) / izraidīšanas valsts (national)
MT: Pajjiż fejn wieħed jirritorna /fejn w. imur lura
NL/BE: terugkeerland
NO: returland
PL: kraj powrotu
PT: país de retorno
RO: ţara de returnare
SE: återvändandeland
SI: država povratka/vrnitve
SK: krajina návratu

In the EU context, a third countryto which a third-country nationalreturns.


Related Term: country of origin, country of transit

Note:
1. This is not defined in legal terms.
2. In most cases, it is the country of originto which a return is made, but this definition is used here in order to indicate other (possible) destinations, e.g. country of transitor another third country.

Source:EMN: Return migration, 2007

country of transit
AT/DE/LU: Transitland
BG: страна на транзит
CS: tranzitní země
EE: transiitriik
ES: país de tránsito
FI: kauttakulkumaa
FR/BE/LU: pays de transit
GR: χώρα διέλευσης
HU: tranzitország
IE: tír idirthurais
IT: paese di transito
LT: tranzito valstybė
LV: tranzītvalsts
MT: Pajjiż ta' tranżitu // Pajjiż li wieħed jgħaddi minnu
NL/BE: transitland (syn.: doorreisland)
NO: transittland
PL: kraj tranzytowy
PT: país de trânsito
RO: ţara de tranzit
SE: transitland
SI: tranzitna država
SK: tranzitná krajina

The country through which migratory flows(regular or irregular) move; this means the country (or countries), different from the country of origin, which a migrant passes through in order to enter a country of destination.


Related Term: country of destination, country of origin, country of return

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011

Country of transit

The country through which migratory flows (regular or irregular) move. This is taken to mean the country (or countries), different from the country of origin, through which a migrant passes in order to enter a country of destination.

Court of Justice of the European Union
AT/DE/LU: Gerichtshof der Europäischen Union
BG: Съд на Европейския съюз
CZ: Soudní dvůr Evropské unie
FI: Euroopan unionin tuomioistuin
FR/BE/LU: politique de sécurité et de défense commune
IE: Cúirt Bhreithiúnais an Aontais Eorpaigh
HU: Európai Unió Bírósága
IT: Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea
LV: Eiropas Savienības Tiesa
PL: Trybunał Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej
SE: Europeiska unionens domstol (EU-domstolen)
SK: Súdny dvor Európskej únie
SI: Sodišče Evropske Unije
NO: EU-domstolen

The judicial authority of the European Union which ensures in cooperation with the courts and tribunals of the Member States the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law; and which settles legal disputes between EU governments and EU institutions.

 
Synonym(s): CJEU


Note:

1. The institution was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities (as of 1958 the Court of Justice of the European Communities (CJEC)). With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009, the court system obtained its current name (Court of Justice of the European Union), while the court itself was renamed "Court of Justice".
2. The court  is based in Luxembourg and consists of three courts: the Court of Justice, the General Court (created in 1988) and the Civil Service Tribunal (created in 2004). The court has one judge per EU country. The governments of EU countries agree on whom they want to appoint.
3. The Court reviews the legality of the acts of the institutions of the European Union; ensures that the Member States comply with obligations under the Treaties; and interprets European Union law at the request of the national courts and tribunals.  

Source: The EU's Common Security and Defence Policy

credibility assessment
AT/DE/LU: Glaubwürdigkeitsprü-fung, Prüfung der Glaubwürdigkeit
BG: оценка на достоверността
CS: posouzení věrohodnosti
DE: Glaubwürdigkeitsprüfung
EE: usaldusväärsuse (usutavuse) hindamine
EL: αξιολόγηση της αξιοπιστίας
ES: evaluación de la credibilidad
FI: uskottavuusarviointi
FR/BE/LU: évaluation de la crédibilité
HU: szavahihetőség értékelése
IE: measúnú creidiúnachta
IT: valutazione di credibilità
LT: patikimumo vertinimas
LV: ticamības novērtējums
MT: Evalwazzjoni tal-kredibilità
NL/BE: beoordeling van de geloofwaardigheid
NO: vurdering av troverdighet (b) / vurdering av truverd (n)
PL: ocena wiarygodności
PT: avaliação da credibilidade
RO: evaluarea credibilitatii
SE: trovärdighetsbedömning
SI: ocena zanesljivosti
SK: preukazovanie dôveryhodnosti

The process of gathering relevant information from the applicant, examining it in the light of all the information available to the case worker, for the purpose of the determination of qualification for refugee statusand/or subsidiary protection status.


Related Term: real risk of suffering serious harm, well-founded fear of persecution

Note:
1. The credibility assessment is also a step taken in adjudicating an application for a visa or other immigration status, in order to determine whether the information presented by the applicant is consistent and believable (see IOM definition of 'credibility assessment', IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011)
2. Credibility is established where the applicant has presented a claim which is coherent and plausible, not contradicting generally known facts, and therefore is, on balance, capable of being believed.

Source:UNHCR: Beyond proof - credibility assessment in EU asylum systems, 2013

crime against humanity
AT/DE/LU: Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit
BG: престъпление срещу човечеството
CS: zločin proti lidskosti
EE: inimsusevastane kuritegu
ES: crimen contra la humanidad
FI: rikos ihmiskuntaa / ihmisyyttä vastaan
FR/BE/LU: crime contre l’humanité
GR: έγκλημα κατά της ανθρωπότητας
HU: emberiség elleni bűncselekmény
IE: coir i gcoinne an chine dhaonna
IT: crimine contro l'umanità
LT: nusikaltimas žmoniškumui
LV: noziegums pret cilvēci
MT: Reat kontra l-umanità
NL/BE: misdrijf tegen de menselijkheid
NO: forbrytelse mot menneskeheten (b) / brotsverk mot menneskeslekta (n)
PL: zbrodnia przeciwko ludzkości
PT: crimes contra a humanidade
RO: crimă împotriva umanităţii
SE: brott mot mänskligheten
SI: zločin proti človeštvu
SK: zločin proti ľudskosti

Act committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack.


Related Term: exclusion clause, genocidewar crime

Note:
Crimes against humanity include:

  1. murder;
  2. extermination;
  3. enslavement;
  4. deportation or forcible transfer of population;
  5. imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;
  6. torture;
  7. rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilisation, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;
  8. persecutionagainst any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognised as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;
  9. enforced disappearance of persons;
  10. the crime of apartheid;
  11. other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.

Source:Art. 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Criminal proceeds

Any economic advantage from criminal offences. It may consist of any form of property, whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, and legal documents or instruments evidencing title to or interest in such property.

Critical infrastructure

Physical and information technology facilities, networks, services and assets that, if disrupted or destroyed, would have a serious impact on the health, safety, security or economic well-being of citizens or the effective functioning of governments in EU States. Critical infrastructures extend across many sectors of the economy, including banking and finance, transport and distribution, energy, utilities, health, food supply and communications, as well as key government services.

Critical Infrastructure Warning Information Network (CIWIN)

CIWIN is a protected public internet-based information and communication system, offering recognised members of the EU’s critical infrastructure protection community the opportunity to exchange and discuss CIP-related information, studies and good practices across multiple sectors.

Source:
cross-border commuter

Please see entry for cross-border worker

cross-border worker
AT/DE/LU: Grenzgänger
BG: трансграничен работник
CS: přeshraniční pracovník; příhraniční pracovník
EE: piiriülene töötaja
EL: διασυνοριακής εργαζομένων
ES: trabajador transfronterizo
FI: rajatyöntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur transfrontalier
HU: határ menti ingázó munkavállaló
IE: oibrí trasteorann
IT: lavoratore frontaliero
LT: darbuotojas, kertantis vidaus sienas
LV: pārrobežu darba ņēmējs
MT: Ħaddiem transkonfinali / jaqsam fruntiera
NL/BE: grensarbeider
NO: grensependler (b) / grensependlar (n)
PL: pracownik transgraniczny
PT: trabalhador transfronteiriço
RO: lucrator transfrontalier
SE: gränsarbetare
SI: čezmejni delavec
SK: cezhraničný pracovník

A person who works as an employee or self-employed person in one Member State but is recognised as residing in another (neighbouring) Member State.


Synonym(s): cross-border commuter

Related Term: frontier worker

Note:
1. In dealing with cross-border issues a multitude of definitions for the term 'cross-border worker/commuter' exists.
2. The concept of cross-border workers covers different circumstances, depending on whether one takes the Community meaning (set out, in particular, in connection with social security) or the various definitions included in bilateral double-taxation agreements.
3. Where tax is concerned, bilateral double-taxation agreements determining the tax arrangements applicable to frontier workers use more restrictive definitions which additionally impose a spatial criterion: the fact of living and working in a frontier zone.
4. Often 'cross-border workers' and 'frontier workers' are considered as synonyms. However, cross-border workers are distinct from frontier workers to the extent that they do not necessarily work in the frontier zone of the host country.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'cross-border workers' by DG Taxation and Customs Union (DG TAXUD)

crude rate of net migration
AT/DE/LU: rohe Netto-Migrationsrate
BG: общ коефициент на нетна миграция
CS: hrubá míra migračního salda
EE: rändesaldo määr
ES: tasa neta de migración
FI: nettomaahanmuutto tuhatta henkeä kohden
FR/BE/LU:  taux brut de solde migratoire
GR: το ποσοστό της καθαρής μετανάστευσης
HU: nemzetközi migráció nettó különbözete
IE: garbhráta glanimirce
IT: tasso grezzo di migrazione netta
LT: neto migracija tūkstančiui gyventojų
LV: migrācijas saldo vispārīgais koeficients
MT: Rata bejn wieħed u ieħor ta’ migrazzjoni netta // Rata netta ta’ migrazzjoni
NL/BE: bruto cijfer migratiesaldo
NO: summarisk nettomigrasjonsrate
PL: współczynnik salda migracji
PT: taxa bruta do saldo migratório
RO: ata brută de migraţie
SE: flyttningsnetto
SI: splošna stopnja neto migracije
SK: hrubá miera čistej migrácie / hrubá miera migračného salda

The ratio of net migration plus adjustment during the year to the average population in that year.


Related Term: migration flow, net migration, population stock, total migration

Note:
The value is expressed per 1,000 inhabitants. The crude rate of net migration is equal to the difference between the crude rate of increase and the crude rate of natural increase (that is, net migration is considered as the part of population change not attributable to births and deaths). It is calculated in this way because immigration or emigration flows are either unknown or the figures are not sufficiently precise.

Source:Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database

cultural assimilation

Please see entry for assimilation

cultural diversity
AT/DE/LU:  kulturelle Vielfalt
BG: културно многообразие
CS: kulturní diverzita
EE: kultuuriline mitmekesisus
ES: diversidad cultural
FI: kulttuurinen moninaisuus/diversiteetti
FR/BE/LU: diversité culturelle
GR: πολιτιστική ποικιλομορφία
HU: kulturális sokféleség
IE: ilchineálacht chultúrtha
IT: diversità culturale
LT: kultūrinė įvairovė
LV: kultūras daudzveidība
MT: Diversità kulturali
NL/BE: culturele diversiteit
NO: kulturelt mangfold (b) / kulturelt mangfald (n)
PL: różnorodność kulturowa
PT: diversidade cultural
RO: diversitate culturală
SE: kulturell mångfald
SI: kulturna raznolikost
SK: kultúrna rozmanitosť / kultúrna diverzita

The diversity of forms of culture in a society composed of groups of people from many different cultural backgrounds.


Related Term: cultural pluralism

Note:
1. The UNESCO Declaration on Cultural Diversity reflects the diverse and pluralist understanding of culture and defines cultural diversity in Art. 1 as follows: 'Diverse forms of culture across time and space which is embodied in the uniqueness and plurality of the identities of the groups and societies making up humankind and is a source of exchange, innovation and creativity.' The scope and definition agreed on in the UNESCO declaration were partly retained in the 2005 UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression), the successive legally binding Convention, which is a landmark agreement in modern international law of culture and which sets out common rules, principles and points of reference for cultural diversity at the global level.
2. On 18 December 2006, the European Community ratified the UNESCO Convention. Preserving and promoting cultural diversity are among the Community’s founding principles: they are enshrined in the Treaty, under Art. 151, and in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, under Art. 22.3.

Source: Developed by EMN

cultural pluralism
AT/DE/LU: kultureller Pluralismus
BG: културен плурализъм
CS: kulturní pluralismus
EE: kultuuride paljusus
ES: pluralismo cultural
FI: kulttuurinen monimuotoisuus/pluralismi
FR/BE/LU: pluralisme culturel
GR: πολιτιστικός πλουραλισμός
HU: kulturális sokszínűség
IE: iolrachas cultúrtha
IT: pluralismo culturale
LT: kultūrinis pliuralizmas
LV: kultūras plurālisms
MT: Pluraliżmu kulturali
NL/BE: multiculturalisme
NO: kulturell pluralisme
PL: pluralizm kulturowy
PT: pluralismo cultural
RO: pluralism cultural/multiculturalitate
SE: kulturell mångfald
SI: kulturni pluralizem
SK: kultúrny pluralizmus

A policy aimed at the ensuring of harmonious interaction among people and groups with plural, varied and dynamic cultural identities as well as their willingness to live together.


Related Term: culture, cultural diversity

Note:
1. According to the UNESCO definition, policies for the inclusion and participation of all citizens are guarantees of social cohesion, the vitality of civil society and peace. Thus defined, cultural pluralism gives policy expression to the reality of cultural diversity.
2. See also the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Expressions (2005).

Source:Art. 2 of UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity

culture
AT/DE/LU: Kultur
BG: култура
CS: kultura
EE: kultuur
ES: cultura
FI: kulttuuri
FR/BE/LU: culture
GR: πολιτισμός; κουλτούρα
HU: kultúra
IE: cultúr
IT: cultura
LT: kultūra
LV: kultūra
MT: Kultura
NL/BE: cultuur
NO: kultur
PL: kultura
PT: cultura
RO: cultura
SE: kultur
SI: kultura
SK: kultúra

The set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or a social group encompassing, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs.


Related Term: cultural pluralism

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity

Customs Information System (CIS)

An automated information system that assists EU States' administrative authorities in preventing, investigating and prosecuting operations that are in breach of customs or agricultural legislation by making information available more rapidly and thereby increasing the effectiveness of cooperation and control procedures.

Cyber attack

Attacks against information systems, for instance the illegal access to information systems, illegal system interference, illegal data interference or illegal interception of transmissions of computer data, including the use of tools to commit those offences, including a computer programme, passwords or botnets.

Cybercrime

Cybercrime offences include attacks against information systems (including illegal access to information systems, illegal system or data interference or illegal interception of data transmissions), the sexual abuse and exploitation of children and child pornography online and online fraud and counterfeiting of non-cash means of payment, as well as attempting and aiding or abetting the commission of any of these offences.

Data

Characteristics or information, usually numerical, that are collected through observation.

Data retention

Data retention refers to all obligations on the part of controllers to retain personal data for certain purposes.

In the EU context "data retention" usually refers to the retention of the communication traffic data. According to the Directive 2002/58/EC Member States may adopt legislative measures providing for the retention of data for a limited period justified to safeguard national security, defence, public security, and the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences or of unauthorised use of the electronic communication system.

Database

A logical collection of information that is interrelated and that is managed and stored as a unit, for example in the same computer file. The terms database and data set are often used interchangeably.

de facto population
AT/DE/LU: De-facto-Bevölkerung, tatsächlich anwesende Bevölkerung
BG: фактическо население
CS: uprchlík de facto
EE: de facto rahvastik (tegelik rahvastik)
ES: población (de hecho)
FI: de facto -väestö
FR/BE/LU: population de fait
GR: de facto (εν τοις πράγμασι) πληθυσμός
HU: népesség (de facto)
IE: daonra de facto
IT: popolazione de facto
LT: de facto gyventojų skaičius
LV: de facto iedzīvotāji
MT: Popolazzjoni de facto
NL/BE: de facto bevolking
NO: tilstedeværende befolkning /de facto befolkning (b) / folkesetnad tilstades /de facto-folkesetnad (n)
PL: populacja de facto
PT: população (de facto)
RO: populaţie (de facto)
SE: de facto-befolkning
SI: de facto prebivalstvo
SK: obyvateľstvo de facto / faktické obyvateľstvo / prítomné obyvateľstvo

A concept under which individuals (or vital events) are recorded (or are attributed) to the geographical area where they were present (or occurred) at a specified time.


Related Term: de jure population

Note:
This term is little used.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

de facto refugee
AT/DE/LU: De-facto-Flüchtling
BG: no translation
CS: poživatel doplňkové ochrany
EE: de facto pagulane
ES: refugiado de facto
FI: tosiasiallinen pakolainen/de facto -pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié de facto
GR: de facto πρόσφυγας
HU: de facto menekült
IE: dídeanaí de facto
IT: rifugiato de facto
LT: de facto pabėgėlis
LV: de facto bēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) de facto
NL/BE: de facto vluchteling
NO: de facto-flyktning
PL: uchodźca de facto
PT: refugiado de facto
RO: refugiat de facto
SE: de facto-flykting
SI: de facto begunec
SK: utečenec de facto

Person not recognised as a refugee(within the meaning of Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951and Protocol of 1967) and who is unable or, for reasons recognised as valid, unwilling to return to their country of originor country of nationalityor, if they have no nationality, to the country of their habitual residence.


Broader Term: refugee

Related Term: displaced person, humanitarian protection, person eligible for subsidiary protection

Note:
1. This term is not defined in legal terms in the Member States.
2. In DE, this refers to a person who has not applied for asylum or whose asylum application has been rejected, but whose removal has been suspended due to concrete danger of life, body or freedom. For example, a person’s stay will be tolerated in DE on grounds of humanitarian law.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed., 2011

de jure population
AT/DE/LU: De-jure-Bevölkerung
BG: юридическо население
CS: de jure obyvatelstvo
EE: de jure rahvastik
ES: población (de derecho)
FI: de jure -väestö
FR/BE/LU: population de droit
GR: De jure (σύμφωνα με το νόμο) πληθυσμός
HU: népesség (de jure)
IE: daonra de jure
IT: popolazione de jure
LT: de jure gyventojų skaičius
LV: de jure iedzīvotāji
MT: Popolazzjoni de jure
NL/BE: de jure bevolking
NO: hjemmehørende befolkning /de jure befolkning (b) / folkesetnad etter bustad / de jure-folkesetnad (n)
PL: populacja de jure
PT: população (de direito)
RO: populaţie (de drept)
SE: de jure-befolkning
SI: de jure prebivalstvo
SK: obyvateľstvo de jure / bývajúce obyvateľstvo

A concept under which individuals (or vital events) are recorded (or are attributed) to a geographical area on the basis of the place of residence.


Related Term: de facto population

Note:
This term is little used.

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

decision-maker
Decriminalisation

It refers to the removal of criminal status from a certain behaviour or action. This does not mean that the behaviour is legal, as non-criminal penalties may still be applied. With respect to the drug debate, this concept is usually used to describe laws addressing personal possession or use rather than drug supply.

Source:
Depenalisation

Refers to introducing the possibility or policy of closing a criminal case without proceeding towards punishment, for example as the case is considered ‘minor’ or prosecution is ‘not in the public interest’.

Source:
dependant
AT/DE/LU: zuzugsberechtigter Familienangehöriger
BG: лице на издръжка
CS: závislá osoba
EE: ülalpeetav
ES: dependiente
FI: huollettava
FR/BE/LU: personne à charge
GR: συντηρούμενο/εξαρτώμενο μέλος
HU: eltartott
IE: cleithiúnaí
IT: persona a carico
LT: išlaikomas asmuo
LV: apgādājamais
MT: Persuna dipendenti
NL/BE: afhankelijk gezinslid (very narrow : ‘persoon ten laste’)
NO: forsørget person (b) / forsørgd person (n)
PL: osoba pozostająca na utrzymaniu
PT: dependente / pessoa a cargo
RO: dependent
SE: anhörig
SI: vzdrževanec
SK: závislá osoba

A person who has filed an application for family reunification and who is granted entry and residence by the Member State to stay with a legally resident family member or other person.



Related Term: family member, sponsor

Note:
For more information, see EMN: Family reunification, 2008.

Source:Developed by EMN

deportation

Please see entry for removal

deportation
AT/DE/LU: Abschiebung
BG: депортиране
CS: nucený návrat/vyhoštění
EE: väljasaatmine
ES: expulsión
FI: karkottaminen
FR/BE/LU: éloignement
GR: απέλαση
HU: kitoloncolás
IE: díbirt
IT: deportazione / espulsione
LT: deportacija
LV: piespiedu izraidīšana
MT: Deportazzjoni
NL/BE: uitzetting
NO: uttransportering
PL: deportacja
PT: deportação
RO: returnare
SE: utvisning
SI: odstranitev / deportacija
SK: vyhostenie

The act of a state in the exercise of its sovereignty in removing an alienfrom its territory to a certain place after refusal of admission or termination of permission to remain.


Synonym(s): removal

Broader Term: compulsory return

Related Term: expulsion

Note:
In IE, DE, UK, 'deportation' is defined in legislation, whilst in ES, NL, PT it is not used as a legal term and is applicable only as a general concept by the public, sometimes with a negative connotation. Because of this variation, ‘removal’ is the preferred term to use.

Source:UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

deportation order

Please see entry for removal order

detainee
BG: задържан
CS: zajištěný cizinec
DE: Häftling
EE: kinnipeetav
EL: κρατουμένου
ES: detenido
FI: säilöön otettu
FR/BE/LU: personne retenue
HU: őrizetbevett (személy)
IE: cime
IT: persona trattenuta
LT: sulaikytasis
LV: aizturētais
MT: Detenut(a)
NL/BE: gedetineerde (vreemdelingenbewaring gestelde persoon (NL) or persoon in vasthouding / opgesloten persoon (BE) in case of return)
NO: innsatt (b) / innsett (n)
PL: osoba zatrzymana
PT: detido
SE: förvarstagen person
SI: pripornik
SK: zaistená osoba

A person in detention.


Related Term: detention

Source: Developed by EMN

Detainee

A person in detention.

detection of a victim of trafficking in human beings
AT/DE/LU: Erkennung eines Opfers von Menschen-handel
BG: откриване на жертва на трафик на хора
CS: identifikace oběti obchodování s lidmi
DE: Erkennung eines Opfers von Menschenhandel
EE: inimkaubanduse ohvri staatuse tuvastamine
ES: detección de víctimas de trata de seres humanos
FI: ihmiskaupan uhrin havaitseminen
FR/BE/LU: détection d'une victime de la traite des êtres humains
HU: emberkereskedelem áldozatának felderítése
IE: íospartach gáinneála a aimsiú
IT: individuazione della vittima di tratta degli esseri umani
LT: prekybos žmonėmis aukos atpažinimas
LV: cilvēku tirdzniecības upura atpazīšana
MT: Sejbien ta’ vittma fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL/BE: detectie van een slachtoffer van mensenhandel
NO: identifisering av et offer for menneskehandel (b) / identifisering av eit offer for menneskehandel (n)
PL: identyfikacja ofiar handlu ludźmi
PT: detecção de vítima de tráfico de seres humanos
RO: identificarea unei victime a traficului de fiinte umane
SE: upptäckt av offer för människohandel
SI: zaznava žrtve trgovine z ljudmi
SK: zisťovanie [odhaľovanie] či je osoba obeťou obchodovania s ľuďmi

The process of identifying a possible situation of trafficking in human beings.

Broader Term: trafficking in human beings

Related Term: identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Source: Derived by EMN from Varandas, I. & J. Martins: Signalling Identification Integration of Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation: Construction of a Guide, 2007

detention
AT/DE/LU: Abschiebungshaft 
BG: задържане
CS: zajištění
EE: kinnipidamine
EL: κράτηση (διοικητική)
ES: internamiento
FI: säilöönotto
FR/BE/LU: rétention 
GR: Κράτηση (Διοικητική)
HU: őrizet
IE: coinneáil
IT: trattenimento
LT: sulaikymas
LV: aizturēšana
MT: Detenzjoni
NL/BE: detentie; vreemdelingenbewaring (in context of return)
NO: forvaring
PL: detencja/zatrzymanie
PT: detenção
RO: custodie publică
SE: förvar
SI: omejitev gibanja / pripor
SK: zaistenie

In the global migration context, non-punitive administrative measure ordered by an administrative or judicial authority(ies) in order to restrict the liberty of a person through confinement so that another procedure may be implemented.

In the EU asylum context, confinement (i.e. deprivation of liberty) of an applicant for international protectionby a Member State within a particular place, where the applicant is deprived of their personal liberty.


Narrower Term: detention facility

Related Term: alternative to detention, detainee

Note:
1. EU provisions differentiate between different migration situations in which third-country nationalscan be detained: detention of applicants for international protection, detention in order to prevent irregular entryinto the territory of Member States and detention of irregular migrantsinvolved in returnproceedings.
2. Applicants for international protection may be detained at any stage of or throughout the asylum process, from the time an initial application is made up to the point of removal of an unsuccessful applicant for international protection. According to Art. 26 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedure Directive) it is not acceptable to detain a person solely for the reason that they have lodged an application for international protection. To ensure the non-arbitrariness of detention and the respect of fundamental rights of applicants for international protection, Directive 2013/33/EU introduced an exhaustive list of detention grounds (Art. 8) and put in place a number of procedural guarantees.The Directive also regulates the conditions in detention facilities (Art. 10).
3. In an EU return context, Member States may only detain or keep in a detention facilitya third-country national who is the subject of return procedures in order to prepare the return and/or carry out the removalprocess, in particular when: (a) there is a risk of absconding; or (b) the third-country national concerned avoids or hampers the preparation of return or the removalprocess. Any detention shall be for as short a period as possible and only maintained as long as removalarrangements are in progress and executed with due diligence. See Art. 15 (1) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive).
4. For further information, see EMN: The use of detention and alternatives to detention in the context of immigration policies, 2014.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'detention' in UNESCO's 'People on the Move' Handbook
EU context: Art. 2(h) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive) and
Art. 26 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

Detention

Restriction on freedom of movement through confinement. It can either be criminal detention, having as a purpose punishment for a crime, or administrative detention, guaranteeing that another administrative procedure can be implemented.

detention centre

Please see entry for detention facility

detention facility
AT/DE/LU: Haftzentrum
BG: място за задържане
CS: zařízení pro zajištění cizinců
EE: kinnipidamisasutus
ES: centro de internamiento
FI: säilöönottolaitos
FR/BE/LU: centre de rétention
GR: χώρος κράτησης (κρατητήρια)
HU: őrzött szállás / fogda
IE: ionad coinneála
IT: struttura di trattenimento
LT: sulaikymo centras
LV: aizturēšanas telpa
MT: Ċentru / Faċilità ta' detenzjoni
NL/BE: inrichting voor vreemdelingenbewaring
NO: forvaringsleir
PL: ośrodek detencyjny
PT: centro de instalação temporária
RO: centru de cazare a străinilor luaţi în custodie publică
SE: förvarsanläggning
SI: objekt v katerem se izvaja omejitev gibanja / obejkt za pripor
SK: útvar policajného zaistenia pre cudzincov (national law) / zariadenie určené pre zaistenie cudzincov

In the global context, a specialised facility used for the detentionof third-country nationals in accordance with national law.

In the EU return context, a specialised facility to keep in detentiona third-country nationalwho is the subject of return procedures in order to prepare the return and/or carry out the removalprocess, in particular when:

  1. there is a risk of absconding; or
  2. the third-country national concerned avoids or hampers the preparation of returnor the removalprocess.



Synonym(s): detention centre

Broader Term: detention

Note:
Where a Member State cannot provide accommodation in a specialised detention facility and is obliged to resort to prison accommodation, the third-country nationals in detention shall be kept separated from ordinary prisoners.

Source:Global context: derived by EMN from Art. 16 of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
Return context: Art. 15 (1) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

determining asylum authority

Please see entry for determining authority

determining authority
AT/DE/LU: Asylbehörde
BG: решаващ орган
CS: rozhodující orgán
EE: tuvastav asutus
ES: autoridad decisoria de asilo
FI:  määrittävä turvapaikkaviranomainen
FR/BE/LU: autorité responsable de la détermination
GR: αποφαινόμενη αρχή για το καθεστώς του πρόσφυγα
HU: menedékjog iránti kérelem elbírálásáért felelős hatóság
IE: údarás cinntitheach
IT: autorità responsabile per il riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato
LT: prašymą nagrinėti ir sprendimą dėl prieglobsčio suteikimo priimti įgaliota institucija
LV: atbildīgā iestāde par patvēruma pieteikuma izskatīšanu
MT: Awtorità għat-teħid ta' deċiżjonijiet dwar l-ażil
NL/BE: asielbeslissingsautoriteit 
NO: asylmyndighet (b) / asylstyresmakt (n)
PL: organ rozpatrujący wniosek
PT: autoridade responsável pela decisão (asilo)
RO: autoritatea responsabilă cu examinarea cererii de azil
SE: beslutande myndighet
SI: organ odločanja
SK: rozhodujúci orgán zodpovedný za preskúmanie žiadosti o udelenie azylu

In the context of international protection, any quasi-judicial or administrative body in a Member State responsible for examining applications for international protection that is competent to take decisions at first instance in such cases.


Synonym(s): determining asylum authority

Related Term: case worker in procedures for international protection

Source:Art. 2(f) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directives)

Dialogue (5+5)
Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration
AT/DE/LU: Dialog über Transitmigration im Mittelmeerraum
BG: Диалог по Средиземно транзитната миграция
CS: Dialog o středomořské tranzitní migraci
EE: Vahemere transiitrände dialoog
ES: Diálogo sobre la Migración de Tránsito en el Mediterráneo
FI: Välimeren kauttakulkumuuttoa koskeva vuoropuhelu
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue sur la migration de transit en Méditerranée
HU: Párbeszéd a Mediterrán Tranzit Migrációról
IE:  Idirphlé maidir le hImirce Idirthurais trasna na Meánmhara
IT: Dialogo sulla Migrazione di Transito nel Mediterraneo
LT: Migracijos dialogas Viduržemio jūros regiono tranzitui
LV: Vidusjūras tranzīta migrācijas dialogs
MT: Djalogu fuq il-Migrazzjoni ta' Tranżitu fil-Mediterran
NL/BE: Dialoog rond Mediterrane transitmigratie
NO: Dialogen om transittmigrasjon i Middelhavet
PL: Dialog nt. migracji tranzytowych w regionie basenu Morza Śródziemnego
PT: Diálogo sobre migração de trânsito no Mediterrâneo
RO: Dialogul cu privire la migraţia de tranzit în zona Mediteranei
SE: No usual translation
SI: Dialog o sredozemskih tranzitnih migracijah
SK: Dialóg o tranzitnej migrácii v Stredomorí

An inter-regional intergovernmental consultative forum of migration officials in countries of origin, transitand destinationalong the migration routes in Africa, Europe and the Middle East with a focus on irregular and mixed migration, as well as on migration and development in the Mediterranean region and beyond, aiming to build common understandings and to jointly develop evidence-based comprehensive and sustainable migration management systems.


Synonym(s): MTM

Related Term: Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership, 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean, Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Global Forum on Migration and Development

Note:
1. The MTM Dialogue started in 2002 and involves numerous partcipants from Arab (APS) and European partner states (EPS) as well as seven international organisations.The International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) serves as its secretariat. Initially focusing on transit migration, the MTM extended its scope over the years to cover various aspects of migration management in the Mediterranean region and beyond.
2. The Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration is built on two pillars. The first one focuses on enhancing operational cooperation to combat irregular migration or, in other terms, on shorter-term measures to address irregular flows. The second pillar deals with a longer-term perspective by focusing on addressing the root causes of irregular flows through development cooperation and a better joint management of migration. These pillars are used as frameworks for the implementation of specific projects but cross-pillar projects are also put in place.

Source:Desciption of Mediterranean Transit Migration (MTM) on the website of ICMPD

Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean (5+5)
AT/DE/LU: 5+5 Dialog über Migration im Westlichen Mittelmeerraum
BG: 5+5 диалог по въпросите на миграцията в Западното Средиземноморие
CS: Dialog 5+5 o migraci v západním Středomoří
EE: 5 +5 Vahemere lääneosa rände dialoog
ES: Diálogo 5+5 sobre migración en el Mediterráneo Occidental
FI: 5+5-vuoropuhelu Välimeren länsiosan maiden välillä
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue 5+5 sur la migration en Méditerranée Occidentale
HU: 5+5 Nyugat- Mediterrán Migrációs Párbeszéd
IE: Idirphlé 5+5 maidir leis an Imirce i réigiún na Meánmhara Thiar
IT: Dialogo 5 +5 sulle Migrazioni nel Mediterraneo Occidentale
LT: Vakarų Viduržemio jūros regiono valstybių dialogas „5+5“ migracijos klausimais
LV: 5 + 5 Vidusjūras rietumu valstu dialogs par migrāciju
MT: Djalogu 5+5 fuq il-Migrazzjoni fil-Punent tal-Mediterran
NL/BE: 5 + 5 dialoog over migratie in het Westelijke Middellandsezeegebied
NO: 5+5-dialog om migrasjon i det vestre Middelhavet
PL: 5+5 Dialog na rzecz migracji w zachodniej części Morza Śródziemnego
PT: diálogo 5+5 para o Mediterrâneo ocidental
RO: 5+5 Dialog cu privire la migraţie în zona vest Mediteraneeană
SE: No usual translation
SI: 5 + 5 Dialog o migracijah v zahodnem Sredozemlju
SK: Dialóg 5+5 o migrácii v západnom Stredomorí

A trans-Mediterranean forum set up as a security initiative to secure closer cooperation between five EU Member States and five Arab Maghreb countries through political dialogue and economic cooperation, and by encouraging more efficient management of resources as a means of enhancing regional interdependence and development.


Synonym(s): 5+5 Dialogue, Western Mediterranean Forum

Broader Term: Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration, Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development , Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. The Western Mediterranean Forum, commonly referred to as the 5+5 Dialogue, was officially launched in Rome in 1990.
2. The forum involves ten partners (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, France, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain) and is facilitated by the IOM. Its areas of activity are information exchange, joint management of international borders, agreed forms of labour migration, migration for development, and protection of the rights of migrants in the Western Mediterranean region.
3. For more information see the website of the 5+5 Dialogue

 

Source:Website of the 5+5 Dialogue

diaspora
AT/DE/LU: Diaspora
BG: диаспора
CS: diaspora
EE: diasporaa
ES: diáspora
FI: diaspora
FR/BE/LU: diaspora
GR: διασπορά
HU: diaszpóra
IE: diaspóra
IT: diaspora
LT: diaspora
LV: diaspora
MT: Dijaspora
NL/BE: diaspora
NO: diaspora
PL: Diaspora
PT: diáspora
RO: diaspora
SE: diaspora
SI: diaspora
SK: diaspóra

Individuals and members of networks, associations and communities, who have left their country of origin, but maintain links with their homelands.

Related Term: circular migration





Note:
1. This concept covers more settled expatriate communities, migrant workers based abroad temporarily, expatriates with the nationality of the host country, dual nationals and second-/third-generation migrants.
2. It is a general term, with no legal definition, which can also cover Member State nationals (and immigrants) who feel strong connections to their origins.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011

Diaspora

Individuals and members or networks, associations and communities, who have left their country of origin, but maintain links with their homelands.

direct discrimination
AT/DE/LU: unmittelbare Diskriminierung
BG: пряка дискриминация
CS: přímá diskriminace
EE: otsene diskrimineerimine
ES: discriminación directa
FI: välitön syrjintä
FR/BE/LU: discrimination directe
GR: άμεση διάκριση
HU: közvetlen diszkrimináció
IE:  leithcheal díreach
IT: discriminazione diretta
LT: tiesioginė diskriminacija
LV: tieša diskriminācija
MT: Diskriminazzjoni diretta
NL/BE: directe discriminatie
NO: direkte diskriminering
PL: dyskryminacja bezpośrednia
PT: discriminação directa
RO: discriminare directă
SE: direkt diskriminering
SI: neposredna diskriminacija
SK: priama diskriminácia

A situation in which one person is treated less favourably than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation on grounds of racial or ethnic origin.


Related Term: principle of equal treatment

Source:Art. 2(a) of Council Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive)

Direct management

EU funding managed directly by the European Commission, such as in the fields of migration, asylum and borders.

displaced person
BG: задържан
CS: zajištěný cizinec
DE: Häftling
EE: kinnipeetav
EL: κρατουμένου
ES: detenido
FI: säilöön otettu
FR/BE/LU: personne retenue
HU: őrizetbevett (személy)
IE: cime
IT: pārcelta persona
LT: sulaikytasis
LV: aizturētais
MT: Detenut(a)
NL/BE: gedetineerde (vreemdelingenbewaring gestelde persoon (NL) or persoon in vasthouding / opgesloten persoon (BE) in case of return)
NO: innsatt (b) / innsett (n)
PL: osoba zatrzymana
PT: detido
SE: förvarstagen person
SI: pripornik
SK: zaistená osoba

In the EU context, a third-country nationalor stateless personwho has had to leave their country or region of origin, or has been evacuated, particularly in response to an appeal by international organisations, and is unable to return in safe and durable conditions because of the situation prevailing in that country, who may fall within the scope of Art. 1A of the Geneva Conventionor other international or national instruments giving international protection, in particular:

  1. a person who has fled areas of armed conflict or endemic violence;
  2. a person at serious risk of, or who has been the victim of, systematic or generalised violations of their human rights.


Narrower Term: environmentally displaced person, internally displaced person

Broader Term: forced migrant

Related Term: (civil) war refugee, displacementde facto refugee , refugee

Source:Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2001/55/EC (Temporary Protection Directive)

Displaced person

Non-EU nationals or stateless persons who have had to leave their country or region of origin or have been evacuated, in particular in response to an appeal by international organisations, and are unable to return in safe and durable conditions because of the situation prevailing in that country, who may fall within the scope of Article 1A of the Geneva Convention or other international or national instruments giving international protection, in particular:

  • persons who have fled areas of armed conflict or endemic violence,
  • persons at serious risk of, or who have been the victims of, systematic or generalised violations of their human rights.
Dormant data

Data in passive use. Access to such data is restricted.

Dormant database

Contains data that is in passive use and to which access is more restricted than to data in active use.

Drug consumption rooms

These are supervised drug consumption facilities, where illicit drugs can be used under the supervision of trained staff. These have been operating in Europe for the last three decades. These facilities primarily aim to reduce the acute risks of disease transmission through unhygienic injecting, prevent drug-related overdose deaths and connect high-risk drug users with addiction treatment and other health and social services.

Source:
Drug demand reduction

This term covers the policies and programmes which seek a reduction of the desire and preparedness to obtain and use illegal drugs. Demand for drugs may be reduced through prevention and education programmes, harm and risk reduction measures and treatment.

Drug legalisation

Refers to making an act lawful when previously it was prohibited. In the context of drugs, this usually refers to the removal of all criminal and non-criminal sanctions, although other regulations may limit the extent of the permission. This term is generally used in the context of drug supply.

Source:
Drug precursors

Drug precursors are chemicals that are primarily used for the legitimate production of a wide range of products, like pharmaceuticals, perfumes, plastics, cosmetics etc. However, they can also be misused for the illicit manufacture of drugs such as methamphetamines, heroin or cocaine. Taking into account the wide range of legitimate uses of drug precursors, their trade cannot be prohibited. Since the early nineties specific regulatory frameworks, both at international and at EU level, have been put in place to ensure that diversion of drug precursors is prevented through control of their legitimate trade at EU borders and in the internal market. The legislation aims to strike a balance between the necessary control to prevent diversion of drug precursors and allowing their legitimate trade without creating unnecessary administrative burdens.

Drug supply reduction

This term covers the range of measures and legal instruments to reduce the supply of illicit drugs. This includes the reduction of drug cultivation, production and trafficking of illicit drugs, the prevention of chemical precursors' diversion, drugs-related crime and the associated money laundering.

dual citizenship
AT/DE/LU: Doppelte Staatsangehörigkeit/ Staatsbürgerschaft, Doppelstaatigkeit
BG: двойно гражданство
CS: dvojí občanství
EE: topeltkodakondsus
ES: doble nacionalidad
FI: monikansalaisuus
FR/BE/LU: double nationalité
GR: διπλή ιθαγένεια
HU: állampolgárság (többes)
IE: déshaoránacht
IT: doppia cittadinanza
LT: kelių valstybių pilietybė
LV: dubultā pilsonība
MT: Ċittadinanza doppja
NL/BE: meervoudige nationaliteit (NL syn.: meervoudig staatsburgerschap)
NO: dobbelt statsborgerskap (b) / dobbel statsborgarskap (n)
PL: podwójne obywatelstwo
PT: dupla nacionalidade
RO: cetatenie dubla/multipla
SE: dubbelt medborgarskap
SI: dvojno državljanstvo
SK: dvojité štátne občianstvo / dvojitá štátna príslušnosť (dual citizenship) / viacnásobné štátne občianstvo / viacnásobná štátna príslušnosť (multiple citizenship)

The simultaneous possession of two or more citizenships by the same person.


Synonym(s): multiple citizenship, multiple nationality
Broader Term: citizenship

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2b of the European Convention on Nationality

Dublin Convention
BG: Дъблинска конвенция
CS: Dublinská úmluva
DE: Dubliner Übereinkommen
EE: Dublini konventsioon
EL: σύμβαση του Δουβλίνου
ES: Convenio de Dublín
FI: Dublinin yleissopimusFR/BE/LU: Convention de Dublin
HU: Dublini Egyezmény
IE: Coinbhinsiún Bhaile Átha Cliath
IT: Convenzione di Dublino
LT: Dublino konvencija
LV: Dublinas konvencija
MT: Konvenzjoni (Il-) ta' Dublin
NL/BE: Overeenkomst van Dublin
NO: Dublin-konvensjonen
PL: Konwencja Dublińska
PT: Convenção de Dublin
RO: Convenția Dublin
SE: Dublinkonventionen
SI: Dublinska konvencija
SK: Dublinský dohovor

Convention determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum lodged in one of the Member States of the European Union.


Related Term: Dublin procedure, Dublin Regulation, Dublin transfer, Eurodac, transfer order

Note:
1. The Dublin Convention was signed in Dublin, Ireland on 15 June 1990, and first came into force on 1 September 1997 for the first 12 signatories. The Treaty has been extended to other Member States and some countries outside the Union.
2. The Dublin Convention was replaced by Council Regulation No 343/2003 (Dublin II regulation). Its validity ended on 16 March 2003.

Source:Dublin Convention

Dublin Convention

Convention determining the EU State responsible for examining applications for asylum lodged in one of the EU States.

Dublin procedure
AT/DE/LU: Dublin-Verfahren
BG: Дъблинска процедура/ процедура за определяне на държавата членка, компетентна за разглеждането на молба за международна закрила
CS: dublinské řízení
EE: Dublini menetlus
EL: διαδικασία του Δουβλίνου
ES: Procedimiento de Dublin
FI: Dublin-menettely
FR/BE/LU: procédure de Dublin
HU: Dublini eljárás
IE: nós imeachta Bhaile Átha Cliath
IT: procedura Dublino
LT: procedūra pagal Dublino reglamentą
LV: Dublinas procedūra
MT: Proċedura (Il-) ta’ Dublin
NL/BE: Dublinprocedure
NO: Dublin-prosedyren
PL: procedura dublińska
PT: procedimento de Dublin
RO: procedura Dublin
SE: Dublinprocess
SI: Dublinski postopek
SK: dublinské konanie

The process of determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national under Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation).


Related Term: Dublin Convention, Dublin Regulation, Dublin transfer, Eurodac, transfer order

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 20 of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

Dublin Regulation
AT/DE/LU: Dublin-Verordnung
BG: Регламент Дъблин
CS: Dublinské nařízení
EE: Dublini määrus
ES: Reglamento de Dublín
FI: Dublin-asetus
FR/BE/LU: Règlement de Dublin
GR: Κανονισμός του Δουβλίνου
HU: dublini rendelet
IE: Rialachán Bhaile Átha Cliath
IT: Regolamento di Dublino
LT: Dublino reglamentas
LV: Dublinas regula
MT: Regolament (Ir-) ta' Dublin
NL/BE: Dublinverordening
NO: Dublin-forordningen (b) / Dublin-forordninga (n)
PL: Rozporządzenie Dublińskie
PT: Regulamento de Dublin
RO: Regulamentul Dublin
SE: Dublinförordningen
SI: Dublinska Uredba
SK: Dublinské nariadenie

Regulation which lays down the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protectionlodged in one of the Member States by a third-country nationalor a stateless person.



Related Term: asylum shopping, Dublin Convention, Dublin procedure, Dublin transfer, Eurodac, transfer order

Source:Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

Dublin Regulation

Lays down the criteria and mechanisms for determining the EU State responsible for examining an application for asylum lodged in one of the EU States by a non-EU national.

Dublin transfer
BG: Трансфер по Дъблин/ прехвърляне съгласно Регламента Дъблин
CS: transfer podle Dublinského nařízení
DE: a) Übertragung der Zuständigkeit b) Dublin-Überstellung
EE: Dublini üleandmine
EL: Δουβλίνου μεταφοράς
FI: Dublinin asetuksen mukainen siirto
FR/BE/LU: Transfert Dublin
HU: dublini transzfer
IE: aistriú Bhaile Átha Cliath
IT: trasferimento degli obblighi dello Stato competente nella procedura Dublino
LT: perdavimas pagal Dublino reglamentą
LV: personas pārsūtīšana Dublinas regulas ietvaros
MT: Trasferiment skont il-proċedura ta' Dublin
NL/BE: Dublinoverdracht
NO: Dublin-overføring (av ansvar)
PL: przekazanie dublińskie
PT: transferência de Dublin
SE: Dublinöverföring
SI: Dublinski transfer / Dublinski prenos
SK: dublinský transfer
  1. The transfer of responsibility for the examination of the merits of an application for international protection from one Member State to another Member State
  2. The (physical) transfer of an applicant to the Member State who is considered to be responsible for examining the merits of an application following a Dublin procedure.

Narrower Term: transfer order

Related Term: Dublin Convention, Dublin procedure, Dublin Regulation 

Note:
1. The determination of the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application is done on the basis of objective and hierarchical criteria, as laid out in Chapter III of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation).
2. For more information on the Dublin Regulation, see the description of policy on the examination of applications for asylum on the DG HOME website

Source:

  1. Derived by EMN from Art. 17(2) and 19(1) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) Source
  2. Derived by EMN from Art. 29 of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)
durable solutions
AT/DE/LU: dauerhafte Lösung
BG: трайни решения
CS: trvalé řešení
EE: püsivad lahendused
EL: ανθεκτική λύση
ES: soluciones duraderas
FI: kestävät ratkaisut
FR/BE/LU: solutions durables
HU: a fenntarthatóságot szolgáló intézkedések
IE: buanréitigh; réitigh mharthanacha (uatha: buanréiteach; réiteach marthanach)
IT: soluzione durevole
LT: ilgalaikiai sprendimai
LV: ilgtspējīgi risinājumi
MT: Soluzzjonijiet dewwiema / li jibqgħu fis-seħħ
NL/BE: duurzame oplossing
NO: varige løsninger (b) / varige løysingar (n)
PL: trwałe rozwiązania
PT: soluções duradouras
RO: solutii durabile
SE: hållbara lösningar
SI: trajne rešitve
SK: trvalé riešenia / trvácne riešenia

Any means by which the situation of refugees can be satisfactorily and permanently resolved to enable them to live normal lives.


Related Term: resettlement

Note:
The UNHCR traditionally pursues the durable solutions of voluntary repatriation, local integration and resettlement.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

EAP

Please see entry for Eastern Partnership

EASO

Please see entry for European Asylum Support Office

Eastern Partnership
AT/DE/LU: Östliche Partnerschaft
BG: Източно партньорство
CS: Východní partnerství
EE: idapartnerlus
EL: Aνατολική Εταιρική Σχέση
ES: Asociación Oriental
FI: itäinen kumppanuus
FR/BE/LU: Partenariat Oriental
HU: Keleti Partnerség
IE: Comhpháirtíocht an Oirthir
IT: Partenariato Orientale
LT: Rytų partnerystė
LV: Austrumu partnerība
MT: Sħubija mal-Lvant
NL/BE: Oostelijk Partnerschap
NO: Det østlige partnerskapet (b) / Det austlege partnarskapet (n)
PL: Partnerstwo Wschodnie
PT: parceria oriental
RO: Parteneriatul Estic
SE: Östra partnerskapet
SI: Vzhodno partnerstvo
SK: Východné partnerstvo

An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation with its Eastern neighbours whose main goal is to create the necessary conditions to accelerate political association and further economic integration.


Synonym(s): EAP, Söderköping Process

Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy

Related Term: Black Sea synergy, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Note:
1.Within the context of the Eastern Partnership Platform 1 (democracy, good governance and stability), the Eastern Partnership Panel on Migration and Asylum (EaP) was created in 2011. The overall objective of the Panel is to strengthen the asylum and migration systems of Eastern partners and advance the dialogue on migration and asylum issues between the Eastern partners and the EU, as well as amongst the Eastern partners.
2. The precursor of the EaP was the Söderköping Process, which was launched in May 2001 as a cross-border cooperation on asylum and migration in order to respond to new challenges due to the EU's enlargement eastwards. With the establishment of the Panel on Migration and Asylum within the Eastern Partnership’s Platform 1, the work of the Söderköping Process is being carried on within the multilateral dimension of the Eastern Partnership.
3. For more information, see the website of the EAP.

Source:Website of the European Neighbourhood Policy

ECHR
economic migrant
AT/DE/LU: Migrant aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen, Wirtschaftsmigrant
BG: иконимически мигрант
CS: ekonomický migrant
EE: majandusmigrant
ES: persona migrante por motivos económicos
FI: taloudellisten syiden vuoksi muuttava henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant économique
GR: οικονομικός μετανάστης
HU: gazdasági migráns
IE: imirceach eacnamaíoch
IT: migrante economico
LT: ekonominis migrantas
LV: ekonomiskais migrants
MT: Migrant(a) għal raġunijiet ekonomiċi
NL/BE: economische migrant
NO: økonomisk migrant
PL: migrant ekonomiczny
PT: migrante económico
RO: migrant economic
SE: ekonomisk migrant
SI: ekonomski migrant
SK: ekonomický migrant

A person who leaves their country of origin purely for economic reasons that are not in any way related to the refugee definition, in order to seek material improvements in their livelihood.


Synonym(s): economic refugee

Narrower Term: guest worker migrant worker

Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: economic migration, managed migration

Note:
1. Economic migrants do not fall within the criteria for refugee statusand are therefore not entitled to benefit from international protectionas refugees.
2. Economic migrants are sometimes referred to as economic refugees, but this is a misuse of the term 'refugee'.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

economic migration
AT/DE/LU:  Wirtschaftsmigration, Migration aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen
BG: икономическа миграция
CS: ekonomická migrace
EE: majandusränne
ES:  migración económica
FI: taloudellisista syistä tapahtuva maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration économique
GR:  οικονομική μετανάστευση
HU: gazdasági (célú) migráció
IE:  imirce eacnamaíoch
IT: migrazione economica
LT: ekonominė migracija
LV: ekonomiskā migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni għal raġunijiet ekonomiċi
NL/BE: economische migratie
NO: økonomisk migrasjon
PL: migracja ekonomiczna
PT: migração económica
RO:  migraţie economică
SE: ekonomisk migration
SI: ekonomska migracija
SK: ekonomická migrácia

Migration mainly for economic reasons or in order to seek material improvements to livelihood.


Narrower Term: labour migrationBroader Term: Migration

Related Term: economic migrant, forced migration, managed migration

Source: Developed by EMN

economic refugee

Please see entry for economic migrant

Ectasy (or MDMA)

MDMA is a synthetic substance commonly known as ecstasy, although the latter term has now been generalised to cover a wide range of other substances. Although proposed as an aid to psychiatric counselling, therapeutic use is extremely limited. Illicit MDMA is normally seen as tablets, many of which are manufactured in Europe. It acts as a central nervous system stimulant and has a weak hallucinogenic property more accurately described as increased sensory awareness. MDMA is under international control.

Source:
EEA national

Please see entry for third-country national

Electronic evidence

Electronic evidence (or digital evidence, or digital intelligence) is all material that exists in electronic or digital form by which facts relevant to the guilt or innocence of an individual at trial in relation to a criminal offence are established, including information used for the identification of users of an electronic communications service or an information society service, information in relation to the use of such services or the content of such services.

emergency response system
AT/DE/LU: Notfallsystem; Notfallklausel (EU acquis)
BG: система за реакция при кризи
CS: systém reakce na mimořádné události
FI: hätäapujärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: mécanisme d'intervention d'urgence
HU: válságreagálási mechanizmus
IT: sistema di risposta all’emergenza
IE: córas freagartha éigeandála
LV: ārkārtas reaģēšanas sistēma
PL: mechanizm interwencji kryzysowej
SE: Nödsituationssystem (Provisoriska åtgärder i en nödsituation med plötslig tillströmning av medborgare från tredjeländer)
SK: systém núdzovej pripravenosti
SL: Sistem odzivanja na izredne razmere
NO: nødinnsatssystem

Provisional measures in the event of  Member State(s) being confronted with an emergency situation characterised by a sudden inflow of third-country nationals  including a distribution mechanism for asylum-seekers in clear need of international protection to ensure a fair and balanced participation of all Member States. 

Synonym(s): emergency relocation

Narrower Term: emergency relocation system, contingency plan

Related Term: relocation

Note: 

1. These provisional measures are envisaged under Art.78 (3) of the Treaty of the European Union.
2. Under the distribution mechanism the receiving Member State will be responsible for the examination of an application for international protection in accordance with established rules and guarantees. The EU Commission has defined a redistribution key based on criteria such as GDP, size of population, unemployment rate and
past numbers of asylum seekers.
3. EASO uses the term ‘contingency plan’ to refer to national plans detailing special measures to be taken in the event of a massive influx of migrants. This may be limited to the national asylum system or to migrants more generally.
4. Art. 33 of the Dublin Regulation provides for two types of Member State emergency responses: “preventative action plans”, which should be operationalised when particular pressure on a Member State’s asylum system and/or problems in its functioning may jeopardise the application of the Dublin Regulation, and 'crisis management action plans', which should be operationalised if the 'preventative action plan' does not remedy the problem.

 

Source: 

Derived by EMN from Art. 78(3) TFEU and the European Agenda on Migration: Glossary, facts and figures

 

emigrant
AT/DE/LU: Abwanderer, Auswanderer, Emigrant
BG: емигрант
CS: vystěhovalec; emigrant
EE: väljarändaja
ES: emigrante
FI: maastamuuttaja/maastamuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: émigrant 
GR: απόδημος/ μετανάστης
HU: emigráns
IE: eisimirceach
IT: emigrante
LT: emigrantas
LV: emigrants
MT: Emigrant(a)
NL/BE: emigrant
NO: utvandrer
PL: emigrant
PT: emigrante
RO: emigrant
SE: utvandrare
SI: izseljenec /emigrant
SK: vysťahovalec (national law) / emigrant

In the global context, a resident (national or alien) departing or exiting from one State intending to remain abroad for a period exceeding one year.

In the EU context, a person who, having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.


Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: immigrant, emigration

Note:
National legislation might understand different time limits in their definitions.

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(c) and (g) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

emigration
AT/DE/LU: Abwanderung, Auswanderung, Emigration
BG: емиграция
CS: vystěhovalectví; emigrace
EE: väljaränne
ES: emigración
FI: maastamuutto
FR/BE/LU: émigration
GR: αποδημία/ μετανάστευση
HU: emigráció/ kivándorlás
IE: eisimirce
IT: emigrazione
LT: emigracija
LV: emigrācija
MT: Emigrazzjoni
NL/BE: emigratie
NO: utvandring
PL: emigracja
PT: emigração
RO: emigraţie
SE: utvandring
SI: izselitev /emigracija
SK: vysťahovalectvo (national law) / emigrácia

In the global context, the act of departing or exiting from one State with the intention to remain abroad for a period exceeding one year.

In the EU context, the action by which a person, having previously been usually resident in the territory of a Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in that Member State or another Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.


Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: emigrant, immigration

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(c) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

EMN

Please see entry for European Migration Network

employee
AT/DE/LU: Arbeitnehmer
BG: работник
CS: zaměstnanec
EE: töötaja
ES: empleado
FI: työntekijä
FR/BE/LU: salarié
GR:  εργαζόμενος; υπάλληλος
HU: alkalmazott / munkavállaló
IE: fostaí
IT: lavoratore dipendente
LT: darbuotojas
LV: darba ņēmējs / darbinieks
MT: Impjegat(a)
NL/BE: werknemer
NO: ansatt (b) / tilsett (n)
PL: pracownik
PT: empregado
RO: angajat
SE: anställd
SI: zaposleni / delavec
SK: zamestnanec

Worker holding an explicit or implicit employment contract, which gives them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.


Related Term: employer, employment , self-employed person

Source:ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008

employer
AT/DE/LU: Arbeitgeber
BG: работодател
CS: zaměstnavatel
EE: tööandja
ES: empleador
FI: työnantaja
FR/BE/LU: employeur
GR: εργοδότης
HU: munkáltató
IE: fostóir
IT: datore di lavoro
LT: darbdavys
LV: darba devējs
MT: Min iħaddem // Min jimpjega
NL/BE: werkgever
NO: arbeidsgiver (b) / arbeidsgjevar (n)
PL: pracodawca
PT: empregador
RO: angajator
SE: arbetsgivare
SI: delodajalec
SK: zamestnávateľ

Any natural person or any legal entity, including temporary work agencies, for or under the direction and/or supervision of whom the employment is undertaken.


Related Term: Employee, employment

Source:Art. 2(e) of Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

employer sanction
AT/DE/LU: Arbeitgebersanktion, Sanktion gegen einen Arbeitgeber
BG: санкция на работодателя
CS: sankce vůči zaměstnavateli
EE: sanktsioonid tööandjale
EL: κυρώσεις κατά των εργοδοτών
ES: sanción al empleador
FI: työnantajalle määrättävä seuraamus
FR/BE/LU: sanction à l'encontre d'un employeur
HU: munkáltatók elleni szankciók
IE: smachtbhanna in aghaidh fostóra
IT: sanzione nei confronti del datore di lavoro
LT: sankcijos darbdaviui
LV: darba devējam piemērojamās sankcijas
MT: Sanzjoni fuq min iħaddem/jimpjega
NL/BE: sancties tegen werkgevers
NO: sanksjon mot arbeidsgiver (b) / sanksjon mot arbeidsgjevar (n)
PL: sankcja wobec pracodawcy
PT: sanção ao empregadorRO: sancţiune aplicată angajatorului
SE: sanktion mot arbetsgivare
SI: sankcije zoper delodajalca
SK: sankcie voči zamestnávateľovi

In the context of migration, penalties, including fines, repayments to victims/the State and incarceration, imposed on employers by the Member State for breaking employment and/or migration rules.

Related Term: illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 5 and 7 of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employers Sanctions Directive)

employment
AT/DE/LU: Beschäftigung
BG: заетост
CS: zaměstnání
EE: töötamine
EL: πρόσληψη/ εργασία
ES: empleo
FI: työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi
HU: foglalkoztatás
IE: fostaíocht
IT: lavoro
LT: darbas/užimtumas
LV: nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg
NL/BE: tewerkstelling
NO: sysselsetting (b) / sysselsetjing (n)
PL: zatrudnienie
PT: emprego
RO: angajare
SE: anställning
SI: zaposlitev
SK: zamestnanie

The exercise of activities covering whatever form of labour or work regulated under national law or in accordance with established practice for or under the direction and/or supervision of an employer.


Related Term: Employee, employer , occupation

Source:Art. 2 (c) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

Employment

The exercise of activities covering whatever form of labour or work regulated under national law or in accordance with established practice for or under the direction and/or supervision of an employer.

enforcement measure
AT/DE/LU: Vollstreckungsmaßnahme
BG: принудителна мярка
CS: výkon rozhodnutí/výkonné opatření
EE: sunnimeede
ES: medida de ejecución
FI: täytäntöönpanotoimenpide
FR/BE/LU: mesure d’exécution
GR: μέτρο εκτέλεσης; μέτρο επιβολής
HU: végrehajtási intézkedés
IE: beart forfheidhmiúcháin
IT: misura di esecuzione
LT: vykdymo priemonė
LV: izpildes pasākums
MT: Miżura ta' infurzar
NL/BE: uitvoeringsmaatregel
NO: iverksettelsestiltak (b) / iverksetjingstiltak (n)
PL: środek wykonawczy
PT: medida de execução
RO: măsură de aplicare
SE: verkställighetsåtgärd
SI: ukrep za uveljavitev / ukrep za izvršitev
SK: vykonávacie opatrenie

Any measure taken by the enforcing Member State with a view to implementing an expulsion decision.


Related Term: expulsion, expulsion decision

Note:In IE and UK, this phrase is used in a more global sense for all forms of removal. For example, for UK, this refers to any action that is taken to enable the implementation of the immigration law.

 

Source:Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)

ENP

Please see entry for European Neighbourhood Policy

Entry

Any entrance of a person from one country to another, whether voluntary or involuntary, authorised or unauthorised.

entry ban
AT/DE/LU: Einreiseverbot
BG: забрана за влизане
CS: zákaz vstupu
EE: sissesõidukeeld
ES: prohibición de entrada
FI: maahantulokielto
FR/BE/LU: interdiction du territoire
GR: απαγόρευση εισόδου
HU: beutazási tilalom
IE:  toirmeasc ar iontráil
IT: divieto di ingresso
LT: draudimas atvykti
LV: ieceļošanas aizliegums
MT: Dħul miżmum // Inibizzjoni fuq id-dħul
NL/BE: inreisverbod
NO: innreiseforbud (b) / innreiseforbod (n)
PL: zakaz wjazdu
PT: interdição de entrada
RO: interdicţie de intrare
SE: inreseförbud
SI: prepoved vstopa
SK: zákaz vstupu

An administrative or judicial decision or act prohibiting entry into and stay in the territory of the Member States for a specified period, accompanying a return decision.


Synonym(s): re-entry ban

Source:Art. 3(6) of Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

Entry/Exit System (EES)

On 6 April 2016, COM submitted a revised proposal for a Regulation establishing an Entry/Exit System  (COM (2016) 194 final) and a proposed amendment to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the technical changes needed for the Entry-Exit System (COM (2016) 196 final). According to the proposal, the EES should apply to third-country nationals, both visa-required and visa-exempt travellers, admitted for a short stay (maximum 90 days in any 180 day period) in the Schengen area. The EES should collect data (identity and travel document) and register entry and exit records (date and place of entry and exit) with a view to facilitating the border crossing of bona fide travellers at the same time as being able to identify overstayers. The EES will also record refusals of entry. The EES will replace the current system of manual stamping of passports.

environmental refugee

Please see entry for environmentally-displaced person

environmentally displaced person
AT/DE/LU: Umweltvertriebener
BG: разселено лице по екологични причини
CS: environmentální uprchlík
EE: keskkonnapõhjustel ümberasustatud isik
EL: εσωτερικώς εκτοπισμένο άτομο (για περιβαλλοντικούςλόγους)
ES: población desplazada por motivos medioambientales
FI: ympäristötekijöiden vuoksi siirtymään joutunut
FR/BE/LU: personne déplacée pour des raisons environnementales
GR: εσωτερικώς εκτοπισμένο άτομο (για περιβαλλοντικούς λόγους)
HU: lakóhelyét környezeti okból elhagyni kényszerült személy
IE: duine easáitithe ar chúiseanna timpeallachta
IT: sfollato per motivi ambientali
LT: perkeltasis asmuo dėl ekologinių priežasčių
LV: vides faktoru ietekmē pārvietota persona
MT: Persuna sfollata għal raġunijiet ambjentali
NL/BE: door milieufactoren verdreven ontheemde (not commonly used in NL)
NO: person fordrevet på grunn av miljøskader (b) / person fordriven på grunn av miljøskadar (n)
PL: osoba przesiedlona z powodu środowiska naturalnego,
PT: deslocado ambiental
RO: persoană strămutată din cauze legate de mediul înconjurător
SE: fördriven person (på grund av miljökatastrof)
SI: okoljsko razseljena oseba
SK: osoba vysídlená z environmentálnych dôvodov

A person subject to forced migrationas a result of sudden, drastic environmental changes.


Synonym(s): environmental refugee, environmentally-driven migrant

Broader Term: displaced person

Related Term: internally displaced person


Note:
Environmentally displaced persons are sometimes referred to as environmental refugees, but this is a misuse of the term 'refugee' as they are not refugees in the strict sense of Art. 1A of the Geneva Convention of 1951, although their migration is forced.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition for 'environmental refugee' in the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology

environmentally-driven migrant

Please see entry for environmentally displaced person

equal opportunities

Please see entry for principle of equal treatment

ethnic cleansing
AT/DE/LU: ethnische Säuberung
BG: етничеко прочистване
CS: etnická čistka
EE: etniline puhastus
ES:  limpieza étnica
FI: etninen puhdistus
FR/BE/LU: nettoyage ethnique
GR: εθνική εκκαθάριση
HU: etnikai tisztogatás
IE: glanadh eitneach
IT:  pulizia etnica
LT: etninis valymas
LV: etniskā tīrīšana
MT: Tindif etniku
NL/BE: etnische zuivering
NO: etnisk rensing (b) / etnisk reinsing (n)
PL: czystki etniczne
PT: limpeza étnica
RO: purificare etnică
SE: etnisk rensning
SI: etnično čiščenje
SK:  etnické čistky

Rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group, which is contrary to international law.


Related Term: genocide

Note:
1. General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to 'the abhorrent policy of "ethnic cleansing"'.
2. Trial Chamber Judgment of 2 August 2001 of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562) has observed, while "there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as 'ethnic cleansing'", yet "[a]" clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide".
3. These legal documents thus state that crimes committed during an ethnic cleansing are similar to those of genocide, but while genocide includes an intent at complete or partial destruction of the target group, ethnic cleansing may involve murder only to the point of mobilising the target group out of the territory. Hence, there may be varied degrees of mass murder in an ethnic cleansing, often subsiding when the target group appears to be leaving the desired territory, while during genocide the mass murder is ubiquitous and constant throughout the process, continuing even while the target group tries to flee.

Source:UN Security Council: Final Report of the Commission of Experts established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)

ethnic nationality
AT/DE/LU: ethnische Zugehörigkeit
BG: етническа националност
CS: národnost
EE: rahvus
ES: origen étnico
FI: etninen tausta
FR/BE/LU: origine ethnique
GR: εθνικότητα
HU: nemzetiség
IE: náisiúntacht eitneach
IT: nazionalità etnica
LT: tautybė/etninė kilmė
LV: tautība
MT: Nazzjonalità etnika
NL/BE: etniciteit (syn.: etnische achtergrond, etnische afkomst)
NO: etnisk tilhørighet (b) / etnisk tilhøyrsle (n)
PL: narodowość etniczna
PT: origem étnica
RO: naţionalitate/ origine etnică
SE: tillhörighet till etnisk grupp
SI: nacionalna pripadnost / etnična pripadnost
SK: národnosť

A synonym of ethnicity or nationality, used in some Member States in addition to citizenship.


Synonym(s): ethnicity, nationality

Related Term: citizenship, minority

Note:
1. Ethnic nationality is often a self-declared adhesion to a specific ethnic group and this information is collected at a census but also sometimes in administrative registration.
2. This concept should not be confused with citizenship.

Source:Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration (THESIM) project

ethnicity

Please see entry for ethnic nationality

EU acquis
AT/DE/LU: EU-Besitzstand
BG: право на Общността
CS: EU acquis
EE: Euroopa Liidu õigustik
ES: acervo comunitario
FI: säännöstö
FR/BE/LU: acquis
HU: Közösségi vívmányok
IE: acquis (fágtha sa Laidin Fhraincis i leaganacha Gaeilge de reachtaíocht na hEorpa)
IT: acquis
LT: acquis
LV: acquis
MT: Acquis (L-) Komunitarju
NL/BE: gemeenschapsrecht
NO: rettsregler (b) / rettsreglar (n)
PL: acquis (no usual translation)
RO: acquis a UE
SE: unionens regelverk
SI: acquis
SK: právo Európskej únie / právo EÚ (national law) / acquis EÚ / súbor právnych predpisov EÚ

The body of common rights and obligations that is binding on all EU Member States and that is constantly evolving, which comprises:

  • the content, principles and political objectives of the Treaties;
  • legislation adopted pursuant to the Treaties and the case law of the Court of Justice;
  • declarations and resolutions adopted by the Union;
  • instruments under the Common Foreign and Security Policy;
  • instruments under Justice and Home Affairs;
  • international agreements concluded by the European Union and those entered into by its Member States among themselves within the sphere of the Union's activities.


Synonym(s): acquis
Narrower Term: asylum acquis

Note:
The term is used in the context of asylum and migration and refers to all rights and obligations that are binding on EU Member States with regard to asylum and migration.

Source:DG Home e-Library Glossary

EU agency

There are two broad types of agency, each with different characteristics and raising different issues. "Regulatory" or "traditional" agencies have a variety of specific roles, set out in their own legal basis, case-by-case (e.g. European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders - FRONTEX). Executive agencies are set up under a Council regulation adopted in 2002 with the much more narrowly defined task of helping to manage EU programmes (e.g. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency - EACEA).

EU Blue Card

The authorisation bearing the term 'EU Blue Card' which entitles its holder to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).

EU Blue Card
AT/DE/LU: Blaue Karte EU
BG: синя карта на ЕС
CS: Modrá karta EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sinine kaart
ES: tarjeta azul UE
FI: EU:n sininen kortti
FR/BE/LU: Carte bleue européenne
GR: μπλε κάρτα Ε.Ε.
HU: EU kék kártya
IE: cárta gorm an AE
IT: Carta Blu UE
LT: ES mėlynoji kortelė
LV: ES zilā karte
MT: Karta (Il-) Blu tal-UE
NL/BE: Europese blauwe kaart (syn. "Blue Card")
NO: EU-blåkort
PL: Niebieska Karta UE
PT:  cartão azul UE
RO: Cartea Albastră a UE
SE: EU-blåkort
SI: EU Modra karta
SK: modrá karta Európskej únie (national law) / modrá karta EÚ

The authorisation bearing the term 'EU Blue Card' entitles its holder to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).


Related Term: highly qualified employment, highly qualified migrant, residence permit

Source:Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

EU Blue Card holder
AT/DE/LU: Inhaber einer Blauen Karte EU
BG: притежател на синя карта на ЕС
CS: držitel modré karty EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sinise kaardi omanik
ES: titular de la Tarjete Azul
FI: EU:n sinisen kortin haltija
FR/BE/LU: titulaire d'une carte bleue européenne
HU: EU Kék Kártya tulajdonos
IE: sealbhóir chárta gorm an AE
IT: titolare di Carta Blu UE
LT: ES mėlynosios kortelės turėtojas
LV: ES zilās kartes turētājs
MT: Portatur(-triċ) (Il-) tal-Karta Blu tal-UE
NL/BE: houder van een Europese Blauwe Kaart
NO: innehaver av EU-blåkort (b) / innehavar av EU-blåkort (n)
PL: posiadacz Niebieskiej Karty UE
RO: posesorul Cărţii Albastre a UE
SE: innehavare av EU-blåkort
SI: imetnik EU Modre karte
SK: držiteľ modrej karty Európskej únie / držiteľ modrej karty EÚ

A third-country nationalwho has acquired the authorisation bearing the term ‘EU Blue Card’ entitling them to reside and work in the territory of a Member State under the terms of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive).

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 2(c) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

EU citizen

Please see entry for union citizen

EU Drugs Action Plan

The EU Drugs Strategy is accompanied by the EU Action Plan on Drugs, which operationalises the concepts and principles set out in the EU Drugs Strategy and helps implement the actions that aim at drug demand and supply reduction. The current Action Plan covers the period 2013-2016.

EU Drugs Strategy

The European Union and the Member States have developed together, over the past two decades, a European approach to addressing drugs sustainably. This approach is enshrined in the EU Drugs Strategies. The current Strategy covers the period  2013-2020 and it is accompanied by the EU Action plan on drugs (most recent covering the period 2013-16).

The Strategy is structured around two policy areas: drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction, and three cross-cutting themes: (a) coordination, (b) international cooperation and (c) research, information, monitoring and evaluation.

In 2015 the Commission adopted a report on progress in the EU's 2013-2020 Drugs Strategy and 2013-2016 Action Plan on Drugs. In 2016, with the support of an external contractor, it will conduct a fully-fledged mid-term assessment of the Strategy that will look at the outputs of the Strategy and their impact.

EU Immigration Portal
AT/DE/LU: EU-Zuwanderungsportal
BG: Имиграционен портал на ЕС
CS: Imigrační portál EU
EE: EL sisserändeportaal
ES: Portal de la Inmigración de la UE
FI: EU:n maahanmuuttoportaali
FR/BE/LU: Portail de l'UE sur l'immigration
GR: Διαδικτυακή Πύλη της ΕΕ για τη Μετανάστευση
HU: uniós bevándorlási portált
IE: Tairseach Inimirce an AE
IT: Portale europeo dell'immigrazione
LT: ES imigracijos portalas
LV: ES Imigrācijas portāls
MT: Portal (Il-) tal-UE dwar l-Immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: EU-portaalsite over immigratie
NO: Informasjonsportal om innvandring til EUs medlemsland
PL: Portal Imigracyjny UE
PT: Portal da Imigração da UE
RO: Portalul UE privind imigrația
SE: EU:s invandringsportal
SI: EU Portal o priseljevanju
SK: Imigračný portál EÚ

A website with hands-on information for foreign nationals interested in moving to the EU acting as a first point of entry. It provides up-to-date, practical information on EU and national immigration procedures and policies.


Synonym(s): EUIP

Broader Term: immigration

Related Term: European Migration Network, European Website on Integration

Note:
1. The EU Immigration Portal was launched in November 2011 (see European Commission Press Release IP/11/1370 of 18 November 2011).
2. The website can be accessed at: http://ec.europa.eu/immigration/

Source: Developed by the EMN

EU mobility

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

EU Policy Cycle

The EU Policy Cycle for organised and serious international crime was adopted on 25 October 2010. It is a multi-annual intelligence-led process aimed at tackling jointly the most important criminal threats affecting the EU. The Policy Cycle focuses on enhancing effective operational cooperation between Member States law enforcement authorities (police, customs, judiciary), EU Institutions, EU Agencies such as Europol and relevant third parties. Every four years the Serious and Organized Crime Threat Assessment (EU SOCTA), developed by Europol, delivers a set of recommendations based on an in-depth analysis of the major crime threats facing the EU. Based on these recommendations, Justice and Home Affairs Ministers define priorities, which then serve to draft strategic goals and yearly operational action plans.

The current cycle 2013-2017 includes nine priorities (synthetic drugs, cocaine and heroin trafficking, illegal Immigration, trafficking in human beings, excise and MTIC fraud, cybercrime, counterfeit goods, firearms and organised property crime) and some of them have potential links to terrorism (for instance firearms, illegal immigration, or drugs). The implementation of the EU Policy cycle is financially supported by the Commission

EU-LAC Structured Dialogue on Migration
AT/DE/LU: Strukturierter Dialog über Migrationsfragen zwischen der EU und den Ländern Lateinamerikas und der Karibik
BG: Структурен диалог по въпросите на миграцията между ЕС и страните от Латинска Америка
CS: Strukturální dialog o migraci mezi EU a Latinskou Amerikou
EE: (EL ja Lõuna-Ameerika ning Kariibi) või EL ja LAC rände struktureeritud dialoog
ES: Diálogo estructurado UE-ALC sobre migración
FI: EU:n ja Latinalaisen Amerikan ja Karibian maiden välinen rakenteellinen vuoropuhelu muuttoliikkeestä
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue structuré sur les migrations entre l'UE et les pays d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (ALC)
HU: EU-LAC strukturális migrációs párbeszéd
IE: Idirphlé Struchtúrtha idir an AE agus tíortha Mheiriceá Laidinigh agus Mhuir Chairib (MLC) maidir leis an Imirce
IT: Dialogo strutturato UE-ALC sulla migrazione
LT: ES-Lotynų Amerikos ir Karibų jūros regiono valstybių struktūrinis dialogas migracijos klausimais
LV: Eiropas Savienības, Latīņamerikas un Karību jūras reģiona valstu strukturēts dialogs par migrāciju
MT: Djalogu Strutturat fuq il-Migrazzjoni - UE u ALK
NL/BE: EU-LAC gestructureerde dialoog over migratie
NO: EU–LACs strukturerte dialog om migrasjon
PL: EU-LAC Strukturalny dialog na rzecz migracji
PT:  diálogo estruturado sobre migrações EU-ALC
RO: dialogul structurat cu privire la migraţie EU-LAC
SE: EU-LAC strukturerad dialog om migration
SI: EU - LAC Strukturni dialog o migracijah
SK: Štruktúrovaný dialóg EÚ - Latinská Amerika a Karibik o migrácii

A forum for the identification of common challenges and areas for mutual cooperation, as well as building a stronger evidence base for EU-LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean) migration in order to better understand its realities, based on the principle of shared responsibility, strengthening the commitment and willingness of both sides to discuss migration issues.


Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. In June 2009, the European Union and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) formally launched the Structured and Comprehensive bi-regional Dialogue on Migration.
2. In the framework of the Dialogue, parties will exchange views in the following main areas: link between migration and development; regular migration and irregular migration; migration and the issue of human rights, including protection of migrants in accordance with international obligations; the fight against all forms of discrimination, racism and xenophobia; legislative and administrative measures applicable to migrants in an irregular situation; issues related to return on a dignified basis and voluntary return; measures to combat trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, and the prevention of document fraud.
3. For more information, see the website of the EU-LAC Dialogue

Source:European Council Press Release on launching of EU-LAC dialogue

EU-Lisa

Is the European Agency for the Operational Management of large-scale IT Systems in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (eu-LISA) providing a long-term solution for the operational management of large-scale IT systems, which are essential instruments in the implementation of the asylum, border management and migration policies of the EU. The Agency was established in 2011 (through Regulation (EU) No 1077/2011) and it started its activities on 1 December 2012. The headquarters of eu-LISA are based in Tallinn, Estonia, whilst its operational centre is in Strasbourg, France. There is also a business continuity site for the systems under management based in Sankt Johann im Pongau, Austria.

 

The Agency is currently managing EURODAC, the Visa Information System (VIS) and second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II). In relation to the IT systems under its responsibility, eu-LISA is also responsible for adopting the necessary security measures, ensuring data security and compliance with data protection rules, reporting and publication of statistics, monitoring of research, training and information and communication. Subject to the adoption of relevant legal instruments, eu-LISA may also be made responsible for the preparation, development and operational management of other large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (for ex EES).

 

Source:
EUIP

Please see entry for EU Immigration Portal

Eurasil
AT/DE/LU: Netzwerk für Asylpraktiker der Europäischen Union (Eurasil)
BG: Евроазил
CS: Eurasil
EE: Eurasil
ES: Eurasil
FI: Eurasil
FR/BE/LU: Eurasil
GR: Ομάδα στο πλαίσιο της Ε.Επιτροπής για την ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών για τις χώρες καταγωγής αιτούντων άσυλο
HU: Eurasil
IE: Eurasil
IT: Eurasil
LT: Eurasil
LV: Eurasil
MT: Eurasil
NL/BE: Eurasil
NO: Eurasil
PL: Eurasil
PT: Eurasil
RO: Eurasil
SE: No usual translation
SI: Eurasil
SK: Eurasil
SV: Eurasil

A European Union Network for asylum practitioners providing a forum for the exchange of country of origin information, best practices and a variety of policy-related matters among EU Member States, asylum adjudicators and the European Commission, which aims to improve and maximise convergence on approaches to, and assessment of, the protection needs of asylum seekers.


Related Term: Common European Asylum System, European Asylum Support Office

Note:
1. Eurasil was established by the European Commission in July 2002 following the decision of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives (Coreper II) on 6 March to cease the activities of the CIREA group (Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on Asylum).
2. EURASIL meetings were attended by representatives of the national ministries and asylum authorities of the 28 Member States, as well as of CH, NO and IS. Depending on the topics of the meeting, international organisations such as UNHCR or IOM attended Eurasil as external experts.
3. With the establishment of the European Asylum Support Office, EASO has taken over responsibility for Eurasil and further developed EURASIL activities (EASO Practical Cooperation).

Source:European Commission Staff Working Document, SEC(2006) 189

Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development
AT/DE/LU: Europäisch -afrikanischer Dialog über Migration und Entwicklung, Euro-afrikanischer Dialog über Migration und Entwicklung
BG: Евро-африкански диалог по миграция и развитие
CS: Dialog EU a Afriky k migraci a rozvoj
EE: Euro-Aafrika rände ja arenguabi dialoog
ES: dialogo euroafricano sobre migración y desarrollo
FI: muuttoliikettä ja kehitystä koskeva Euro–Afrikka-dialogi
FR/BE/LU: Dialogue euro-africain sur la migration et le développement
HU: Euro-afrikai Dialógus a migrációról és fejlesztésről
IE: Idirphlé Eora-Afracach maidir le hImirce agus Forbairt
IT: Dialogo Euro-Africano sulla Migrazione e lo Sviluppo
LT: Europos-Afrikos dialogas migracijos ir vystymosi klausimais
LV: Eiropas Savienības un Āfrikas dialogs par migrāciju un attīstību
MT: Djalogu Ewro-Afrikan fuq il-Migrazzjoni u l-Iżvilupp
NL/BE: Europees-Afrikaanse Ministeriële Conferentie over Migratie en Ontwikkeling
NO: Den europeisk-afrikanske dialogen om migrasjon
PL: Euro-Afrykański Dialog na rzecz Migracji i Rozwoju
PT: conferência ministerial euro-africana sobre migração e desenvolvimento
RO: Dialogul EU-Africa în domeniul migraţiei şi dezvoltării
SE: No usual translation
SI: Evro - Afriški dialog o migracijah in razvoju
SK: Euro-africký dialóg o migrácii a rozvoji

A framework for dialogue and consultation between EU Member States and African countries from North, West and Central Africa, as well as the European Commission and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), focusing on regional cooperation in the field of migration between countries of origin, transit and destination along current migration routes and within which concrete, practical initiatives are implemented.


Synonym(s): Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development, Rabat Process


Related Term: 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean,Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:
1. The Euro-African Migration and Development process started with a ministerial conference in Rabat in 2006.
2. For more information, see the website of the Euro-African Dialogue.

Source:Website of the Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development

Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
AT/DE/LU: Europa-Mittelmeer-Partnerschaft, Euro-mediterrane Partnerschaft,
BG: Евро-средиземноморско партньорство
CS: Evropsko-středomořské partnerství
EE: Euroopa-Vahemere partnerlus
ES: Asociación Euromediterránea
FI: Euro–Välimeri-kumppanuus
FR/BE/LU: Union pour la Méditerranée
HU: Euro-mediterrán Partnerség
IE: an Chomhpháirtíocht Eora-Mheánmhara
IT: Partenariato euromediterraneo
LT: Europos-Viduržemio jūros regiono partnerystė
LV: Eiropas un Vidusjūras reģiona valstu partnerība
MT: Sħubija Ewro-Mediterranja
NL/BE: Euro-mediterraan partnerschap (EUROMED)
NO: Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
PL: Partnerstwo Eurośródziemnomorskie
PT: Parceria Euro-MediterrânicaRO: Parteneriatul Euro-Mediteraneean
SE: Partnerskapet Europa-Medelhavet
SI: Evro - Sredozemsko partnerstvo
SK: Euro-stredomorské partnerstvo

A Union of the EU Member States and 16 Southern Mediterranean countries built on cooperation agreements that aims to promote economic integration and democratic reform across the EU's neighbours to the south in North Africa and the Middle East.



Synonym(s): Barcelona Process, EUROMED, Union for the Mediterranean, UfM

Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy

Related Term: Black Sea synergy, Eastern Partnership

Note:
1. The Partnership was established 13 July 2008.
2. For more information, see the webpage of the Euro-Med Partnership on the website of the European Union's External Action Services

Source:Website of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED)

EURODAC

A system for the comparison of fingerprints of asylum applicants and certain groups of irregular third-country nationals. The purpose of the EURODAC is to facilitate the application of the Dublin Regulation (EU) No. 604/2013. It is a database to assist with the identification of applicants for international protection and third-country nationals apprehended crossing the external border irregularly or found irregularly staying on Member States' territories. As of July 2015, law enforcement authorities have also been able to access EURODAC for the purpose of preventing, detecting and investigating serious crimes and terrorist offences.

 

Source:
Eurodac
AT/DE/LU: Eurodac
BG: Евродак
CS: Eurodac
EE: Eurodac
ES: Eurodac
FI: Eurodac
FR/BE/LU: Eurodac
GR: Ευρωπαϊκή Κεντρική Βάση Καταχώρισης αποτυπωμάτων αιτούντων άσυλο και συλληφθέντων για παράνομη εισοδο υπηκόων Τρίτων Χωρών
HU: EURODAC
IE: Eurodac
IT: Eurodac
LT: Eurodac
LV: Eurodac
MT: Eurodac
NL/BE: Eurodac
NO: Eurodac
PL: Eurodac
PT: Eurodac
RO: Eurodac
SE: No usual translation
SI: Eurodac
SK: Eurodac

The name given to an informatic system, the purpose of which, via the collection, transmission and comparison of fingerprints, is to assist in determining which Member State is to be responsible pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) for examining an application for international protection lodged in a Member State by a third-country national or a stateless person, and otherwise to facilitate the application of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 under the conditions set out in the Regulation establishing Eurodac.


Related Term: Dublin Convention, Dublin Regulation

Source:Art. 1 of Council Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 (Eurodac Regulation)

EUROMED

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union
AT/DE/LU: Europäische Agentur für die operative Zusammenarbeit an den Außengrenzen
BG: Европейска агенция за управление на оперативното сътрудничество по външните граници на държавите членки на ЕС
CS: Evropská agentura pro řízení operativní spolupráce na vnějších hranicích členských států Evropské unie
EE: Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikide välispiiril tehtava operatiivkoostöö juhtimise Euroopa agentuur
ES: Agencia Europea para la Gestión de la Cooperación Operativa en las Fronteras Exteriores de los Estados Miembros de la Unión Europea
FI:  Euroopan unionin rajaturvallisuusvirasto (Euroopan unionin jäsenvaltioiden operatiivisesta ulkorajayhteistyöstä huolehtiva virasto)
FR/BE/LU: Agence européenne pour la gestion de la coopération opérationnelle aux frontières extérieures des États membres de l`Union européenne
GR: Ευρωπαϊκός Οργανισμός για τη Διαχείριση της Επιχειρησιακής Συνεργασίας στα Εξωτερικά Σύνορα
HU:  ( az Európai Unió Tagállamai Külső Határain Való Operatív Együttműködési Igazgatásért Felelős Európai Ügynökség)
IE: an Ghníomhaireacht Eorpach chun Comhar Oibríochtúil a Bhainistiú ag Teorainneacha Seachtracha Bhallstáit an Aontais Eorpaigh
IT: Agenzia Europea per la Gestione della Cooperazione Operativa delle Froniere Esterne dei Paesi membri dell'Unione Europea
LT: Europos operatyvaus bendradarbiavimo prie ES valstybių narių išorės sienų valdymo agentūra
LV: Eiropas Aģentūra operatīvās sadarbības vadībai pie Eiropas Savienības dalībvalstu ārējām robežām
MT: Aġenzija Ewropea għall-Ġestjoni tal- Koperazzjoni Operazzjonali mal-Fruntieri Esterni tal-Istati Membri tal-Unjoni Ewropea
NL/BE: FRONTEX
NO: Det europeiske grensekontrollbyrået
PL: Europejska Agencja Zarządzania Współpracą Operacyjną na Zewnętrznych Granicach Państw Członkowskich
PT:  Agência Europeia de Gestão da Cooperação Operacional nas Fronteiras Externas da União Europeia
RO: Agenţia Europeană pentru Managementul Cooperării Operaţionale la Frontierele Externe ale Statelor Membre ale Uniunii Europene
SE: Europeiska byrån för förvaltningen av det operativa samarbetet vid Europeiska unionens medlemsstaters yttre gränser
SI: Evropska agencija za upravljanje operativnega sodelovanja na zunanjih mejah DČ EU
SK: Európska agentúra pre riadenie operačnej spolupráce na vonkajších hraniciach členských štátov Európske únie / FRONTEX

A European Union agency tasked to coordinate the operational cooperation between Member States in the field of border security.


Synonym(s): FRONTEX

Related Term: Rapid Border Intervention Team, European Asylum Support Office, European Migration Network, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights , Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration , European Border Surveillance System , Immigration Liaison Officer , Information and Coordination Network for Member States' Migration Management Services

Note:
1. Frontex promotes, coordinates and develops European border management in line with the EU fundamental rights charter applying the concept of Integrated Border Management.
2. Its tasks, in accordance with Article 2 of Council Regulation 2007/2004, include assisting Member States on training of national border guards and the establishment of common training standards (Art. 2(b)); carrying out risk analysis (Art. 2(c)); following up the development of research relevant for the control and surveillance of external borders (Art. 2(d)); assistance to Member States in circumstances requiring increased technical and operational assistance at external borders (Art. 2(e)); and providing Member States with the necessary support in organising joint return operations.
3. Frontex also works closely with the border-control authorities of non-EU/Schengen countries — mainly those countries identified as a source or transit route of irregular migration — in line with general EU external relations policy.
4. For further information, see website of FRONTEX.

Source:Art. 2 of Regulation (EC) 2007/2004 (FRONTEX Regulation)

European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX)

A specialised and independent body tasked to coordinate EU States' operational cooperation in the management of the EU's external borders.

FRONTEX complements and provides particular added value to the national border management systems of EU States. Its tasks include carrying out risk analysis, coordinating operational cooperation between EU Sates in the field of management of external borders, assisting EU States in the training of national border guards, following up the development of research relevant for the control and surveillance of external borders, assisting EU States in circumstances requiring increased technical and operational assistance at external borders and providing EU States with the necessary support in organising joint return operations.

European Agenda on Security

Adopted by the Commission through a Communication of 28 April 2015. It defines the main actions envisaged by the Commission to ensure an effective EU response to security threats over 2015-2020. The Agenda provides the strategic framework for the Commission’s work in the area of internal security. It sets out the main pillars for action in the area of security, where the EU can bring added-value: information exchange between national law enforcement authorities and EU Agencies; operational cooperation; supporting actions such as training and co-funding.

The EAS identifies 3 priorities for immediate action: (1) Tackling terrorism and preventing radicalisation, including online; (2) Disrupting organised crime; and (3) Fighting cybercrime.

The European Agenda on Security is a building block of the renewed internal security Strategy, as defined in the Council Conclusions of 16 June 2015 (see "Internal Security Strategy").

 

European Asylum Support Office
AT/DE/LU:  Europäisches Unterstützungsbüro für Asylfragen
BG: Европейска служба за подкрепа в областта на убежището
CS: Evropský podpůrný azylový úřad
EE: Euroopa varjupaigaküsimuste tugiamet
ES:  Oficina Europea de Apoyo al Asilo
FI:  Euroopan turvapaikka-asioiden tukivirasto
FR/BE/LU: Bureau européen d'appui en matière d'asile (BEA)
GR: Ευρωπαϊκό Γραφείο Στήριξης για το Άσυλο
HU: Európai Menekültügyi Támogatási Hivatal
IE: an Oifig Tacaíochta Eorpach do Chúrsaí Tearmainn
IT: Ufficio Europeo di Sostegno per l'Asilo
LT: Europos prieglobsčio paramos biuras
LV: Eiropas Patvēruma atbalsta birojs
MT: Uffiċċju (L-)ta’ Appoġġ Ewropew fil-Qasam tal-Ażil
NL/BE: Europees Ondersteuningsbureau voor Asielzaken  [BE syn.: Europees asielondersteuningsbureau]
NO: Det europeiske støttekontoret på asylfeltet
PL: Europejski Urząd Wsparcia w dziedzinie Azylu
PT: Gabinete Europeu de Apoio ao Asilo
RO: Biroul European de Sprijin în domeniul Azilului
SE: Europeiska byrån för samarbete i asylfrågor
SI: Evropski azilni podporni urad
SK: Európsky podporný úrad pre azyl

A European Union agency mandated to focus on three major responsibilities: to contribute to the coherent implementation and development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), to support and strengthen practical cooperation among Member States on asylum and to provide and/or coordinate the provision of operational support to Member States, subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems.


Synonym(s): EASO

Related Term: Common European Asylum System, General Directors of Immigration Services Conference, Eurasil, European Migration Network, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

Note:
1. The Support Office acts as a European centre of expertise on asylum, responsible for facilitating, coordinating and strengthening practical cooperation among Member States on the many aspects of asylum, so that Member States are better able to provide international protection to those entitled to it, while dealing fairly and efficiently with those who do not qualify for international protection, where appropriate.
2. Its mandate should be focused on three major duties: namely contributing to the implementation of the CEAS, supporting practical cooperation among Member States on asylum and supporting Member States that are subject to particular pressure.
3. The Support Office should work closely with the Member States' asylum authorities, with national immigration and asylum services and other national services and with the Commission. Furthermore, it should also carry out its duties without prejudice to those assigned to other relevant bodies of the Union and shall work closely with these bodies as well as with the UNHCR.
However, it does not have any powers in relation to the taking of decisions by Member States' asylum authorities on individual applications for international protection.
4. For further information, see the website of EASO.

Source:Art. 1 and 2 of Regulation (EU) No. 439/2010

European Asylum Support Office (EASO)

An Agency established to help improve the implementation of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), to strengthen practical cooperation among EU States on asylum and to provide and/or coordinate the provision of operational support to EU States subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems.

Its purpose is to:

  • facilitate, coordinate and strengthen practical cooperation among EU States on the many aspects of asylum and help improve the implementation of the Common European Asylum System,
  • provide effective operational support to EU States subject to particular pressure on their asylum and reception systems, drawing upon all useful resources at its disposal which may include the coordination of resources provided for by EU States,
  • provide scientific and technical assistance in regard to the policy and legislation of the Union in all areas having a direct or indirect impact on asylum so that it is in a position to lend its full support to practical cooperation on asylum and to carry out its duties effectively. It shall be an independent source of information on all issues in those areas,
  • carry out its tasks in conditions that enable it to serve as a reference point by virtue of its independence, the scientific and technical quality of the assistance it provides and the information it disseminates, the transparency of its operating procedures and methods, its diligence in performing the duties assigned to it, and the information technology support needed to fulfil its mandate,
  • work closely with EU States' asylum authorities, with national immigration and asylum services and other national services and with the Commission. The Office shall carry out its duties without prejudice to those assigned to other relevant bodies of the Union and shall work closely with these bodies and with the UNHCR.

The Office does not have any powers in relation to the taking of decisions by EU States' asylum authorities on individual applications for international protection.

European Border Guard Team

Teams deployed during FRONTEX operations, such as joint operations, pilot projects and rapid border interventions.

European Border Surveillance System
AT/DE/LU: Europäisches renzüberwachungssystem
BG: Европейска система за наблюдение на външните граници
CS: evropský systém ostrahy vnější hranice
DE: Europäisches renzüberwachungssystem
EE: Euroopa välispiiride seiresüsteem
ES: Sistema europeo de vigilancia de fronteras
FI: Euroopan rajavalvontajärjestelmä
FR/BE/LU: Système européen de surveillance des frontières extérieures
HU: Európai Határőrizeti Rendszer
IE: an Córas Eorpach um Fhaireachas ar Theorainneacha Seachtracha
IT: Sistema europeo di sorveglianza delle frontiere esterne
LT: Europos išorinių sienų stebėjimo sistema
LV: Eiropas ārējo robežu uzraudzības sistēma
MT: Sistema Ewropea għas-Sorveljanza tal-Konfini / tal-Fruntieri
NL/BE: Europees grensbewakingssysteem
NO: Det europeiske overvåkingssystemet for yttergrensene
PL: Europejski system nadzorowania granic
PT: Sistema Europeu de Vigilância das Fronteiras
RO: sistemul de supraveghere a frontierelor UE
SE: Europeiska gränsövervakningssystemet
SI: Evropskega sistema varovanja meja
SK: Európsky systém hraničného dozoru

A common framework for the exchange of information and for the cooperation between EU Member States and Frontex to improve situational awareness and to increase reaction capability at the external bordersfor the purpose of detecting, preventing and combating irregular immigrationand cross-border crime, and contributing to ensuring the protection and saving the lives of migrants.
Synonym(s): EUROSUR

Related Term: border control, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

Note:
1. EUROSUR was set up under Council Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013 (EUROSUR Regulation).
2. For more information, see: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/border-crossing/index_en.htm

Source:Art. 1 of Council Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013 (EUROSUR Regulation)

European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR)

Establishes a common framework for the exchange of information and for the cooperation between EU States and Frontex to improve situational awareness and to increase reaction capability at the external borders for the purpose of detecting, preventing and combating irregular immigration and cross-border crime and contributing to ensuring the protection and saving the lives of migrants.

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
European Convention on Human Rights
AT/DE/LU: Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention
BG: Европейска конвенция за правата на човека
CS: Evropská úmluva o ochraně lidských práv
EE: Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konvetsioon
ES: Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos
FI: Euroopan ihmisoikeussopimus
FR/BE/LU: Convention européenne des droits de l'homme
GR: Ευρωπαϊκή Σύμβαση Δικαιωμάτων του Ανθρώπου
HU: Emberi Jogok Európai Egyezménye
IE: an Coinbhinsiún Eorpach um Chearta an Duine
IT: Convenzione Europea dei Diritti dell'Uomo
LT: Europos žmogaus teisių konvencija
LV: Eiropas Cilvēktiesību konvencija
MT: Konvenzjoni (Il-) Ewropea dwar id-Drittijiet tal‑Bniedem
NL/BE: Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens
NO: Den europeiske menneskerettskonvensjonen
PL: Europejska Konwencja Praw Człowieka / Konwencja o Ochronie Praw Człowieka i Podstawowych Wolności
PT: Convenção Europeia dos Direitos Humanos
RO: Convenţia Europeană a Drepturilor Omului
SE: Europakonventionen om de mänskliga rättigheterna
SI: Evropska konvencija o človekovih pravicah
SK: Európsky dohovor o ochrane ľudských práv a základných slobôd / EDĽP

A regional human rights instrument giving effect to certain rights stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, offering individuals the possibility of applying to the courts for the enforcement of their rights.


Synonym(s): European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, ECHR

Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Agency for Fundamental Rights,  human rights, human rights law

Note:
More formally referred to as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Source:Derived by EMN from the description of the Convention on the website of the European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights
AT/DE/LU: Europäischer Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte
BG: Европейски съд за правата на човека
CZ: Evropský soud pro lidská práva
FI: Euroopan ihmisoikeustuomioistuin
FR/BE/LU: Cour européenne des droits de l'homme
IE: an Chúirt Eorpach um Chearta an Duine
HU: Emberi Jogok Európai Bírósága
IT: Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo
LV: Eiropas Cilvēktiesību tiesa
PL: Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka
SE: Europeiska domstolen för de mänskliga rättigheterna (Europadomstolen)
SK: Európsky súd pre ľudské práva / ESĽP
SI: Evropsko sodišče za človekove pravice
NO:Den europeiske menneskrettsdomstolen

International court established by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) which rules on individual or State applications alleging violations of the civil and political rights set out in the ECHR.

Synonym(s): ECtHR

Note:
1. The ECtHR was set up in 1959, it is based in Strasbourg.
2. It hears applications alleging that a contracting state has breached one or more of the human rights provisions concerning civil and political rights set out in the Convention and its protocols. An application can be lodged by an individual, a group of individuals or one or more of the other contracting states, and, besides judgments, the Court can also issue advisory opinions.
3. The court has delivered more than 10.000 judgments which are binding on the countries concerned and have led governments to alter their legislation and administrative practice in a wide range of areas.

Source:Website of the European Court of Human Rights

European Critical Infrastructure (ECI)

“European critical infrastructure” or “ECI” means critical infrastructure located in EU States, the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact on at least two EU States.

European Migration Network
AT/DE/LU: Europäisches Migrationsnetzwerk
BG: Европейска мрежа за миграция
CS: Evropská migrační síť
EE: Euroopa rändevõrgustik
ES: Red Europea de Migraciones
FI: Euroopan muuttoliikeverkosto
FR/BE/LU: Réseau européen des migrations (REM)
GR: Ευρωπαϊκό Δίκτυο Μετανάστευσης
HU: Európai Migrációs Hálózat
IE: Gréasán Imirce na hEorpa
IT: Rete Europea sulle Migrazioni
LT: Europos migracijos tinklas
LV: Eiropas migrācijas tīkls
MT: Netwerk (In-) Ewropew tal-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Europees Migratienetwerk
NO: Det europeiske migrasjonsnettverket
PL: Europejska Sieć Migracyjna
PT: Rede Europeia das Migrações
RO: Reţeaua europeană de migrație („REM”)
SE: Europeiska migrationsnätverket
SI: Evropska migracijska mreža
SK: Európska migračná sieť

A body established by Council Decision 2008/381/EC that serves to meet the information needs of Union institutions and of Member States’ authorities and institutions, by providing up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum, with a view to supporting policy-making in the European Union in these areas. It also serves to provide the general public with information on these subjects.


Synonym(s): EMN

Related Term: Africa Carribean Pacific Observatory on Migration, EU Immigration Portal, European Asylum Support Office, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, National Contact Points on Integration , Eurostat

Note:
1.The EMN was set up in 2003 by the European Commission on behalf of the European Council in order to satisfy the need of a regular exchange of reliable information on migration and asylum related issues on a European level.
2.The EMN is co-ordinated by the European Commission, assisted by service providers, in co-operation with EMN National Contact Points (EMN NCPs) in each EU Member State. A Steering Board, consisting of representatives from each Member State, the European Commission and the European Parliament serves to provide the political guidance on the activities of the EMN.
3. For more information, see the website of the EMN.

Source:Art. 1 of Council Decision 2008/381/EC (European Migration Network Decision)

European Migration Network (EMN)

A body established by Decision 2008/381/EC that serves to meet the information needs of Union institutions and of EU States’ authorities and institutions by providing up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum, with a view to supporting policymaking in the EU in these areas. It also serves to provide the general public with information on these subjects.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)

The EMCDDA was established in 1993. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU’s decentralised agencies. The Centre's objective is to provide the EU and its Member States with factual, objective, reliable and comparable information at European level concerning drugs and drug addiction and their consequences.

European Neighbourhood Policy
AT/DE/LU: Europäische Nachbarschaftspolitik
BG: Европейска политика за съседство
CS: Evropská politika sousedství
EE: Euroopa naabruspoliitika
ES: Política Europea de Vecindad
FI: Euroopan naapuruuspolitiikka
FR/BE/LU: Politique européenne de voisinage
HU: Európai Szomszédságpolitika
IE: Beartas Comharsanachta na hEorpa
IT: politica europea di vicinato
LT: Europos kaimynystės politika
LV: Eiropas kaimiņattiecību politika
MT: Politika (Il-) Ewropea tal-Viċinat / tal-Madwar
NL/BE: Europees nabuurschapsbeleid
NO: Den europeiske naboskapspolitikken
PL: Europejska Polityka Sąsiedztwa
PT: Política europeia de vizinhança
RO: Politica europeană de vecinătate
SE: EU:s grannskapspolitik
SI: Evropska sosedska politika
SK: Európska susedská politika / Európska politika susedstva

A bilateral policy between the EU and 16 partner countries (the EU's closest neighbouring countries), further enriched and complemented by three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives.

Synonym(s): ENP


Narrower Term: Black Sea synergy, Eastern Partnership, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

Note:1. The ENP was developed in 2004, with the objective of avoiding the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all. It is based on the values of democracy, rule of law and respect of human rights.
2. The three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives of the ENP are: the Eastern Partnership(launched in Prague in May 2009), the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED), formerly known as the Barcelona Process, re-launched in Paris in July 2008), and the Black Sea synergy(launched in Kiev in February 2008).
3. The Lisbon Treatyhas allowed the EU to strengthen the delivery of its foreign policy: cooperation with neighbouring countries can now be broadened to cover the full range of issues in an integrated and more effective manner. This was a key driver for initiating a review of the ENP in summer 2010.
4. For up-to-date information on the ENP, see: http://eeas.europa.eu/enp/about-us/index_en.htm

Source:Website of the European Neighbourhood Policy

European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP)

In its EPCIP Communication of 12 December 2006, the Commission set out an overall policy approach and framework for critical infrastructure protection (CIP) activities in the EU.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
AT/DE/LU: Agentur der Europäischen Union für Grundrechte
BG: Агенция на Европейския съюз за основните права
CS: Agentura Evropské unie pro základní práva (FRA)
EE: Euroopa Liidu Põhiõiguste Amet
ES: Agencia de Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea
FI: Euroopan unionin perusoikeusvirasto
FR/BE/LU: Agence des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne
GR: Οργανισμού Θεμελιωδών Δικαιωμάτων της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης
HU: Az Európai Unió Alapjogi Ügynöksége
IE: Gníomhaireacht an Aontais Eorpaigh um Chearta Bunúsacha
IT: Agenzia dell’Unione Europea per i Diritti Fondamentali (FRA)
LT: Europos Sąjungos pagrindinių teisių agentūra
LV: Eiropas Savienības Pamattiesību aģentūra
MT: Aġenzija tal-Unjoni Ewropea għad-Drittijiet Fundamentali
NL/BE: Bureau van de Europese Unie voor de grondrechten
NO: Den europeiske unions byrå for grunnleggende rettigheter (FRA) (b) / Byrået for grunnleggjande rettar i Den europeiske unionen (FRA) (n)
PL: Agencja Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej (FRA)
PT: Agência para os Direitos Fundamentais
RO: Agenţia pentru Drepturi Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene
SE: Europeiska unionens byrå för grundläggande rättigheter
SI: Agencija Evropske unije za temeljne pravice (FRA)
SK: Agentúra Európskej únie pre základné práva / FRA

An EU agency which provides independent, evidence-based advice on fundamental rights to the relevant institutions and authorities of the Union and its Member States in order to support them when implementing Union law, taking measures or formulating courses of action within their respective spheres of competence to fully respect fundamental rights.


Synonym(s): Fundamental Rights Agency, FRA

Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, European Asylum Support Office, European Migration Network, human rights , European Convention on Human Rights

Note:
1. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights was inaugurated on 1 March 2007. It was established by Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 of 15 February 2007 as the successor to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMCI).
2. Its tasks, which are laid down in Art. 4 of the Regulation, include information and data collection, research and analysis; advice to EU institutions and Member States; cooperation with civil society and awareness raising.
3. For more information, see the website of FRA.

Source:Art. 2 of Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 (FRA Regulation)

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training (CEPOL)

CEPOL is the EU agency responsible for law enforcement training. Its mission is to provide training and learning opportunities to law enforcement officers across the EU, in order to help strengthen cross-border cooperation on issues vital to the security of the European Union and its citizens. Training covers topics ranging from key cross-border cooperation tools and mechanisms to law enforcement techniques and from serious criminal phenomena to leadership. Activities are designed to impart knowledge but also to facilitate the sharing of expertise and best practices and to contribute to the development of a common European law enforcement culture. Since 1 July 2016 CEPOL is governed by Regulation 2015/2219, which repeals and replaces Council Decision 2005/681/JHA.

EUROPOL
AT/DE/LU: EUROPOL
BG: ЕВРОПОЛ
CZ: EUROPOL / Evropský policejní úřad
FI: EUROPOL
FR/BE/LU: EUROPOL
IE: EUROPOL
HU: EUROPOL / Európai Rendőrségi Hivatal
IT: EUROPOL
LV: Eiropols
PL: EUROPOL / Europejski Urząd Policji
SE: EUROPOL / Europeiska polisbyrån
SK: EUROPOL / Európsky policajný úrad
SI: EUROPOL / Evropski policijski urad
NO: EUROPOL

The European Union’s law enforcement agency which assists Member States’ police forces in improving their cooperation on the prevention and fight against the most serious forms of international crime, such as terrorism, drug trafficking and people smuggling, focusing on the targeting of criminal organisations.

Synonym(s): European Police Office

 

Note:  

1. The establishment of the European Police Office was agreed to in the Treaty on the European Union (TEU) that came into effect in November 1993. The agency started limited operations on 3 January 1994, as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU). The Europol Convention was signed on 26 July 1995, and came into force in October 1998 after being ratified by all Member States. Europol commenced its full activities on 1 July 1999. Europol came under the EU's competence with the Lisbon Treaty, and the Convention was replaced by a Council Decision in 2009.It was reformed as a full EU agency on 1 January 2010.
2. Europol which is based in The Hague serves as an EU centre of expertise, providing a central platform for law enforcement experts from the European Union countries.
3. Europol has no executive powers. Europol officers are not entitled to conduct investigations in the Member States nor do they have direct powers of arrest; they support EU law enforcement colleagues by gathering, analysing and disseminating information and coordinating operations.

 

Source: 

Derived by EMN from the Website of Europol

 

 

Eurostat
AT/DE/LU: Statistisches Amt der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (Eurostat)
BG: Евростат
CS: Eurostat
EE: Eurostat
ES: Eurostat
FI: Eurostat
FR/BE/LU: Eurostat
GR: Eurostat
HU: Eurostat
IE: Eurostat
IT: Eurostat
LT: Eurostatas
LV: Eurostat
MT: Eurostat
NL/BE: Eurostat
NO: Eurostat
PL: Eurostat
PT: Eurostat
RO: Eurostat
SE: No usual translation
SI: Eurostat
SK: Eurostat
SV: Eurostat

The Statistical Office of the European Union within the European Commission.


Related Term: European Migration Network

Note:
1. Eurostat was established in 1953.
2. Its task is to provide the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions.
3. The EMN cooperates with Eurostat by harmonising statistics from the European Statistical System (ESS) to a single methodology, making the statistics comparable.
4. Council Regulation No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation) establishes common rules for the collection and compilation of Community statistics (for submission to Eurostat) on:

  1. immigration and emigration flows;
  2. citizenship and country of birth of persons usually resident in the territory of the Member States;
  3. administrative and judicial procedures and processes in the Member States relating to immigration, granting of permission to reside, citizenship, asylum and other forms of international protection and prevention of irregular migration.

5. For more information, see the website of Eurostat

Source:Website of Eurostat

Eurostat

The Statistical Office of the EU within the European Commission.

  • Its task is to provide the EU with statistics at European level.
  • By harmonising statistics from the European Statistical System (ESS) to a single methodology, the statistics are made comparable.
Source:
EUROSUR
evidence assessment
AT/DE/LU: Beweiswürdigung
BG: оценка на доказателствата
CZ: hodnocení důkazů
FI: todisteiden arviointi
FR/BR/LU: évaluation des éléments de preuve
IE: measúnú fianaise
HU: bizonyíték értékelése
IT: valutazione delle prove
LV: pierādījumu izvērtēšana
PL: ocena dowodu
SE: Bevisvärdering
SK: hodnotenie dôkazov
SI: ocena dokazov
NO: bevisvurdering

Primary method of establishing the facts of an individual case through the process of examining and comparing available pieces of evidence.

Note:  

The term is not only relevant in the context of international protection and asylum but in other migration procedures such as visa application procedures as well. 

 

Source: 

EASO: Practical Guide on Evidence Assessment - March 2015

 

 

Evidence based drugs policies

European drugs control policy is evidence based. Such evidence is gathered by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), whose core task is to provide sound and comparable information on drugs in Europe, and is thus reflected in their annual European Drug Report, in the triennial European Drug Markets Report issued in collaboration with Europol, as well as in many other reports and data collections available on the website of the EMCDDA.

examination of an application for international protection
AT/DE/LU: Prüfung eines Antrags auf internationalen Schutz
BG: разглеждане на молба за международна закрила
CS: rozhodování o žádosti o mezinárodní ochranu
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse läbivaatamine
EL: εξέταση αίτησης διεθνούς προστασίας
ES: examen de una solicitud de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskevan hakemuksen käsittely
FR/BE/LU: examen d'une demande de protection internationale
HU: menedékkérelem elbírásála
IE: iniúchadh ar iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: esame della domanda di protezione internazionale
LT: prašymo suteikti prieglobstį nagrinėjimas
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikuma izskatīšana
MT: Tgħarbil/Eżami ta’ applikazzjoni għall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: behandeling van een verzoek om internationale bescherming
NO: vurdering av søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / vurdering av søknad om internasjonalt vern (n)
PL: rozpatrywanie wniosku o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: análise de um pedido de proteção internacional
RO: soluţionarea unei cereri de protecţie internaţionlă
SE: prövning av ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: obravnavanje prošnje za mednarodno zaščito
SK: posúdenie žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu / posúdenie žiadosti o udelenie medzinárodnej ochrany (EU acquis) / posúdenie žiadosti o udelenie azylu (national law)

Any examination of, or decision or ruling concerning, an applicationfor international protectionby the competent authorities in accordance with Directive 2013/32/EU and Directive 2011/95/EU, except for procedures for determining the Member State responsible in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 604/2013.

 Broader Term: application for international protection

Source:Art. 2(d) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

Examination of an asylum application

Any examination of, or decision or ruling concerning, an application for asylum by the competent authorities in accordance with national law, except for procedures for determining the EU State responsible in accordance with Regulation 343/2003.

exclusion clause
AT/DE/LU: Ausschlussklausel
BG: изключваща клауза
CS: exkluzivní klauzule, vylučovací klauzule
EE: välistav klausel
ES: cláusula de exclusión
FI: poissulkemislauseke
FR/BE/LU: clause d'exclusion
GR: ρήτρες αποκλεισμού
HU: kizáró klauzulák
IE: clásal eisiaimh
IT: clausola di esclusione
LT: prašymo atmetimo pagrindai
LV: izslēgšanas noteikums
MT: Klawsola ta’ tbarrija / t’esklużjoni
NL/BE: uitsluitingsgronden 
NO: unntaksbestemmelse (b) / unntaksføresegn (n)
PL: klauzula wykluczająca
PT: cláusulas de exclusão
RO: cauză de excludere
SE: undantagsklausul
SI: izključitvena klavzula
SK: doložka o vylúčení / vylučovacia klauzula / vylučovacie ustanovenie

Specifically, any of the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1951and Protocol of 1967, such as articles 1D, 1E and 1F, which mandatorily deny the benefits of refugee status to persons who already receive UN or national protection, or to persons about whom there are good reasons to believe that they have committed a war crime, a crime against humanity, a serious non-political crime, or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the UN (e.g. the persecution of others).


Related Term: crime against humanity, war crime

Note:
The EU asylum acquis (see for example Art. 12 and 17 of Directive 2011/95/EU) has incorporated these Geneva Convention of 1951clauses whilst additionally stipulating exclusion clauses in relation to subsidiary protection.

Source:Art. 1D, 1E and 1F of the Geneva Convention of 1951

exodus
AT/DE/LU: Exodus
BG: no usual translation
CS: exodus
EE: massiline väljaränne
ES: éxodo
FI: joukkopako
FR/BE/LU: fuite massive
GR: έξοδος
HU: kivándorlás
IE: imeacht
IT: esodo
LT: egzodas
LV: masveida izceļošana
MT: Eżodu
NL/BE: uittocht (syn.: exodus)
NO: masseutvandring/masseflukt
PL: exodus
PT: exôdo
RO: exod
SE: massflykt
SI: eksodus / množična emigracija
SK: exodus / hromadný odchod

Movements in groups (isolated and sporadic) out of a country of origin in large numbers or of a section of the community at a given time.


Note:
A similar definition is also used in the UNHCR International Thesaurus of Refugee Terminology definition.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

exploitation
AT/DE/LU: Ausbeutung
BG: експлоатация
CS: vykořisťování
EE: ärakasutamine
ES: explotación
FI: hyväksikäyttö
FR/BE/LU: exploitation
GR: εκμετάλλευση
HU: kizsákmányolás
IE: dúshaothrú
IT: sfruttamento
LT: išnaudojimas
LV: izmantošana
MT: Sfruttament
NL/BE: uitbuiting
NO: utnyttelse (b) / utnytting (n)
PL: wykorzystywanie
PT: exploração
RO: exploatare
SE: utnyttjande
SI: izkoriščanje
SK: vykorisťovanie

The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs).


Related Term: forced labourtrafficking in human beings

Note:
Art. 2(3) of Directive 2011/36/EU (Trafficking Directive) states that exploitation includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs.

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

Exploitation

The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs).

According to Directive 2011/36/EU, "exploitation" includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs.

Explosive

A reactive compound that contains energy that can produce an explosion when released quickly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

Explosive precursor

A chemical reactant that takes part in the production of a home-made explosive.

expulsion
AT/DE/LU: Rückführung (EU acquis); Ausweisung (DE)
BG: експулсиране
CS: vyhoštění
EE: väljasaatmine
ES: expulsión
FI: maasta poistaminen
FR/BE/LU: expulsion
GR: απέλαση
HU: kiutasítás (when implemented with official escort: kitoloncolás)
IE: díbirt / ionnarbadh
IT: espulsione
LT: išsiuntimas
LV: piespiedu izraidīšana
MT: Espulsjoni / Tkeċċija
NL/BE: verwijdering (syn.: uitzetting, uitwijzing)
NO: utvisning (b) / utvising (n)
PL: wydalenie
PT: expulsão
RO: (a) expulzare (b) returnare (forţată) sub escortă
SE: Utvisning
SI: izgon / odstranitev
SK: vyhostenie

The removal of:

  1. a third-country nationalsubject to an expulsion decision based on a serious and present threat to public order or to national security and safety taken in the following cases:
    • conviction of a third-country national by the issuing Member State for an offence punishable by a penalty involving deprivation of liberty of at least one year;
    • the existence of serious grounds for believing that a third-country national has committed serious criminal offences or the existence of solid evidence of their intention to commit such offences within the territory of a Member State.
  2. a third-country national subject to an expulsion decision based on failure to comply with national rules on the entry or residence of aliens.

In FI, the preferred English translation is ‘removal from the country’.


Narrower Term: expulsion decision

Broader Term: removal

Source:Art. 3(1) of Council Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)

Expulsion

The removal of:

  • a non-EU national subject to an expulsion decision based on a serious and present threat to public order or to national security and safety, taken in the following cases:
    • conviction of a non-EU national by the issuing EU State for an offence punishable by a penalty involving deprivation of liberty of at least one year,
    • the existence of serious grounds for believing that a non-EU national has committed serious criminal offences or the existence of solid evidence of his/her intention to commit such offences within the territory of an EU State.
    • a non-EU national subject to an expulsion decision based on failure to comply with national rules on the entry or residence of aliens.
expulsion decision
AT/DE/LU: Rückführungsentschei-dung (EU acquis); Ausweisungsentschei-dung (DE, LU)
BG: решение за експулсиране
CS: rozhodnutí o vyhoštění
DE: Rückführungsentscheidung (EU acquis); Ausweisungsentscheidung (DE, LU)
EE: väljasaatmisotsus
ES: decisión de expulsión
FI: maastapoistamispäätös
FR/BE/LU: décision d'éloignement
GR: απόφαση απέλασης
HU: kiutasítást elrendelő határozat
IE: cinneadh ionnarbtha
IT: decisione di espulsione
LT: sprendimas dėl išsiuntimo
LV: izbraukšanas rīkojums/lēmums par piespiedu izraidīšanu
MT: Deċiżjoni ta' espulsjoni / ta' tkeċċija
NL/BE: aanwijzing om het grondgebied te verlaten
NO: utvisningsbeslutning (b) / utvisingsavgjerd (n)
PL: decyzja o wydaleniu
PT: decisão de expulsão
RO: See "expulsion" (a) hotărâre judecătorescă de expulzare (b) decizie de returnare sub escortă
SE: beslut om avvisning eller utvisning
SI: odločitev o izgonu
SK: rozhodnutie o vyhostení

Any decision which orders an expulsion taken by a competent administrative (or judicial) authority of an issuing Member State.


Synonym(s): expulsion order

Broader Term: expulsion

Related Term: enforcement measure, removal order

Note:
1. In DE, only expulsion order is used, while expulsion decision and expulsion order are understood in the same way.
2. In RO, expulsion is decided by the courts only, not by administration.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)

Expulsion decision

Any decision that orders an expulsion taken by a competent administrative (or judicial) authority of an issuing EU State.

expulsion order

Please see entry for expulsion decision

Extended confiscation

The ability to confiscate assets that go beyond the direct proceeds of a crime so that there is no need to establish a connection between suspected criminal assets and a specific criminal conduct.

external EU border
AT/DE/LU: EU-Außengrenze
BG: външна граница на ЕС
CS: vnější hranice EU
EE: EL välispiir
ES: frontera exterior (UE)
FI: EU:n ulkoraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière extérieure de l’UE
GR: εξωτερικά σύνορα
HU: külső határ
IE: teorainn sheachtrach an AE
IT: frontiera esterna UE
LT: išorės siena
LV: ES ārējā robeža
MT: Konfini (Il-) esterni / Fruntiera (Il-) esterna tal-UE
NL/BE: EU buitengrens
NO: ytre grense for Schengen-medlemsland
PL: granica zewnętrzna UE
PT: fronteira externa
RO: frontiere externe UE
SE: yttre gräns
SI: zunanja meja EU
SK: vonkajšia hranica EÚ

The parts of a Schengen Member State's border, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports, that are not common borders with another Schengen Member State.



Related Terms: border control, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code

Note:
1. IE and UK do not participate in the Schengen Area.
2. BG, HR and RO are Schengen candidate countries.
3. IS, LI, NO and CH are also Schengen Member States, although they are not EU Member States.
4. For updated information on membership to the Schengen Area, see the website of DG HOME.

Source:Derived by EMN from Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

External EU border

An EU States’ land borders, including river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports, provided that they are not internal borders.

failed applicant
failed asylum seeker
false declaration of parenthood
AT/DE/LU: falsche Erklärung der Elternschaft/falsche Elternschaftsangabe
BG: невярна декларация за родителство
CS: falešné prohlášení rodičovství
EE: põlvnemise kohta valeandmete esitamine
ES: declaracion falsa de paternidad / maternidad
FI: valheellinen vanhemmuuden ilmoittaminen
FR/BE/LU: fausse déclaration de parentalité
HU: hamis szülői nyilatkozat
IE: bréagdhearbhú tuismíochta
IT: falsa dichiarazione di filiazione
LT: fiktyvus įvaikinimas
LV: vecāku statusa viltus reģistrēšana
MT: Dikjarazzjoni falza ta’ maternità u/jew paternità
NL/BE: valse ouderschapsverklaring
NO: falsk vedgåelse av foreldreskap (b) / falsk vedgåing av foreldreskap (n)
PL: fałszywe oświadczenie o uznaniu rodzicielstwa
PT: falsas declarações parentesco
RO: declaraţie de paternitate falsă
SE: osant intygande om föräldraskap
SI: lažna izjava o starševstvu
SK: falošné prehlásenie rodičovstva

An untruthful declaration of a relationship of parenthood which does not actually exist either (a) between a Minorwho is an EU citizen or settled third-country nationaland a third-country national adult, where the adult claims to be the parent in order to obtain or legalise their residence in a Member State, or (b) between a third-country national minor and a union citizenadult or a settled third-country national adult where the adult declares themselves parent of the minor in order to obtain or legalise the residence of the childand/or possibly the residence of the other parent.


Narrower Term: false declaration of paternity

Related Term: civil partnership of convenience, marriage of convenience, partnership of convenience

Note:
For more information on false declarations of parenthood, see EMN: Misuse of family reunification, 2012

Source: Developed by EMN

false identity document

Please see entry for fraudulent travel or identity document

false travel document
family formation
AT/DE/LU: Familienbildung
BG: създаване на семейство
CS: rodinný příslušník
CZ: sloučení rodiny
EE: perekonnaliige
ES: pere loomise eesmärgil riiki sisenemine (no usual translation)
FI: perheenmuodostaminen
FR/BE/LU: constitution de la famille
GR: No translation
HU: családalapítás
IE: foirmiú teaghlaigh
IT: costituzione di una famiglia
LT: šeimos kūrimas
LV: ģimenes apvienošana/ģimenes atkalapvienošana
MT: Kompożizzjoni / Tiswira tal-familja
NL/BE: gezinsvorming
NO: familiedannelse (b) / familiedanning (n)
PL: założenie rodziny
PT: reagrupamento familiar
RO: reîntregirea familiei
SE: familjebildning
SI: ustanovitev družineSK: založenie rodiny

The entry into and residence in a Member State of a third-country nationalon the basis of the establishment of a family relationship either

  1. after their third-country national sponsorhas gained legal residence in a Member State; or
  2. with an EU national.


Broader Term: family reunification
Related Term: chain migration, family migration, nuclear family, right to family life, right to family unity

Note:
1. This term is specific to some Member States, particularly BE, NL, SE. In UK, this relates to the formation of family between a UK national and a third-country national only.
2. In other Member States, family formation is covered under 'family reunification'.

Source:Developed by EMN

family member
AT/DE/LU: Familienangehöriger
BG: член на семействоCS: sloučení rodiny
CZ: rodinný příslušník
EE: pere loomise eesmärgil riiki sisenemine (no usual translation)
ES: perekonnaliige
FI: perheenjäsen
FR/BE/LU: membre de la famille
GR: μέλος οικογένειας
HU: családtag
IE: duine muintearthaIT: familiare
LT: šeimos narys
LV: ģimenes loceklisMT: Membru tal-familja
NL/BE: gezinslid
NO: familiemedlem
PL: członek rodzinyPT: membros da familia
RO: membru de familie
SE: familjemedlem
SI: družinski član
SK: rodinný príslušník / člen rodiny

In the general migration context, a person either married to, or having a relationship legally recognised as equivalent to marriage, to a migrant, as well as their dependent children or other dependants who are recognised as members of the family by applicable legislation.

In the context of the Family Reunification Directive, a third-country national, as specified in Art. 4 of Directive 2003/86/EC (normally members of the nuclear family – i.e. the spouse and the minor children), who has entered the territory of the European Union for the purpose of family reunification.

In the context of the Free Movement Directive:

  1. the spouse;
  2. the partner with whom the Union citizen has contracted a registered partnership, on the basis of the legislation of a Member State, if the legislation of the host Member State treats registered partnerships as equivalent to marriage and in accordance with the conditions laid down in the relevant legislation of the host Member State;
  3. the direct descendants who are under the age of 21 or are dependants and those of the spouse or partner as defined in point (b);
  4. the dependent direct relatives in the ascending line and those of the spouse or partner as defined in point (b).

In the context of asylum, and in particular Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation), this means insofar as the family already existed in the country of origin, the following members of the applicant’s family who are present on the territory of the Member States:

  • the spouse of the applicant or their unmarried partner in a stable relationship, where the law or practice of the Member State concerned treats unmarried couples in a way comparable to married couples under its law relating to third-country nationals;
  • the minor children of couples referred to in the first indent or of the applicant, on condition that they are unmarried and regardless of whether they were born in or out of wedlock or adopted as defined under national law;
  • when the applicant is a minor and unmarried, the father, mother or another adult responsible for the applicant, whether by law or by the practice of the Member State where the adult is present;
  • when the beneficiary of international protection is a minor and unmarried, the father, mother or another adult responsible for them whether by law or by the practice of the Member State where the beneficiary is present.



Related Term: dependant, family reunification, nuclear family, sponsor

Source: General: Derived by EMN from Art. 4 of UN Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families
Family reunification: Recital 9 and Art. 4 of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)
Free movement: Art. 2(2) of Council Directive 2004/38/EC (Free Movement Directive)
Asylum: Art. 2 (g) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

Family member

Persons married to migrant workers or having with them a relationship that, according to applicable law, produces effects equivalent to marriage, as well as their dependent children and other dependent persons who are recognised as members of the family by applicable legislation or applicable bilateral or multilateral agreements between the States concerned.

According to Directive 2003/86/EC, "family members" include:

  • the sponsor's spouse,
  • the minor children of the sponsor and of his/her spouse, including children adopted in accordance with a decision taken by the competent authority in the EU State concerned or a decision that is automatically enforceable due to international obligations of that EU State or must be recognised in accordance with international obligations,
  • the minor children including adopted children of the sponsor where the sponsor has custody and the children are dependent on him or her. EU States may authorise the reunification of children of whom custody is shared, provided the other party sharing custody has given his or her agreement,
  • the minor children including adopted children of the spouse where the spouse has custody and the children are dependent on him or her.

EU States may authorise the reunification of children of whom custody is shared, provided the other party sharing custody has given his or her agreement.

("Sponsor" means a non-EU national residing lawfully in an EU State and applying or whose family members apply for family reunification to be joined with him/her.)

family migration
AT/DE/LU: Familienzusammenführung, Familienmigration
BG: миграция с цел създаване или събиране на семейство
CS: rodinná migrace
EE: pereränne
ES: migración por motivos familiares
FI: perheperusteinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration pour des raisons familiales
GR: οικογενειακή μετανάστευση
HU: családegyesítési célú migráció / családegyesítés
IE: imirce teaghlaigh
IT: migrazione familiare
LT: šeimos migracija
LV: ģimenes migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni għal raġunijiet ta' familja
NL/BE: gezinsmigratie
NO: familiemigrasjon
PL: migracja rodzinna
PT: migração familiar
RO: migraţia în scopul reîntregirii familiei
SE: familjemigration
SI: družinska migracija
SK: migrácia z rodinných dôvodov

In the global context, a general concept encompassing family reunification, family formation, and migration of an entire family at the same time.

In the EU context, a concept which refers explicitly to family reunificationand family formation.


Related Term: chain migration, family formation, family reunification, right to family unity

Source: Gobal context: Derived by EMN from the discussion of types of family migration in Chapter 6 of IOM World Migration Report 2008
EU context: Developed by EMN

family reunification
AT/DE/LU: Familienzusammenführung
BG: събиране на семейство
CS: sloučení rodiny
EE: perekonna taasühinemine
ES: reagrupación familiar
FI: perheenyhdistäminen
FR/BE/LU: regroupement familial
GR: οικογενειακή επανένωση
HU: családegyesítés
IE: athaontú teaghlaigh
IT: ricongiungimento familiare
LT: šeimos susijungimas
LV: ģimenes apvienošana / ģimenes atkalapvienošana
MT: Riunifikazzjoni tal-familja
NL/BE: gezinshereniging
NO: familiegjenforening (b) / familiegjenforeining (n)
PL: łączenie rodzin
PT: reagrupamento familiar
RO: reîntregirea familiei, reunificarea familiei
SE: familjeåterförening
SI: združevanje družine
SK: zlúčenie rodiny

The establishment of a family relationship which is either:

  1. the entry into and residence in a Member State, in accordance with Council Directive 2003/86/EC, by family members of a third-country nationalresiding lawfully in that Member State ('sponsor') in order to preserve the family unit, whether the family relationship arose before or after the entry of the sponsor; or
  2. between an EU national and third-country nationalestablished outside the EU who then subsequently enters the EU.


Synonym(s): family reunion

Narrower Term: family formation
Broader Term: right to family unity

Related Term: chain migration, family migration, nuclear family, right to family life

Note:
Art. 5(3) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive) also covers 'reunification' when a third-country national is already resident in the EU under different permissions (e.g. a residence permit for the purpose of remuneration or study).

Source:Part (a): Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)
Part (b): Developed by EMN

Family reunification

The entry into and residence in an EU State by family members of a non-EU national residing lawfully in that EU State ("sponsor") in order to preserve the family unit, whether the family relationship arose before or after the resident's entry.

family reunion

Please see entry for family reunification

female genital mutilation
AT/DE/LU: weibliche Genitalverstümmelung
BG: генитално осакатяване на жени
CZ: ženská obřízka
FI: naisten sukuelinten silpominen / naisten ympärileikkaus
FR/BE/LU: mutilations sexuelles féminines
HU: női nemiszerv -csonkítás
IE: ciorrú baill ghiniúna ban
IT: mutilazione genitale femminile
LV: sieviešu dzimumorgānu kropļošana
PL: okaleczanie żeńskich organów płciowych
SE: Kvinnlig könsstympning
SI: pohabljanje ženskih spolnih organov
SK: mrzačenie ženských pohlavných orgánov / zmrzačovanie ženských pohlavných orgánov

All procedures which involve the partial or total removal of the external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other non-medical reasons.


Synonym(s): FGM, female circumcision, cutting, circumcision

Related Term: gender-based persecution, gender.-specific violence, social group 

Note : 

1. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of women and girls. The practice also violates a person’s rights to health, security and physical integrity; the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment; and the right to life when the procedure results in death. The practice of FGM is considered as a criminal act in all EU Member States .
2.The UNHCR's Guidance Notes of 2009 state that a girl or woman seeking asylum because she has been compelled to undergo, or is likely to be subjected to FGM may qualify for refugee status under the Geneva Convention of 1951. The UNHCR Guidelines consider FGM to be a form of gender-specific violence that inflicts severe mental and physical harm and amounts to persecution. For further information see UNHCR Guidance Note on Refugee Claims relating to Female Genital Mutilation, 2009.
3. Art. 10 of the Recast Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU) reiterates that female genital mutilation may be invoked as one of the five existing Convention grounds for persecution. Recital 30 of this Directive states that 'for the purposes of defining a particular social group, issues arising from an applicant’s gender, including gender identity and sexual orientation, which may be related to certain legal traditions and customs, resulting in for example genital mutilation, forced sterilisation or forced abortion, should be given due consideration in so far as they are related to the applicant’s well-founded fear of persecution".

Source: Website of the World Health Organisation

final decision
AT/DE/LU: rechtskräftige Entscheidung
BG: окончателно решение
CS: pravomocné rozhodnutí
EE: jõustunud otsus
ES: resolución definitiva
FI: lainvoimainen päätös
FR/BE/LU: décision finale
GR: οριστική απόφαση
HU: jogerős határozat
IE: cinneadh críochnaitheach
IT: decisione definitiva
LT: galutinis sprendimas
LV: galīgais lēmums
MT: Deċiżjoni finali
NL/BE: onherroepelijke beslissing
NO: endelig vedtak (b) /endeleg avgjerd (n)
PL: ostateczna decyzja
PT: decisão final
RO: decizie finală
SE: slutligt beslut
SI: dokončna odločba / pravnomočna odločba
SK: konečné rozhodnutie

A decision on whether the third-country national or stateless person be granted refugee status or subsidiary protection status by virtue of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and which is no longer subject to a remedy within the framework of Chapter V of this Directive, irrespective of whether such remedy has the effect of allowing applicants to remain in the Member States concerned pending its outcome.

Source:Art. 2(e) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU)

A central, national unit that is responsible for receiving and analysing information from private entities on financial transactions which are considered to be linked to money laundering and terrorist financing. The FIUs disseminate the results of its analyses to the competent authorities where there are grounds to suspect money laundering, associated predicate offences or terrorist financing.

Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) Platform

An informal group set up in 2006 by the European Commission, which has been registered as Commission Expert Group in 2014. It gathers Financial Intelligence Units from EU States (other EEA States have observer status). Its main purpose is to facilitate cooperation among the FIUs and provide advice and expertise to the Commission on issues related to FIUs. The European Commission participates in the Platform and provides support. The meetings of the EU-FIU platform are co-chaired by DG Home Affairs and DG Justice and Consumers.

Firearm

Any portable barrelled weapon that expels, is designed to expel or may be readily converted to expel a shot, bullet or projectile by the action of an explosive.

first asylum principle

Please see entry for first country of asylum

first country of asylum
AT/DE/LU: erster Asylstaat, erstes Asylland
BG: първа страна на убежище
CS: první země azylu
EE: esmane varjupaigariik
EL: πρώτης χώρας ασύλου
ES: primer país de asilo
FI: ensimmäinen turvapaikkamaa
FR/BE/LU: premier pays d’asile
HU: elsődleges befogadó állam
IE: an chéad tír thearmainn
IT: paese di primo asilo
LT: pirmoji prieglobsčio šalis
LV: pirmā patvēruma valsts
MT: L-Ewwel art /pajjiż tal-ażil
NL/BE: eerste land van asiel
NO: første asylland
PL: kraj pierwszego azylu
PT: primeiro país de asilo
RO: prima ţară de azil
SE: första asylland
SI: prva država azila
SK: prvá krajina azylu

A country in which an applicant for international protectionhas either (a) been recognised as a refugeeand they can still avail themselves of that protection; or (b) otherwise enjoys sufficient protection, including benefiting from the principle of non-refoulement, provided that they will be readmitted to that country.


Synonym(s): country of first asylum, first asylum principle

Note:
1. In applying the concept of 'first country of asylum' to the particular circumstances of an applicant, Member States may take into account Art. 38(1) of the Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) ('concept of safe third country').
2. In accordance with relevant legislation, an applicant shall be allowed to challenge the application of the first country of asylum concept in relation to their particular circumstances.

Source:Art. 35 of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

FIU.net

A decentralised computer network enabling the exchange of information and cooperation between the FIUs in the European Union. The FIU.net has been developed by the EU FIUs through the financial support of the European Commission, and since 1st January 2016 it is embedded in Europol. All 28 EU FIUs are connected and using FIU.net.

Source:
forced labour
AT/DE/LU: Zwangsarbeit
BG: принудителен труд
CS: nucená práce
EE: sunnitöö
ES: trabajo forzoso
FI: pakkotyö
FR/BE/LU: travail forcé
HU: kényszermunka
IE: obair éigeantais
IT: lavoro forzato
LT: priverstinis darbas
LV: piespiedu darbs
MT: Xogħol furzat/ta’ bilfors
NL/BE: gedwongen arbeid
NO: tvangsarbeid
PL: praca przymusowa
PT: trabalho forçadoRO: muncă forţată
SE: tvångsarbete
SI: prisilno delo
SK: nútená práca

All work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered themselves voluntarily.


Synonym(s): compulsory labour, compulsory work

Related Term: exploitation , child labour

Source:Art. 2(1) of ILO Convention No. 29, 1930 (Forced Labour Convention)

forced marriage
AT/DE/LU: Zwangsheirat
BG: брак по принуда
CS: nucený sňatek
EE: sundabielu
ES: matrimonio forzado
FI: pakkoavioliitto
FR/BE/LU: mariage forcé
GR: εξαναγκασμένος γάμος
HU: kényszerházasság
IE: pósadh éigeantais
IT: matrimonio forzato
LT: priverstinė santuoka
LV: piespiedu laulības
MT: Żwieġ sfurzat/ta' bilfors
NL/BE: gedwongen huwelijk
NO: tvangsekteskap
PL: wymuszone małżeństwo
PT: casamento forçado
RO: căsătorie forţată
SE: tvångsäktenskap
SI: prisilna poroka
SK: nútené manželstvo

The union of two persons, at least one of whom has not given their full and free consent to the marriage.

Source:Art. 4 of Council of Europe Resolution 1468 (2005)

forced migrant
AT/DE/LU: Zwangsmigrant
BG: мигрант по принуда
CS: nucený migrant
EE: sundsisserändaja (no usual translation)
ES: migrante forzoso
FI: pakkomuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant forcé
GR: εξαναγκαστική μετανάστευση
HU: kényszermigráns
IE: imirceach éigeantais
IT: migrante forzato
LT: priverstinis migrantas
LV: piespiedu migrants
MT: Migrant(a) kostrett(a)/sfurzat(a)
NL/BE: gedwongen migrant
NO: tvungen migrant
PL: migrant przymusowy
PT: migrante forçado
RO: migrant forţat
SE: tvångsmigrant
SI: prisilni migrant
SK: nútený migrant

A person subject to a migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects).


Narrower Term: displaced person , refugee

Broader Term: forced migration, migrant

Related Term: de facto refugee, economic migrant, forced migration

 

Source: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011

forced migration
AT/DE/LU: erzwungene Migration, Zwangsmigration
BG: принудителна миграция
CS: nucená migrace
EE: sundränne
ES: migración forzosa
FI: pakkomuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration forcée
GR: αναγκαστική μετανάστευση
HU: kényszermigráció
IE: imirce éigeantais
IT: migrazione forzata
LT: priverstinė migracija
LV: piespiedu migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni kostretta / sfurzata
NL/BE: gedwongen migratie
NO: tvangsmigrasjon
PL: migracja przymusowa
PT: migração forçada
RO: migraţie forţată
SE: tvångsmigration
SI: prisilna migracija
SK: nútená migrácia

A migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects).


Narrower Term: displacement

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: economic migration, forced migrant, managed migration

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011

forced return
AT/DE/LU: zwangsweise Rückführung / Zwangsrückführung; erzwungene Rückkehr
BG: принудително връщане
CZ: nucený návrat
EE: väljasaatmine
ES: retorno forzoso
FI: pakkopaluu
FR/BE/LU: retour forcé
HU: kiutasítás (note: when it is implemented with escort: kitoncolás)
IE: filleadh éigeantach
IT: ritorno forzato
LT: priverstinis grąžinimas
LV: piespiedu atgriešana (EU acquis) / piespiedu izraidīšana (national)
MT: Ritorn Imgiegħel / Sfurzat / ta’ Bilfors
NL/BE: gedwongen terugkeer
NO: tvangsretur
PL: przymusowy powrót
PT: retorno forçado
RO: returnare forţată
SE: återvändande med tvång (tvångsvist återvändande)
SI: prisilno vračanje
SK: nútený návrat

In the global context, obligatory returnof an individual to the country of origin, transit or third country (i.e. country of return), on the basis of an administrative or judicial act.

In the EU context, the process of going back – whether in voluntary or enforced compliance with an obligation to return– to:

  • one's country of origin; or
  • a country of transitin accordance with EU or bilateral readmission agreements or other arrangements; or
  • another third country, to which the third-country national concerned voluntarily decides to return and in which they will be accepted.


Synonym(s): compulsory return , removal, refoulement

Narrower Term:  expulsion, deportation, removal, extradition

Broader Term: return

Related Term: return decision


Note:

1. The term ‘forced return’ is not used at all in EU legislation.
2. Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive) which regulates the return of migrants whose stay has been found to be illegal refers to post-return decision return as ‘return’ (not ‘forced return’).
3. In the EU environment (e.g. in the metadata of Eurostat), ‘forced return’ is synonymous with ‘removal’ – i.e. the physical transportation out of the country following a return decision.
4. Outside of EU legislation the term ‘forced return’ is more commonly used and understood as a synonym with ‘compulsory return’ – i.e. return which occurs in compliance with a return decision.

Forced return

The compulsory return of an individual to the country of origin, transit or third country, on the basis of an administrative or judicial act.

foreign population of a country
AT/DE/LU: ausländische Bevölkerung eines Landes
BG: чуждестранно население на една държава
CS: populace cizinců v zemi
EE: välisriigi kodanikest rahvastik
ES: población extranjera
FI: maan ulkomainen väestö
FR/BE/LU: population étrangère d'un pays
GR: αλλοδαπός πληθυσμός
HU: egy ország külföldi népessége
IE: daonra eachtrannach tíre
IT: popolazione straniera di un paese
LT: šalyje gyvenantys užsieniečiai
LV: ārvalstnieki
MT: Popolazzjoni barranija ta' pajjiż
NL/BE: bevolking van buitenlandse nationaliteit
NO: et lands utenlandske befolkning (b) / den utanlandske folkesetnaden i eit land (n)
PL: populacja cudzoziemców z kraju
PT: população estrangeira
RO: populaţie străină
SE: utländska medborgare
SI: tuje prebivalstvo države
SK: populácia cudzincov v krajine

All persons who have a certain country as their country of usual residence and who are citizens of another country.

Narrower Term: stock of foreigners

Related Term: migrant stock

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

foreign worker

Please see entry for migrant worker

foreigner

Please see entry for alien and admission onto the territory

forged identity document
forged travel document
fraudulent identity document
fraudulent travel document
fraudulent travel or identity document
AT/DE/LU: gefälschtes/betrügeri-sches Reise-oder Identitätsdokument
BG: подправен документ за пътуване или самоличност
CS: padělaný nebo pozměněný průkaz totožnosti
DE: gefälschtes / betrügerisches Reise-oder Identitätsdokument
EE: võltsitud reisi- või isikut tõendav dokument
ES: documento de identidad o de viaje fraudulento
FI: väärä / väärennetty matkustusasiakirja / henkilötodistus
FR/BE/LU: document de voyage ou d'identité frauduleux
HU: hamis úti vagy személyazonosságot igazoló okmány
IE: bréagdhoiciméad taistil nó aitheantais
IT: documento di viaggio o di identità fraudolento
LT: suklastotas kelionės ar asmens dokumentas
LV: viltots ceļošanas vai personu apliecinošs dokuments
MT: Dokument tal-ivjaġġar jew tal-identità frodulenti / qarrieqi
NL/BE: frauduleus reis- of identiteitsdocument
NO: falskt reise- eller identitetsbevis
PL: fałszywy dokument podróży lub tożsamości
PT: documento de viagam ou identidade fraudulento
RO: document de călătorie sau identitate fals, falsificat sau obţinut în mod fraudulos
SE: falsk rese- eller identitetshandling
SI: zlorabljena (lažna) potna listina ali dokument za izkazovanje identitete
SK: falošný alebo pozmenený cestovný alebo identifikačný doklad / falošný alebo pozmenený cestovný doklad alebo doklad totožnosti

Any travel or identity document:

  1. that has been falsely made or altered in some material way by anyone other than a person or agency lawfully authorised to make or issue the travel or identity document on behalf of a State; or
  2. that has been improperly issued or obtained through misrepresentation, corruption or duress or in any other unlawful manner; or
  3. that is being used by a person other than the rightful holder.



Synonym(s): fraudulent travel document, fraudulent identity document, forged travel document, forged identity document, false travel document, false identity document

Related Term: travel document

Source:Art. 3(c) of Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime

free movement

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

freedom of movement

Please see entry for right to freedom of movement

frontier worker
AT/DE/LU: Grenzarbeitnehmer (EU acquis, DE)
BG: пограничен работник
CS: přeshraniční pracovník
EE: piiriala töötaja
ES: trabajador transfronterizo
FI: rajatyöntekijä
FR/BE/LU: travailleur frontalier
GR: συνοριακός εργαζόμενος
HU: határmenti ingázó (munkavállaló)
IE: oibrí trasteorann
IT: lavoratore straniero frontaliero
LT: pasienio darbuotojas
LV: pārrobežu darba ņēmējs
MT: Ħaddiem ta' mal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grensarbeider
NO: arbeidstaker som grensependler (b) / arbeidstakar som grensependlar (n)
PL: pracownik przygraniczny
PT: trabalhador fronteiriço
RO: lucrător transfrontalier
SE: gränsarbetare
SI: obmejni delavec
SK: pracovník z prihraničnej oblasti

In the EU context, a worker who is employed in the frontier zone of a Member State but who returns each day or at least once a week to the frontier zone of a neighbouring country in which they reside and of which they are nationals.


Related Term: border resident, cross-border worker, local border traffic

Note:
1. The definition covers in particular third-country nationals entering the EU from the neighbouring third-country in which they reside.
2. Contrary to 'cross-border workers', frontier workers work in the frontier zone of the neighbouring country.

Source:Council Resolution of 20 June 1994 on limitation on admission of third-country nationals to the territory of the Member States for employment

Fundamental Rights Agency
G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group
GAMM
gender
AT/DE/LU: soziales Geschlecht
BG: социален пол
CS: gender
EE: sugu
ES: género
FI: sukupuoli
FR/BE/LU: genre
GR: γένος
HU: (társadalmi) nem(i szerep)
IE: inscne
IT: genere
LT: lytis
LV: dzimums
MT: Konferenza (Il-) tad-Diretturi Ġenerali tas-Servizzi tal-Immigrazzjoni (GDISC)
NL/BE: gender
NO: kjønn
PL: gender, płeć społeczno-kulturowa
PT: género
RO: gen
SE: genus
SI: spol
SK: rod

The socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and needs predominantly connected to being male or female in given societies or communities at a given time.


Related Term: sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, social group, LGB(TI)

Note:
1. People fleeing human rights violations and persecution due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity may qualify for international protection. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) refers in Art. 10 'Reasons for persecution' to gender related aspects, including gender identity, which shall be given due consideration for the purposes of determining membership of a particular social group or identifying a characteristic of such a group.

2. UNHCR and EASO use the following definition of 'gender identity': '"Each person's deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body - which may involve, if chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means - and other expressions of gender, including of dress, speech and mannerism (see ICJ, Yogyakarta Principles - Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, ('Yogyakarta Principles'), March 2007. .

Source:Derived by EMN from the list of Concepts and Definitions on the UN Woman website

gender-based persecution
AT/DE/LU: Verfolgung aufgrund des Geschlechts
BG: преследване, основано на пола
CZ: pronásledování na základě genderové příslušnosti
FI: sukupuoleen perustuva vaino
FR/BE/LU: persécution fondée sur le genre
IE: géarleanúint ar bhonn inscne
HU: nemi hovatartozáson alapuló üldöztetés
IT: persecuzione di genere
LV: dzimumspecifiska vajāšana
PL: prześladowanie ze względu na płeć
SE: könsrelaterad förföljelse
SK: prenasledovanie z dôvodu rodovej príslušnosti
SI: preganjanje na podlagi spola
SV: könsrelaterad förföljelse
NO: kjønnsbasert forfolgelse (b) /kjønnsbasert forfølging (n)

The causal relationship between gender  and persecution i.e. when the reason for persecution is related to a person's gender.

Synonym(s): gender-related persecution

Narrower Term: gender-specific violence

Related Term: gender, social group, female genital  mutilation

Note: 

1. Gender-based persecution is a term that has no legal meaning per se. It is used to encompass the range of different claims in which gender is a relevant consideration in the determination of refugee status. Gender-related claims may be brought by either women or men, although they are more commonly brought by women.
2. Although gender is not specifically referenced as one of the grounds on which an individual can be recognized as a refugee and given protection, it is widely accepted that it can influence or dictate the reasons for persecution and as such there is no need to add an additional ground to the Refugee Convention definition. A gender-sensitive interpretation should be given to each of the Convention grounds 'race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion' although gender-based persecution is predominantly interpreted within the parameters of the particular social group ground.

 

Source: Crawley, Heaven: Gender-Related Persecution and Women’s Claims to Asylum and UNHCR: Guidelines on international protection: Gender-related persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Regfuees - May 2002

gender-specific violence
AT/DE/LU: Verfolgung aufgrund des Geschlechts
BG: Насилие свързано с полова принадлежност
CZ: násilí na základě genderové příslušnosti
FI: sukupuolistunut väkivalta / sukupuoliperusteinen väkivalta
FR/BE/LU: persécution fondée sur le genre
IE: foréigean dírithe ar inscne
HU: nemhez kötődő erőszak
IT: violenza di genere
LV: dzimumspecifiska vardarbīb
PL: przemoc uwarunkowana płcią
SE: könsspecifikt våld
SK: rodovo podmienené násilie / rodovo motivované násilie
SI: specifično spolno preganjanje
NO: kjønnsbasert vold (b) / kjønnsbasert vald (n)

Different types and forms of  harm and human right violations  which are gender-specific but which do not necessarily constitute persecution because of gender. 

Synonym(s): gender-specific harm, gender-based violence, GBV

Broader Term: gender-based persecution

Related Term: gender, female genital mutilation

Note:

1. Such forms of harm are more frequently used against women or affect women in a manner which is different to men and include, for example, sexual violence, rape, female genital mutilation, domestic abuse, forced abortion and sterilisation and denial of access to contraception.
2. The Recast Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU) recognises that gender-specific acts may amount to persecution.
3. Gender-specific violence is understood as a narrower term to gender-based persecution.

 

Source: Crawley, Heaven: Gender-Related Persecution and Women’s Claims to Asylum 

General Directors of Immigration Services Conference
AT/DE/LU: Konferenz der Generaldirektoren der Einwanderungsbehörden (GDISC)
BG: Конференция на генералните директори на имиграционните служби
CS: Sdružení generálních ředitelů imigračních služeb (GDISC)
EE: GDISC
ES: GDISC
FI: GDISC (Maahanmuuttovirastojen johtajien konferenssi)
FR/BE/LU: Conférence des directeurs généraux des services d'immigration (GDGSI)
GR: Διάσκεψη των Γενικών Διευθυντών των Υπηρεσιών Μετανάστευσης
HU: GDISC (Bevándorlási Hatóságok Főigazgatóinak Konferenciája)
IE: Comhdháil Stiúrthóirí Ginearálta ar Sheirbhísí Imirce (GDISC)
IT: Conferenza dei Direttori generali dei Servizi immigrazione
LT: Imigracijos tarnybų generalinių direktorių konferencija
LV: Imigrācijas dienestu ģenerāldirektoru konference (GDISC)
MT: Konvenzjoni (Il-) ta’ Ġinevra tal-1951 u l-Protokol tal-1967
NL/BE: GDISC
NO: GDISC-konferansen / The General Directors' Immigration Services Conference (GDISC)
PL: Konferencja Dyrektorów Generalnych Służb Imigracyjnych (GDISC)
PT: GDISC
RO: Conferinţa Directorilor Generali ai Serviciilor de Imigrare (GDISC)
SE: GDISC
SI: Konferenca generalnih direktorjev služb za priseljevanje (GDISC)
SK: Konferencia generálnych riaditeľov imigračných služieb / GDISC

A network established in order to facilitate practical cooperation in the field of asylum and migration between the Immigration Services of the different member countries.


Synonym(s): GDISC

Related Term: European Asylum Support Office

Note:
1.The GDISC was initiated in 2004. 2. Member countries comprise the 28 EU Member States, the three EU candidate countries (Iceland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey), the potential EU candidate Bosnia and Herzegovina and two Schengen associated countries (Norway and Switzerland).
3. For more information, see: http://www.gdisc.org/

Source:Derived by the EMN from the website of GDISC

General Programme "Security and Safeguarding Liberties"

Funding programme that aims to ensure effective European cross-border cooperation in the fight against crime and terrorism and in the strengthening of crime prevention. Related activities are supported through the implementation of two specific programmes: “Prevention, Preparedness and Consequence Management of Terrorism” (CIPS) and “Prevention of and Fight against Crime” (ISEC). The General Programme also funds the European Police College (CEPOL) and the European Police Office (Europol).

Geneva Convention & Protocol

The United Nations Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees, as amended by the New York Protocol of 31 January 1967.

Geneva Convention (1951)
Geneva Convention and Protocol
Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967
AT/DE/LU: Genfer Konvention von 1951 und Protokoll von 1967
BG: Женевска конвенция за статута на бежанците от 1951 г. и Протокол от 1967 г.
CS: Ženevská úmluva o uprchlících a Protokol z r. 1967
EE: 1951. a Genfi konventsioon ja 1967. a protokoll
ES: Convenio de Ginebra de 1951 y Protocolo de 1967
FI: Geneven yleissopimus vuodelta 1951 ja sen pöytäkirja vuodelta 1967
FR/BE/LU: Convention de Genève de 1951 et Protocole de 1967
GR: Σύμβαση της Γενεύης και Πρωτόκολλο
HU: Az 1951-es Genfi Egyezmény és az 1967-es Kiegészítő Jegyzőkönyv
IE: Coinbhinsiún na Ginéive (1951) agus Prótacal na Ginéive (1967)
IT: Convenzione di Ginevra del 1951 e Protocollo di New York del 1967
LT: 1951 m. Ženevos konvencija ir 1967 m. Protokolas
LV: 1951.gada Ženēvas konvencija un 1967.gada protokols
MT: Ġeneru / Ġens / Sess
NL/BE: Geneefse Conventie & Protocol Conventie van Genève (NL syn.: Verdrag van Genève, (In daily practice: Vluchtelingenverdrag)
NO: Genève-konvesjonen (1951) og Genève-protokollen (1967)
PL: Konwencja Genewska z 1951 r. i Protokół z 1967 r.
PT: Convenção de Genebra e Protocolo
RO: Convenţia de la Geneva din 1951 şi Protocolul de Implementare din 1967
SE: 1951 års konvention och 1967 års tilläggsprotokoll om flyktingars rättsliga ställning
SI: Ženevska konvencija iz leta 1951 in Protokol iz leta 1967
SK: Ženevský dohovor z roku 1951 a Protokol z roku 1967 / Dohovor o právnom postavení utečencov z 28. júla 1951 a Newyorský protokol z 31. januára 1967

The UN multilateral treaty which is the key legal document defining who is a refugee and who is not, the rights of refugees and the legal obligations of States towards them.


Synonym(s): Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees and its New York Protocol of 31 January 1967, CRSR, Geneva Convention and Protocol, The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol, Refugee Convention, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 Geneva Convention, 1967 Geneva Protocol

Related Term: Convention refugee , international protection, refugee law, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Note:
1. The 1967 Protocol removed geographical and temporal restrictions from the Convention. The 1951 Convention consolidates previous international instruments relating to refugees and provides the most comprehensive codification of the rights of refugees at international level. In contrast to earlier international refugee instruments, which applied to specific groups of refugees, the 1951 endorses a single definition of the term 'refugee' in Art. 1.
2. The Convention is both a status and rights-based instrument and is underpinned by a number of fundamental principles, most notably non-discrimination, non-penalisation and non-refoulement.

Source:Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Geneva Protocol (1967)
Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol
genocide
AT/DE/LU: Völkermord
BG: геноцид
CS: genocida
EE: genotsiid
ES: genocidio
FI: kansanmurha/joukkotuhonta
FR/BE/LU: génocide
GR: γενοκτονία
HU: népirtás
IE: cinedhíothú
IT: genocidio
LT: genocidas
LV: genocīds
MT: Ġenoċidju
NL/BE: genocide (syn. volkerenmoord)
NO: folkemord
PL: ludobójstwo
PT: genocídio
RO: genocid
SE: folkmord
SI: genocid
SK: genocída

An act committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.


Related Term: ethnic cleansing

Note:

  1. As outlined in the Convention, these acts include:
    1. (a) killing members of the group;
    2. (b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
    3. (c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
    4. (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
    5. (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  2. The definition is also outlined in Art. 6 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Source:Art. 2 of the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948

GFMD
Global Approach to Migration
Global Approach to Migration

The external dimension of the EU's migration policy that brings together migration, external relations and development policy to address migration in an integrated, comprehensive and balanced way in partnership with non-EU countries. It comprises the whole migration agenda, including legal and irregular migration, combating trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, strengthening protection for refugees, enhancing migrant rights and harnessing the positive links that exist between migration and development. It is underscored by the fundamental principles of partnership, solidarity and shared responsibility and uses the concept of "migratory routes" to develop and implement policy.

Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
AT/DE/LU: Gesamtansatz für Migration und Mobilität
BG: Глобален подход към миграцията и мобилността
CS: Globální přístup k migraci a mobilitě
EE: globaalne lähenemine rändele ja rahvastiku liikuvusele
ES: Enfoque Global de la Migración
FI: maahanmuuttoa koskeva kokonaisvaltainen lähestymistapa
FR/BE/LU: approche globale sur la question des migrations
GR: σφαιρική προσέγγιση της μετανάστευσης
HU: A migráció és mobilitás átfogó globális megközelítése
IE: Cur Chuige Domhanda i leith Imirce agus Soghluaisteachta
IT: Approccio globale in materia di migrazione e mobilità
LT: Visuotinis požiūris į migraciją ir mobilumą
LV: vispārēja pieeja migrācijai un mobilitātei
MT: Approċċ Globali għall-Migrazzjoni u l-Mobilità
NL/BE: wereldwijde aanpak van migratie
NO: global tilnærming til migrasjon og mobilitet
PL: Globalne Podejście do Migracji i Mobilności
PT: abordagem global da imigração
RO: Abordarea Globală a migraţiei şi Mobilitate
SE: No usual translation
SI: Globalni pristop k migraciji in mobilnosti
SK: Globálny prístup k migrácii a mobilite / GPMM

The overarching framework of the European Union's external migration policy based on genuine partnership with non-EU countries and addressing all aspects of migration and mobility issues in an integrated, comprehensive and balanced manner.


Synonym(s): GAMM, Global Approach to Migration,GAM
Narrower Term: migration profile,migration routes initiative

Related Term: Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration, Asia-Europe Meeting, Bali Process, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Cotonou Agreement, 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean, Global Forum on Migration and Development, High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration, migration profile, Migration, asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative, mobility partnership, Prague Process

Note
1. The Global Approach to Migration (GAM) was first defined by the European Council in December 2005 (COM(2007) 247) and further developed in 2007 and 2008. It has constituted the framework for the cooperation of the EU with third countries in the area of migration and asylum. The Stockholm Programme adopted in 2009 also acknowledged the importance of consolidating, strengthening and implementing the GAM.
2.The approach comprises the whole migration agenda, including legal and irregular migration, combating trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, strengthening protection for refugees, enhancing migrant rights and harnessing the positive links that exist between migration and development.
3. In 2011, the global approach was evaluated. As a result of this, the Commission highlighted the need for further strengthening the external migration policy and published in November 2011 the Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final on a new impetus to the EU's external migration policy. The renewed GAMM focuses on four main priorities: improving the organisation of legal migration and facilitated mobility, preventing and reducing irregular migration in an efficient, yet humane way, strengthening the synergies between migration and development, and strengthening international protection systems and the external dimension of asylum.

Source:Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final

Global Forum on Migration and Development
AT/DE/LU: Weltforum über Migration und Entwicklung
BG: Глобален форум за миграция и мобилност
CS: Globální fórum k migraci a rozvoji
EE: ülemaailmne rände-ja arengupoliitika foorum
ES: Foro Mundial sobre Migración y Desarrollo
FI: Muuttoliikettä ja kehitystä käsittelevä maailmanlaajuinen foorumi
FR/BE/LU: Forum mondial sur la migration et le développement
HU: Migrációs és Fejlesztési Globális Fórum (GFMD)
IE: Fóram Domhanda maidir le hImirce agus Forbairt
IT: Forum Globale su Migrazione e Sviluppo (GFMD)
LT: Pasaulinis migracijos ir vystymosi forumas
LV: Pasaules forums par migrāciju un attīstību
MT: Forum Globali fuq Migrazzjoni u Żvilupp (GFMD)
NL/BE: Globaal Forum omtrent Migratie en Ontwikkeling
NO: Globalt forum for migrasjon og utvikling (GFMD)
PL: Światowe Forum na Rzecz. Migracji i Rozwoju (GFMD)
PT: Forum global sobre migrações e desenvolvimento
RO: Forumul Glrobal cu privire la Migraţie şi Dezvoltare
SE: Globalt forum för migration och utveckling (GFMD)
SI: Globalni forum o migraciji in razvoju
SK: Globálne fórum o migrácii a rozvoji / GFMD

An initiative of the UN Member States to address the migration and development interconnections in practical and action-orientated ways.


Synonym(s): GFMD

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Cotonou Agreement, migration profile

Note:
1.The first session of the GFMD was held in 2007. 2. The GFMD is a voluntary, informal, non-binding and government-led process open to all States and Observers of the UN, to advance understanding and cooperation on the mutually reinforcing relationship between migration and development. 3. For more information, see the website of GFMD

Source:Website of the Global Forum on Migration and Development

Grooming of children on the Internet

Solicitation of children for sexual purposes on the Internet.

grounds for persecution
group determination of refugee status
AT/DE/LU: Gruppenfeststellung der Flüchtlingseigenschaft
BG: групово определяне на статут на бежанец
CS: no translation
EE: grupi pagulasseisundi kindlaksmääramine
ES: determinación colectiva de la condición de refugiado
FI: pakolaisaseman ryhmämäärittäminen
FR/BE/LU: détermination collective du statut de réfugié
GR: Ομάδα για τον καθορισμό του καθεστώτος του πρόσφυγα
HU: we do not use this term, it could be translated as "csoportos elismerés menekültként"
IE: stádas dídeanaí a chinneadh mar ghrúpa
IT: riconoscimento collettivo dello status di rifugiato
LT: pabėgėlio statusas (suteikiamas grupei)
LV: bēgļa statusa noteikšana grupai
MT: Għarfien kollettiv tal-istatus ta' rifuġjat
NL/BE: vaststelling van prima facie vluchtelingschap (syn.: vaststelling van vluchtelingschap zonder meer)
NO: gruppeavgjørelse av flyktningstatus (b) / gruppeavgjerd av flyktningestatus (n)
PL: grupowe uznanie statusu uchodźcy
PT: determinação colectiva do estatuto de refugiado (refugiados prima facie)
RO: determinarea statutului de refugiat în cazul unui grup
SE: no translation
SI: skupinsko določanje statusa begunca
SK: skupinové určenie štatútu utečenca

A practice by which all persons forming part of a large-scale influx are regarded as refugees on a prima facie basis, ensuring that protection and assistance needs are met without prior individual determination of refugee status.


Synonym(s): prima facie determination of refugee status

Related Term: group persecution, prima facie refugee

Note:
refugee statusmust normally be determined on an individual basis, but when large populations are displaced under circumstances that indicate that most members of the population could individually be considered refugees, and where the need to provide protection and assistance is urgent and/or where it may not be possible for practical reasons to carry out an individual determination of refugee status, each member of that population in question can be regarded prima facie (in the absence of evidence to the contrary) as a refugee. In other words, the presumption is that individual members of the population concerned would be considered as refugees in need of protection. For more information, see UNHCR: Refugee status determination 2005.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group, Migration Experts Sub-Group
AT/DE/LU: Gruppe der Acht (Rom-Lyon-Gruppe), Untergruppe von Migrationsexperten
BG: no translation
CS: G8 - skupina Řím - Lyon, podskupina migračních expertů
EE: G8, rände-ekspertide alagrupp
ES: subgrupo de expertos en migración Roma/Lyon del G8
FI: G8-maiden Roma / Lyon-ryhmän maahanmuuttaja-asiantuntijoiden alatyöryhmä
FR/BE/LU: sous-groupe des experts en migrations du Groupe de Lyon/Rome (G8)
HU: G8 Lyon/Róma Migrációs Szakértői Alcsoport
IE: Fo-Ghrúpa G8 Lyon/na Róimhe de Shaineolaithe Imirce
IT: Sottogruppo G8 Roma/Lione di esperti in migrazione (R/L)
LT: Didžiojo aštuoneto Liono/Romos ekspertų migracijos klausimais pogrupis
LV: G8 Romas - Lionas grupas migrācijas ekspertu apakšgrupa
MT: Grupp (Il-) ta' appoġġ G8 Lyon-Roma b'esperti fuq il-migrazzjoni
NL/BE: G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group
NO: G8 Lyon/Roma-undergruppen av migrasjonseksperter (b) / G8 Lyon/Roma-undergruppa av migrasjonsekspertar (n)
PL: Podgrupa ekspertów w zakresie migracji Lyon/Rzym - G8
PT: subgrupo de peritos de migração Leão/Roma – G8
RO: No usual translation
SE: G8:s Roma/Lyon-grupp
SI: Skupna osmih Rim - Lion, Podskupina strokovnjakov za migracije
SK: Podskupina migračných expertov skupiny G8 Lyon-Rím

A working group within the framework of G8 countries which tackles irregular migrationand trafficking in the broader context of combating terrorism and transnational crime.


Synonym(s): G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group, Roma-Lyon Group

Note:
1. The G8 Roma-Lyon Group mainly focuses on strategies relating to public security in an effort to combat terrorism and transnational crime. It gathers experts who are all civil servants from the G8 members, mainly from justice, foreign affairs and law enforcement services and intelligence agencies. The Group consists of several sub-groups dealing with different aspects of transnational crime.
2. G8 countries are Canada, FR, DE, IT, Japan, Russia, UK and the United States of America, with the European Commission also attending meetings.

Source:Website of the Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group

group persecution
AT/DE/LU: Gruppenverfolgung
BG: групово преследване
CS: no translation
EE: grupi tagakiusamine
ES: no translation
FI: ryhmään kohdistuva vaino
FR/BE/LU: persécution à l'encontre d'un groupe
GR: Δίωξη (ομάδα)
HU: csoportos üldöztetés
IE: géarleanúint ghrúpa
IT: persecuzione di gruppo
LT: persekiojamoji grupė
LV: grupas vajāšana
MT: Persekuzzjoni ta' grupp(-i) ta' nies
NL/BE: groepsvervolging
NO: forfølgelse av en gruppes medlemmer (b) / forfølging av medlemmene av ei gruppe (n)
PL: grupowe prześladowanie
PT: grupo alvo de perseguição
RO: persecuţie de grup
SE: förföljelse av en grupp
SI: skupinsko preganjanje
SK: prenasledovanie skupiny

A concept which recognises that persecutioncan be enacted against members of a section of the population (a 'group') that is suffering oppression or is threatened as a whole in its home country according to one of the criteria defined in the Geneva Convention of 1951to an extent that the members of such a group are not only covertly or potentially at risk, but quite tangibly and imminently requiring thus a certain intensity of persecution to warrant the general assumption of the individual persecution of each group member, irrespective of whether an individual has indeed been the victim of such persecution. In any case, whilst a group may be persecuted, an application for international protectionmust be examined on an individual basis in the Member States, and not all together as one group.


Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: group determination of refugee status, prima facie refugee

Note:
1. This concept has no legal definition in the Member States.
2. 'Group' is interpreted broadly as referring to persons of a particular religious belief, social (e.g. homosexuals), and/or coming from a particular region within a country.
3. An assumption of group persecution requires a certain intensity of persecution to warrant the general assumption of the individual persecution of each group member, irrespective of whether an individual has indeed been the victim of such persecution. This requires a threat emanating from so large a number of violations of rights protected by asylum law that it goes beyond separate individual infringements or a large number of individual infringements, but rather constitutes acts of persecution in the specific territory aimed at the group as a whole which increase, are repeated and spread to such an extent that there is not only a possibility, but a direct imminent danger of becoming a victim oneself for any member of such a group.
4. With consideration to the general principle of subsidiarity in refugee law, group persecution will only entitle a refugee to protection abroad, if the danger is present in the entire territory of the country of origin, i.e. if there is no internal alternative for protection. For the purposes of the danger of persecution after return, such an internal alternative must be reasonable and accessible from the country of refuge.
5.For more information on group persecution, see the European Database of Asylum Law( EDAL), i.e. German Federal Administrative Court, ruling of 12 April 2009 - 10 C 11.08.

Source:Definition according to the consistent practice of the German Federal Administrative Court based on ruling of 15 May 1990 - 9 C 17.89

guest worker
AT/DE/LU: Gastarbeiter
BG: гост работник
CS: no translation
EE: võõrtöötaja
ES: trabajador invitado
FI: vierastyöläinen
FR/BE/LU: travailleur étranger
GR: μετακαλούμενος εργαζόμενος
HU: vendégmunkás
IE: aoi-oibrí
IT: lavoratore ospite
LT: besisvečiuojantis darbuotojas
LV: viesstrādnieks
MT: Ħaddiem mistieden
NL/BE: gastarbeider
NO: gjestearbeider (b) / gjestearbeidar (n)
PL: gastarbaiter
PT: trabalhador convidado
RO: lucrător vizitator
SE: gästarbetare
SI: gostujoči delavec
SK: zahraničný hosťujúci pracovník

An economic migrantrecruited for a restricted time of settlement and employment.


Broader Term: economic migrant

Note:
This term is no longer used in the EU context. It was more or less restricted to migration flows in the 1950s and 1960s.

Source: Developed by EMN

guest worker

Please see entry for migrant worker

habitual residence

Please see entry for usual residence

harassment
AT/DE/LU: Belästigung
BG: тормоз
CS: obtěžování
EE: ahistamine
ES: acoso
FI: häirintä
FR/BE/LU: harcèlement
GR: παρενόχληση
HU: zaklatás
IE: ciapadh
IT: molestia
LT: priekabiavimas
LV: uzmākšanās
MT: Molestja / Fastidju
NL/BE: intimidatie
NO: trakassering/mobbing
PL: molestowanie
PT: perseguição
RO: persecuţie, hărţuire
SE: trakasserier
SI: nadlegovanje
SK: obťažovanie

Unwanted conduct related to racial or ethnic origin with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment.

 

Source:Art. 2 (3) of Council Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive)

harmful onward movement
AT/DE/LU: gefährliche Weiterwanderung
BG: no translation
CS: no translation
EE: ohtlik (edasi) liikumine
ES: movimientos irregulares peligrosos
FI: vaarallisin keinoin siirtyminen (uudistermi)
FR/BE/LU: mouvement secondaire dangereux
HU: két hely közötti veszélyes átjutás
IE: athghluaiseacht dhainséarach
IT: spostamento pericoloso
LT: pavojingas judėjimas pirmyn
LV: bīstama pārvietošanās
MT: Mogħdija ’l quddiem dannuża / ta’ ħsara
NL/BE: no translation
NO: risikabel viderereise (b) / risikabel vidarereise (n)
PL: niebezpieczne dalsze przemieszczanie się
PT: rotas perigosas
RO: mişcare de avansare periculoasă
SE: No translation
SI: škodljivo gibanje, ki gre dalje / Škodljivo gibanje, ki se nadaljuje
SK: riskantné presúvanie sa utečencov a migrantov

The movement of Refugees and migrants by dangerous means from one location to another.


Note:
1. Harmful movement may include movement that risks people's lives (e.g. by sea) or which puts them at risk of trafficking.
2. This term has only been recently put into use by practitioners.

Source:Derived by EMN from UNHCR: Draft Proposal for a Central Mediterranean Sea Initiative: EU solidarity for rescue-at-sea, protection and comprehensive responses, 2013

healthcare benefits

Please see entry for access to healthcare

Heroin

Heroin is a crude preparation of diamorphine. It is a semisynthetic product obtained by acetylation of morphine, which occurs as a natural product in opium: the dried latex of certain poppy species (e.g. Papaver somniferum L.). Diamorphine is a narcotic analgesic used in the treatment of severe pain. Illicit heroin may be smoked or solubilised with a weak acid and injected. Whereas opium has been smoked since historical times, diamorphine was first synthesised in the late nineteenth century. Heroin is under international control.

Source:
High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration
AT/DE/LU: Hochrangige Arbeitsgruppe Asyl und Einwanderung
BG: Работна група на високо равнище "Убежище и миграция"
CS: pracovní skupina na vysoké úrovni pro azyl a migraci
EE: kõrgetasemine varjupaiga ja rände töörühm
ES: grupo de trabajo de alto nivel sobre migración y asilo
FI: turvapaikka- ja maahanmuuttoasioiden korkean tason työryhmä
FR/BE/LU: Groupe de haut niveau “Asile et Migration”
GR: Ομάδα Εργασίας Υψηλού Επιπέδου για το 'Ασυλο και την Μετανάστευση
HU: Magas Szintű Menekültügyi és Migrációs Munkacsoport
IE: Grúpa Oibre Ardleibhéil ar Thearmann agus Imirce
IT: Gruppo di lavoro ad alto livello in materia di asilo e migrazione
LT: Prieglobsčio ir migracijos aukšto lygio darbo grupė
LV: Augsta līmeņa darba grupa migrācijas un patvēruma jautājumos
MT: Grupp ta' Ħidma ta' Livell Għoli dwar l-Ażil u l-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Werkgroep op hoog niveau voor asiel en migratie
NO: høynivågruppen for asyl og migrasjon (b) / høgnivågruppa for asyl og migrasjon (n)
PL: Grupa Robocza Wysokiego Szczebla ds. Azylu i Migracji
PT: grupo alto nível asilo e migração
RO: Grupul de lucru la nivel înalt în domeniul migraţiei şi azilului
SE: Högnivågruppen för asyl och migration
SI: Delovna skupina visokih predstavnikov za azil in migracije
SK: Pracovná skupina na vysokej úrovni pre azyl a migráciu / HLWG

A strategic group which works under the auspices of the European Council and which was set up to establish a comprehensive and integrated strategy for the EU’s cooperation with third countries in the area of asylum and migration.


Synonym(s): HLWG

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Strategic Committee on Immigration Frontiers and Asylum

Note:
1. The HLWG was set up in December 1998 to prepare cross-pillar Action Plans for the countries of origin and transit of asylum seekers and migrants.
2. The HLWG's focus is on external relations with third countries, particularly within the context of the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility. Its objective is to strengthen the external dimension of the EU’s asylum and migration policies based on dialogue, cooperation and partnership with countries of origin and transit in the areas of legal migration, irregular migration, migration and development. The Group also prepares conclusions and recommendations on asylum and migration to be adopted by the Council. They carry out an assessment of the political, economic and human rights situation in countries of origin and provide a joint analysis of the causes and consequences of migration.

Source:Conclusions of the General Affairs Council, December 1998

highly qualified employment
AT/DE/LU: hochqualifizierte Beschäftigung
BG: висококвалифицирана заетост
CS: zaměstnání vyžadující vysokou kvalifikaci
EE: kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud töö
ES: empleo altamente cualificado
FI: korkeaa pätevyyttä vaativa työ
FR/BE/LU: emploi hautement qualifié
HU: Magasan képzett személy / Munkavállaló foglalkoztatása
IE: fostaíocht ardoilte
IT: lavoro altamente qualificato
LT: aukštos profesinės kvalifikacijos darbas
LV: augsti kvalificēta nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: hooggekwalificeerde baan
NO: sysselsetting av høyt kvalifisert arbeidskraft (b) / sysselsetjing av høgt kvalifisert arbeidskraft (n)
PL: zatrudnienie pracowników wysoko wykwalifikowanych
PT: emprego altamente qualificado
RO: loc de muncă înalt calificat
SE: högkvalificerad anställning
SI: visoko kvalificirana zaposlitev
SK: vysokokvalifikované zamestnanie

The employment of a person who:

  1. in the Member State concerned, is protected as an employee under national employment law and/or in accordance with national practice, irrespective of the legal relationship, for the purpose of exercising genuine and effective work for, or under the direction of, someone else;
  2. is paid; and,
  3. has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher professional qualifications.


Related Term: EU Blue Card, highly qualified migrant

Note:
In some Member States, there is a distinction between 'highly skilled', referring to someone who has the required adequate and specific competence as proven by higher educational qualifications and/or extensive (vocational) experience; and 'highly qualified', referring to someone who has required adequate and specific competence as proven by higher educational qualifications only. In the EU context, however, these terms are considered to be interchangeable, e.g. the definition for 'highly skilled' used in the Migratory Statistics Regulation (862/2007) uses the definition for 'highly qualified'.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

Highly qualified employment

The employment of a person who:

  • in the EU State concerned, is protected as an employee under national employment law and/or in accordance with national practice, irrespective of the legal relationship, for the purpose of exercising genuine and effective work for, or under the direction of, someone else,
  • is paid,
  • has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher professional qualifications.
highly qualified migrant
AT/DE/LU: hochqualifizierter Migrant
BG: висококвалифициран миграант
CS: vysoce kvalifikovaný zaměstnanec; vysoce kvalifikovaný pracovník
EE: kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante altamente cualificada
FI: korkeasti koulutettu maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant hautement qualifié
GR: μετανάστης υψηλης εξειδίκευσης
HU: magasan képzett migráns
IE: imirceach ardoilte
IT: migrante altamente qualificato
LT: aukštos profesinės kvalifikacijos migrantas
LV: augsti kvalificēts migrants
MT: Migrant(a) bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: hooggekwalificeerde migrant
NO: høyt kvalifisert migrant (b) / høgt kvalifisert migrant (n)
PL: migrant wysoko wykwalifikowany
PT: Migrante altamente qualificado
RO: migrant înalt calificat
SE: högkvalificerad migrant
SI: visoko kvalificiran migrant
SK: vysokokvalifikovaný migrant

In the global context, a person falling within ILO ISCO-88 Classes 1, 2 and 3, e.g. a person qualified as a manager, executive, professional, technician or similar, who moves within the internal labour markets of transnational corporations and international organisations, or who seeks employment through international labour markets for scarce skills.

In the EU context, a third-country national who seeks employment in a Member State and has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher professional qualifications.



Synonym(s): business migrant, highly qualified migrant worker, highly skilled migrant

Broader Term: migrant worker

Related Term: EU Blue Card, highly qualified employment

Note:
1. In some Member States, there is a distinction between 'highly skilled', referring to someone who has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher educational qualifications, and/or extensive (vocational) experience; and 'highly qualified', referring to someone who has required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher educational qualifications only. In the EU context, however, these terms are considered to be interchangeable, e.g. the definition for 'highly skilled' used in the Migratory Statistics Regulation (862/2007) uses the definition for 'highly qualified'.
2. The understanding of who is a 'highly qualified' and a 'qualified third-country national' varies in the Member States, with different definitions and concepts existing. Often these depend on national labour market demands and other national criteria. For more information, see EMN: Attracting highly qualified and qualified third-country nationals, 2013.

Source: Global context: UNESCO Glossary of Migration-related Terms
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)

Highly qualified migrant

A person with qualifications as a manager, executive, professional, technician or similar, who moves within the internal labour markets of trans-national corporations and international organisations, or who seeks employment through international labour markets for scarce skills.

highly qualified migrant worker

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

highly skilled migrant

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant

Home-made explosive

An explosive fabricated from certain easily accessible and common household chemical precursors, not for commercial or military purposes.

Source:
host country
AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmeland
BG: приемаща страна
CS: hostitelský stát
EE: vastuvõttev riik
ES: país de acogida
FI: vastaanottava maa
FR/BE/LU: pays d’accueil
GR: χώρα υποδοχής
HU: fogadó ország
IE: tír aíochta
IT: paese ospitante
LT: priimančioji valstybė
LV: uzņēmējvalsts
MT: Pajjiż li jilqa'
NL/BE: gastland
NO: vertsland
PL: kraj przyjmujący
PT: país de acolhimento
RO: ţară gazdă
SE: värdland
SI: država gostiteljica
SK: hostiteľská krajina / prijímajúca krajina

The Member State/country in which a third-country national/non-national takes up residence.


Synonym(s): receiving country

Narrower Term: host Member State

Related Term: host society, right of residence

Source: Developed by EMN

Host country

The EU State in which a non-EU national takes up legal residence.

Host EU State

The EU State in which a FRONTEX coordinated joint operation, pilot project or rapid intervention takes place or from which it is launched.

host Member State
AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmemit- gliedstaat
BG: приемаща държава членка
CS: hostitelský členský stát
EE: vastuvõttev liikmesriik
ES: Estado Miembro de acogida
FI: vastaanottava jäsenvaltio
FR/BE/LU: Etat membre d'accueil
GR: κ-μ υποδοχής
HU: befogadó tagállam
IE: ballstát aíochta
IT: Stato membro ospitante
LT: priimančioji valstybė narė
LV: uzņēmējdalībvalsts
MT: Stat Membru Ospitanti
NL/BE: gastlidstaat
NO: vertsmedlemsland
PL: przyjmujące państwo członkowskie
PT: estado membro de acolhimento
RO: Stat Membu gazdă
SE: mottagande medlemsstat
SI: gostujoča država članica
SK: hostiteľský členský štát / prijímajúci členský štát

The Member State to which a union citizen moves in order to exercise their right to free movement and residence.


Broader Term: host country

Source: Art. 2(3) of Council Directive 2004/38/EC (Free Movement Directive)

host society
AT/DE/LU: Aufnahmegesellschaft
BG: приемащо общество
CS: hostitelská společnost
EE: vastuvõttev ühiskond
ES: sociedad de acogida
FI: vastaanottava yhteiskunta
FR/BE/LU: société d’accueil
GR: κοινωνία υποδοχής
HU: befogadó társadalom
IE: sochaí aíochta
IT: società di accoglienza
LT: priimančioji visuomenė
LV: vietējā sabiedrība
MT: Soċjetà li tilqa'
NL/BE: gastsamenleving (syn.: gastmaatschappij)
NO: vertssamfunn
PL: społeczeństwo przyjmujące
PT: sociedade de acolhimento
RO: societate gazdă
SE: värdsamhälle
SI: gostujoča družba
SK: hostiteľská spoločnosť / prijímajúca spoločnosť

In the EU context, residents (both nationals and non-nationals) of a national/regional/local community within a Member State.


Broader Term: host Member State

Related Term: Common Basic Principles, host country, integration

Note:
In accordance with integrationbeing a dynamic, two-way process, the activities undertaken by the host society serve to facilitate the integration of a third-country nationalaccording to the Common Basic Principles.

Source: Developed by EMN

Hotspot Approach
AT/DE/LU: Hotspot-Konzept; Brennpunkt-System (EU acquis)
BG: Подход за създаване на горещи точки
CZ: přístup s využitím Hotspotů
FI: järjestelykeskus-toimintamalli
FR/BE/LU: approche des hotspots
IE: Cur Chuige Ball Te
HU: Hotspot megközelítés
IT: sistema basato sui punti di crisi
LV: "karsto punktu" sistēma
PL: podejście Hotspot / system Hotspot (w kontekście wsparcia państw członkowskich, które zmagają się z presją migracyjną na granicach zewnętrznych UE)
SE: Hotspotmetod (Krisplatsmetod, Akutstrategi)
SK: koncepcia krízových vstupných centier a problémových oblastí (EU acquis) / systém hotspotov / systém migračných hotspotov
SL: pristop "hotspot"
NO: helhetlig prosedyre (b) / helheitleg prosedyre (n)

Approach where EASO, Frontex , Europol and Eurojust work on the ground with the authorities of the frontline Member
States which are facing disproportionate migratory pressures at the EU’s external borders to help to fulfil their obligations under EU law and swiftly identify, register and fingerprint incoming migrants. The work of the agencies will be complementary to one another.

Synonym(s): Hotspots System


Note: 

1. The Hotspot Approach was developed by the European Commission as part of the immediate action to assist Member States located at the external EU border and presented in the European Agenda on Migration in May 2015.
2. The operational support provided under the Hotspot Approach will concentrate on registration, identification, fingerprinting and debriefing of asylum seekers, as well as return operations. Those claiming asylum will be immediately channelled into an asylum procedure where EASO support teams will help to process asylum applications as quickly as possible. For those who are not in need of protection, Frontex will help Member States by coordinating the return of irregular migrants. Europol and Eurojust will assist the host Member State with investigations to dismantle smuggling and trafficking networks.
3. Italy and Greece are the first two Members States where this Hotspot approach is currently being implemented. Other Member States will also be able to benefit from the Hotspot Approach upon request.
4. The Hotspot Approach will also contribute to the implementation of the temporary relocation schemes proposed by the European Commission on 27 May and 9 September 2015: people in clear need of international protection will be identified in frontline Member States for relocation to other EU Member States where their asylum application will be processed.

 

Source: European Commission: The Hotspot approach to managing exceptional migratory flows - 11 September 2015

Hotspot Area

Hotspot area means an area in which the host Member State, the Commission, relevant Union agencies and participating Member States cooperate, with the aim of managing an existing or potential disproportionate migratory challenge characterised by a significant increase in the number of migrants arriving at the external borders.

human rights
AT/DE/LU: Menschenrechte
BG: човешки права
CS: lidská práva
EE: inimõigused
ES: derechos humanos
FI: ihmisoikeudet
FR/BE/LU: droits de l'homme
HU: emberi jogok
IE: cearta an duine
IT: diritti umani
LT: žmogaus teisės
LV: cilvēktiesības
MT: Drittijiet (Id-) tal-bniedem
NL/BE: mensenrechten
NO: menneskerettigheter (b) / menneskerettar (n)
PL: prawa człowieka
PT: direitos humanos
RO: drepturile omului
SE: mänskliga rättigheter
SI: človekove pravice
SK: ľudské práva

Agreed international standards that recognise and protect the dignity and integrity of every individual, without any distinction.


Related Term: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Note:
Human rights form part of customary international law and are stipulated in a variety of national, regional and international legal documents generally referred to as human rights instruments.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of terms

human rights law
AT/DE/LU: Menschenrechte, internationale Menschenrechts-normen
BG: закон за човешките права
CS: zákony o lidských právech
EE: inimõiguste õigus
ES: legislación de derechos humanos
FI: ihmisoikeuslainsäädäntö
FR/BE/LU: droit relatif aux droits de l'homme
HU: emberi jogok
IE: na dlíthe i leith Chearta an Duine, reachtaíocht i leith Chearta an Duine
IT: diritto dei diritti umani
LT: žmogaus teisių teisė
LV: cilvēktiesības
MT: Liġi (Il-) dwar id-drittijiet tal-bniedem
NL/BE: humanitair recht
NO: menneskerettslovgivning (b) / menneskerettslovgjeving (n)
PL: prawo praw człowieka
PT: legislação de direitos humanos
RO: legislaţia privind drepturile omului
SE: lagstiftning till skydd för mänskliga rättigheter
SI: pravo o človekovih pravicah
SK: právo v oblasti ľudských práv

The body of customary international law, human rights instruments and national law that recognises and protects human rights.


Related Term: refugee law

Note:
Refugee law and human rights law complement each other.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of terms

human trafficking

Please see entry for trafficking in human beings

humanitarian protection
AT/DE/LU: humanitärer Schutz
BG: хуманитарен статут
CS: humanitární ochrana
EE: humanitaarkaitse
ES: protección humanitaria
FI: humanitaarinen suojelu
FR/BE/LU: protection humanitaire
GR: προστασία για ανθρωπιστικούς λόγους
HU: humanitárius védelem
IE: cosaint dhaonnúil
IT: protezione umanitaria
LT: humanitarinė apsauga
LV: humānā aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni umanitarja
NL/BE: bescherming op humanitaire gronden
NO: beskyttelse på humanitært grunnlag (b) / vern på humanitært grunnlag (n)
PL: ochrona o charakterze humanitarnym
PT: protecção humanitária
RO: protecţie umanitară
SE: humanitärt skydd
SI: humanitarna zaščita
SK: humanitárna ochrana

A form of non-EU harmonised protection nowadays normally replaced by subsidiary protection, except in some Member States (see Notes).


Broader Term: international protection

Related Term: de facto refugee, resettled refugee, subsidiary protection

Note:
1. The UK has opted into the Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) but does not (legally) use the term 'subsidiary protection'. The inclusion of humanitarian protection within the UK immigration rules fully transposes the subsidiary protection provisions of the Qualification Directive into UK law, as it is defined as protection given to someone under the terms of the European Convention on Human Rights.
2. IE has also opted-into the Qualification Directive, and uses the term 'leave to remain'.
3. In DE, FI and IT, humanitarian protection and subsidiary protection are different concepts. In DE and IT, humanitarian protection is the reception and residence of refugees under international law or on humanitarian or political (DE only) grounds, and in FI, humanitarian protection is granted to foreign nationals who cannot return to their country of origin or country of former habitual residence as a result of an environmental catastrophe or a bad security situation, which may be due to an international or internal armed conflict or a poor human rights situation.
4. In EE, LV, this term is not used.
5. AT and ES use a similar expression, namely 'residence permit on humanitarian grounds'.
6. In BG, humanitarian protection encompasses subsidiary protection as well as protection granted for other humanitarian reasons (see Art. 9, SG No 52 of 2007).
7. In NO, a residence permit may be granted, even if the other conditions laid down in the Act are not satisfied, provided there are strong humanitarian considerations or the foreign national has a particular connection with the realm. To determine whether there are strong humanitarian considerations, an overall assessment shall be made of the case. Importance may be attached, inter alia, to whether the foreign national is an unaccompanied minor who would be without proper care if they were returned; the foreign national needs to stay in the realm due to compelling health circumstances; there are social or humanitarian circumstances relating to the return situation that give grounds for granting a residence permit; the foreign national has been a victim of human trafficking. (For further information, see Immigration Act of May 2008, Chaper 5, Section 38).

Source: Developed by EMN

Identification

The process of determining a person's identity through a database search against multiple sets of data (one-to-many check).

identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings
AT/DE/LU: Feststellung/ Identifizierung eines Opfers von Menschenhandel
BG: идентификация на жертва на трафик на хора
CS: identifikace oběti obchodování s lidmi
EE: inimkaubanduse ohvri tuvastamine
EL: ανίχνευση σας θυμάτων εμπορίας ανθρώπων
ES: identificación de víctima de trata de seres humanos
FI: ihmiskaupan uhrin tunnistaminen
FR/BE/LU: identification d'une victime de la traite des êtres humains
HU: emberkereskedelem áldozatának azonosítása
IE: íospartach gáinneála a shainaithint
IT: identificazione della vittima di tratta di esseri umani
LT: prekybos žmonėmis aukos nustatymas
LV: cilvēku tirdzniecības upura identificēšana
MT: Identifikazzjoni (L-) ta’ vittma fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL/BE: herkennen van een slachtoffer van mensenhandel
NO: identifisering av offer for menneskehandel
PL: identyfikacja ofiar handlu ludźmi
PT: identificação de vítima de tráficos de seres humanos
RO: identificarea unei victime a traficului de fiinţe umane
SE: identifiering av offer för människohandel
SI: prepoznavanje žrtve trgovine z ljudmi
SK: identifikácia obete obchodovania s ľuďmi

The process of confirming and characterising a situation of trafficking in human beings for further implementation of support.


Narrower Term: formal identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Broader Term: trafficking in human beings

Related Term: detection of a victim of trafficking in human beings

Source: Derived by EMN from Varandas, I. & J. Martins: Signalling Identification Integration of Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation: Construction of a Guide, 2007

identified victim of trafficking in human beings
AT/DE/LU: identifiziertes Opfer von Menschenhandel
BG: идентифицирана жертва на трафик на хора
CS: identifikovaná oběť obchodování s lidmi
EE: (tuvastatud) inimkaubanduse ohver
ES: victima reconocida de trata de seres humanos
FI: tunnistettu ihmiskaupan uhri
FR/BE/LU: victime identifiée de la traite des êtres humains
HU: emberkereskedelem azonosított áldozata
IE: íospartach gáinneála sainaitheanta
IT: vittima identificata di tratta di esseri umani
LT: nustatyta prekybos žmonėmis auka
LV: identificēts cilvēku tirdzniecības upuris
MT: Vittma identifikata fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL/BE: geïdentificeerd slachtoffer van mensenhandel
NO: identifisert offer for menneskehandel
PL: zidentyfikowana ofiara handlu ludźmi
PT: vítima identificada de tráfico de seres humanos
RO: victimă a traficului de fiinţe umane identificată
SE: identifierat offer för människohandel
SI: identificirana žrtev trgovine z ljudmi
SK: identifikovaná obeť obchodovania s ľuďmi

A person who has been formally identified as a victim of trafficking in human beings according to the relevant formal authority in Member States.


Broader Term: trafficking in human beings

Source: Derived by EMN from Eurostat: Trafficking in human beings, 2013

illegal employment
AT/DE/LU: illegale Beschäftigung
BG: незаконна заетост
CS: neoprávněné zaměstnávání
EE: ebaseaduslik töötamine
ES: empleo ilegal
FI: laiton työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi illégal
GR: παράνομη απασχόληση
HU: illegális foglalkoztatás
IE: fostaíocht neamhdhleathach
IT: lavoro illegale
LT: nelegalus darbas
LV: nelikumīga nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg illegali
NL/BE: illegale tewerkstelling (syn.: illegale arbeid, zwart werken)
NO: illegalt arbeid
PL: nielegalne zatrudnienie
PT: emprego ilegal
RO: angajare ilegală, muncă la negru
SE: olaglig anställning/sysselsättning
SI: ilegalna zaposlitev / nezakonita zaposlitev
SK: nelegálne zamestnávanie

Economic activity carried out in violation of provisions set by legislation.


Synonym(s): clandestine employment

Narrower Term: illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national, illegal employment of a legally staying third-country national

Related Term: irregular migrant

Note:
1. In the EU context, this covers both the illegal employment of a third-country national who is irregularly staying on the territory of a Member State and of a legally resident third-country national working outside the conditions of the residence permit and/or without a work permit.
2. In the context of Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive) this means the employment of an illegally staying third-country national (see Art. 2(d)).

Source:Derived by EMN from definition for 'clandestine employment' in the ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008

illegal employment of a legally staying third-country national
AT/DE/LU: illegale Beschäftigung eines Drittstaatsangehörigen mit rechtmäßigem Aufenthalt
BG: незаконно наемане на законно пребиваващ гражданин на трета страна
CS: neoprávněné zaměstnávání oprávněně pobývajícího státního příslušníka třetí země
EE: seaduslikult riigis viibiva kolmanda riigi kodaniku ebaseadusliku töötamise võimaldamine
ES: empleo ilegal de nacional de tercer país en situación de residencia legal
FI: laillisesti oleskelevan kolmannen maan kansalaisen laiton työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi illegal d'un ressortissant de pays tiers en séjour régulier
GR: παράνομη απασχόληση νομίμως διαμένοντος υπηκόου τρίτης χώρας
HU: jogszerűen / legálisan tartózkodó harmadik országbeli állampolgárok illegális foglalkoztatása
IE: fostaíocht neamhdhleathach náisiúnaigh tríú tír atá i láthair go neamhdhleathach
IT: lavoro illegale di un cittadino di un paese terzo regolarmente soggiornante
LT: teisėtai šalyje esančio trečiosios šalies piliečio nelegalus darbas
LV: trešās valsts pilsoņa, kas likumīgi uzturas valstī, nelikumīga nodarbinātība
MT: Impieg illegali ta' ċittadin(a) minn pajjiż terz residenti b'mod irregolari
NL/BE: illegale tewerkstelling van legaal verblijvende derdelanders
NO: ulovlig sysselsetting av tredjestatsborgere med lovlig opphold (b) / ulovleg sysselsetjing av tredjestatsborgarar med lovleg opphald (n)
PL: nielegalne zatrudnienie obywatela państwa trzeciego przebywającego legalnie
PT: emprego ilegal
RO: angajarea ilegală a străinilor cu şedere legală
SE: olaglig anställning av tredjelandsmedborgare som vistas lagligt
SI: nezakonita zaposlitev državljana tretje države, ki prebiva zakonito
SK: nelegálne zamestnávanie oprávnene sa zdržiavajúcich štátnych príslušníkov tretích krajín

Employment of a legally staying third-country national working outside the conditions of their residence permit and/or without a work permit. This is subject to each Member State's national law.


Broader Term: illegal employment

Source:Derived by EMN from definition of 'illegal employment' in Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national
AT/DE/LU: illegale Beschäftigung eines Drittstaatsangehörigen ohne rechtmäßigen Aufenthalt
BG: незаконно наемане на незаконно пребиваващ гражданин на трета страна
CS: neoprávněné zaměstnávání neoprávněně pobývajícího státního příslušníka třetí země
EE: ebaseaduslikult riigis viibiva kolmanda riigi kodaniku ebaseadusliku töötamise võimaldamine
ES: empleo ilegal de nacional de tercer país en situación irregular
FI: laittomasti oleskelevan kolmannen maan kansalaisen laiton työnteko
FR/BE/LU: emploi illegal d'un ressortissant de pays tiers en séjour irrégulier
GR: παράνομη απασχόληση παράνομα διαμένοντος υπηκόου τρίτης χώρας
HU: illegálisan tartózkodó harmadik országbeli állampolgárok illegális foglalkoztatása
IE: fostaíocht neamhdhleathach náisiúnaigh tríú tír atá cónaitheach go neamhdhleathach
IT: lavoro illegale di un cittadino di un paese terzo irregolarmente soggiornante
LT: neteisėtai šalyje esančio trečiosios šalies piliečio nelegalus darbas
LV: trešās valsts pilsoņa, kas nelikumīgi uzturas valstī, nelikumīga nodarbinātība
MT: Impjieg illegali ta' ċittadin(a) minn pajjiż terz residenti b'mod regolari
NL/BE: illegale tewerkstelling van illegaal verblijvende derdelanders
NO: ulovlig sysselsetting av tredjestatsborgere uten lovlig opphold (b) / ulovleg sysselsetjing av tredjestatsborgarar utan lovleg opphald (n)
PL: nielegalne zatrudnienie obywatela państwa trzeciego przebywającego nielegalnie
PT: emprego de imigrantes ilegais
RO: angajarea ilegală a străinilor cu şedere ilegală
SE: olaglig anställning av tredjelandsmedborgare som vistas olagligt
SI: nezakonita zaposlitev državljana tretje države, ki nezakonito prebiva
SK: nelegálne zamestnávanie neoprávnene sa zdržiavajúcich štátnych príslušníkov tretích krajín

The employment of an illegally staying third-country national.


Broader Term: illegal employment

Related Term: employer sanction , illegal employment of a legally staying third-country national , third-country national found to be illegally pesent

Note:
The term itself has been slightly modified from the Employer Sanctions Directive definition in order to be more explicit.

Source:Art. 2 (d) of Council Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)

immigrant
AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderer (EU acquis), Einwanderer, Immigrant
BG: имигрант
CS: přistěhovalec / imigrant
EE: sisserändaja
ES: inmigrante
FI: maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: immigrant
GR: μετανάστης
HU: bevándorló
IE: inimirceach
IT: immigrato
LT: imigrantas
LV: imigrants
MT: Immigrant(a)
NL/BE: immigrant
NO: innvandrer (b) / innvandrar (n)
PL: imigrant
PT: imigrante
RO: imigrant
SE: invandrare
SI: priseljenec
SK: prisťahovalec (national law) / imigrant

In the global context, a non-resident (both national or alien) arriving in a State with the intention to remain for a period exceeding a year.

In the EU context, a person who establishes their usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country.


Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: emigrant, immigration

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration EU context: Art. 2(b) and (f) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics)

Immigrant

A person undertaking an immigration.

immigration
AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderung (EU acquis), Einwanderung, Immigration
BG: имиграция
CS: přistěhovalectví / imigrace
EE: sisseränne
ES: inmigración
FI: maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: immigration
GR: Имиграция
HU: bevándorlás
IE: inimirce
IT: immigrazione
LT: imigracija
LV: imigrācija
MT: Immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: immigratie
NO: innvandring
PL: imigracja
PT: imigração
RO: imigraţie
SE: invandring
SI: priseljevanje
SK: prisťahovalectvo (national law) / imigrácia

In the global context, the act of arriving in a State with the intention to remain for a period exceeding one year.

In the EU context, the action by which a person establishes their usual residence in the territory of a Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country.


Broader Term: Migration
Related Term: emigration, immigrant

Source: Global context: UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration
EU context: Art. 2(b) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics)

Immigration

The action by which a person establishes his or her usual residence in the territory of an EU State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another EU State or a non-EU country.

Immigration Liaison Officer
AT/DE/LU: Verbindungsbeamter für Einwanderungsfragen
BG: офицер за връзка по имиграция
CS: imigrační styčný důstojník
EE: Euroopa sisserände sideametnik
ES: oficiales de enlace de inmigración
FI: maahanmuuttoalan yhdyshenkilö
FR/BE/LU: officier de liaison « Immigration »
GR: Σύνδεσμος Μετανάστευσης (αξιωματούχος)
HU: bevándorlási összekötő tiszt(viselő)
IE: Oifigeach Idirchaidrimh Inimirce (ILO)
IT: funzionario di collegamento incaricato dell'immigrazione
LT: imigracijos ryšių palaikymo pareigūnas
LV: imigrācijas sadarbības koordinators
MT: Uffiċjal tal-Kollegament Responsabbli għall-Immigrazzjoni (UKRI)
NL/BE: immigratieverbindingsfunctionaris, (syn.: immigratieverbindingsambtenaar; in daily practice: ILO)
NO: kontaktperson med ansvar for immigrasjon
PL: oficer łącznikowy ds. imigracji
PT: Oficial de ligação de imigração
RO: ofiţer de legătură pe probleme de imigraţie (in daily practice ILO)
SE: sambandsman för invandring
SI: Uradnik za zvezo za priseljevanje
SK: imigračný styčný dôstojník

A representative of one of the Member States, posted abroad by the immigration service or other competent authorities in order to establish and maintain contacts with the authorities of the host country with a view to contributing to the prevention and combating of irregular migration, the returnof irregular migrants and the management of legal migration.



Synonym(s): ILO, national liaison officer, state liaison officer

Related Term: Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services, European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

Note:
1. Immigration liaison officers are to collect information concerning illegal immigration for use either at operational level or at strategic level, or both. Such information could substantially contribute to the activities of Frontex relating to risk analysis; closer cooperation between different immigration liaison officers networks and Frontex should be established to that effect, as immigration liaison officers shall also be considered the liaison officers who are dealing with immigration issues as part of their duties.
2. The immigration liaison officers could be posted to the national consular authorities of Member States in third countries or to the relevant authorities of other Member States, but also to the competent authorities of the third countries, as well as to international organisations for a reasonable time period to be determined by the posting Member State.
3. An amendment to Regulation (EC) 377/2004 modifying its Articles 3, 4 and 6 was adopted as Regulation (EU) No 493/2011 on 5 April 2011.

Source:Art. 1(1) of Council Regulation (EC) 377/2004 (Immigration Liaison Officer Regulation)

Immigration Liaison Officer (ILO)

A representative of one of the EU States posted abroad by the immigration service or other competent authority in order to establish and maintain contacts with the authorities of the host country with a view to contributing to the prevention and combating of irregular immigration, the return of irregular migrants and the management of legal migration.

immigration programme
AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderungs-programm, Einwanderungs-programm
BG: имиграционна програма
CS: program migrace
DE: : Zuwanderungsprogramm, Einwanderungsprogramm
EE: rändetoetusprogramm
ES: programa de inmigración
FI: maahanmuutto-ohjelma
FR/BE/LU: programme d’immigration
GR: μεταναστευτικά προγράμμα
HU: bevándorlási programot
IE: clár inimirce
IT: programma per l'immigrazione
LT: imigracijos programa
LV: imigrācijas programma
MT: Programm ta' immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: immigratieprogramma
NO: program for innvandring
PL: program imigracyjny
PT: migração assistida
RO: program de imigraţie
SE: invandringsprogram
SI: program priseljevanja
SK: program prisťahovalectva / imigračný program

Programme to facilitate migration which is organised or supported with the assistance of a government, governments or an international organisation, as opposed to spontaneous migration, which is unaided.


Related Term: spontaneous migration

Source: Developed by EMN

immigration quota
AT/DE/LU: Zuwanderungs-quote, Einwanderungs-quote
BG: имиграционна квота
CS: imigrační kvóta
DE: Zuwanderungsquote, Einwanderungsquote
EE: sisserände piirarv
ES: cuota de inmigración
FI: maahanmuuttokiintiö
FR/BE/LU: quota d'immigration
GR: μεταναστευτική αναλογία/μερίδα
HU: bevándorlási kvóta
IE: cuóta inimirce
IT: quota (per immigrati)
LT: imigracijos kvota
LV: imigrācijas kvota
MT: Kwota ta' immigrazzjoni
NL/BE: immigratiequota
NO: innvandringskvote
PL: kwota imigracyjna
PT: quota de imigração
RO: cotă de imigraţie
SE: invandringskvot
SI: kvota za priseljevanje
SK: prisťahovalecká kvóta / imigračná kvóta

A quota established for and by the country, normally for the purposes of labour migration, for the entry of immigrants.


Broader Term: quota

Related Term: labour migration

Note:
In the EU context, such quotas are primarily used for third-country nationalsonly.

Source: Developed by EMN

Indirect discrimination
AT/DE/LU: mittelbare Diskriminierung
BG: непряка/ косвена дискриминация
CS: nepřímá diskriminace
EE: kaudne diskrimineerimine
ES: discriminación indirecta
FI: välillinen syrjintä
FR/BE/LU: discrimination indirecte
GR: έμμεση διάκριση
HU: közvetett diszkrimináció
IE: leithcheal indíreach
IT: discriminazione indiretta
LT: netiesioginė diskriminacija
LV: netieša diskrminācija
MT: Diskriminazzjoni indiretta
NL/BE: indirecte discriminatie
NO: indirekte diskriminering
PL: dyskryminacja pośrednia
PT: discriminação indirecta
RO: discriminare indirectă
SE: indirekt diskriminering
SI: posredna diskriminacija
SK: nepriama diskriminácia

A situation in which an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of a racial or ethnic origin at a particular disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.


Related Term: institutional discrimination, principle of equal treatment, structural discrimination

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive)

informal economy
AT/DE/LU: informelle Wirtschaft, Schattenwirtschaft
BG: неформална икономика
CS: šedá ekonomika
EE: varimajandus
ES: economía informal
FI: epävirallinen talous / pimeä talous
FR/BE/LU: économie informelle
GR: παραοικονομία
HU: szürke gazdaság
IE: geilleagar neamhfhoirmiúil
IT: economia informale
LT: šešėlinė ekonomika
LV: neformālā ekonomika
MT: Ekonomija informali
NL/BE: informele economie
NO: uformell økonomi / parallell økonomi
PL: gospodarka nierejestrowana
PT: economia informal
RO: economie informală
SE: informell ekonomi
SI: neformalna (siva) ekonomija
SK: tieňová ekonomika / šedá ekonomika

All economic activities by workers and economic units that are – in law or in practice – not covered or insufficiently covered by formal arrangements.


Synonym(s): black market, clandestine employment

Related Term: informal employment , informal sector

Note:
1. Activities within the informal economy are not covered by law, which means that they are operating outside of the formal reach of relevant legislation; or they are not covered in practice, which means that, although they are operating within the formal reach of the law, the law is not applied or not enforced, or the law discourages compliance because it is inappropriate, burdensome or imposes excessive costs.
2. This applies to third-country nationals, too.

Source:Para. 3 of ILO Resolution concerning Decent Work and the Informal Economy, 2002

Information and Coordination Network for Member States’ Migration Management Services
AT/DE/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Мрежа за информация и координация на службите за управление на миграцията на държавите членки
CS: Informační a koordinační síť pro služby řízení migrace členských států (ICONet)
DE: Informations- und Koordinierungsnetz für die Migrationsbehörden der Mitgliedstaaten
EE: liikmesriikide migratsiooniteenistuste info-ja koordineerimisvõrgustik
ES: ICONet
FI: tieto- ja koordinointiverkosto maahanmuuton hallinnasta vastaavia jäsenvaltioiden viranomaisia varten (ICONet)
FR/BE/LU: Réseau d'information et de coordination sécurisé connecté à l'internet pour les services des États membres chargés de la gestion des flux migratoires (ICONET)
GR: Δίκτυο Άτυπων Επαγγελματικών Προσόντων
HU: a tagállamok migrációkezelési szolgálatainak információs és koordinációs hálózata
IE: ICONet
IT: Rete di Informazione e Coordinamento per i Servizi di Gestione dell'Immigrazione degli Stati Membri (ICONet)
LT: Informacijos ir koordinavimo tinklas, skirtas valstybių narių migracijos valdymo tarnyboms
LV: Informācijas un koordinācijas tīkls dalībvalstu migrācijas pārvaldes dienestiem
MT: Netwerk ta' Informazzjoni u Koordinazzjoni għas-Servizzi dwar Ġestjoni ta' Migrazzjoni fl-Istati Membri (ICONet)
NL/BE: ICONet
NO: ICONet
PL: ICONet / no usual translation
PT: ICONet
RO: Reţeaua de informare şi coordonare a serviciilor de management al migraţiei din statele membre (ICONet)
SE: Iconet
SI: Informacijska in koordinacijska mreža služb držav članic za upravljanje migracije
SK: Informačná a koordinačná sieť pre služby riadenia migrácie členských štátov / ICONet

A secure web-based information and coordination network for the rapid information exchange between Member States on irregular or illegal migratory flowsand phenomena, and the return of illegal residents.



Synonym(s): ICONet

Related Term: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, Immigration Liaison Officer, Mutual Information Mechanism

Note:
1. The ICONet was established in 2005 within the framework of the Council’s comprehensive plan to combat illegal immigration and trafficking of human beings.
2.The elements for information exchange shall include at least the following:

  1. early warning system on illegal immigration and facilitator networks;
  2. network of immigration liaison officers;
  3. information on the use of visas, borders and travel documents in relation to illegal immigration; and
  4. return-related issues.

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 1 of Council Decision 2005/267/EC

Information Exchange Model

Aims to include all the different EU databases relevant for ensuring security in the EU so that there can be interaction between them, as far as it is needed and permitted, for the purpose of providing effective information exchange across the whole of the EU and maximising the opportunities presented by biometric and other technologies for improving citizens' security within a clear framework that also protects their privacy.

Information System

A device or group of inter-connected or related devices, one or more of which, pursuant to a programme, automatically processes computer data, as well as computer data stored, processed, retrieved or transmitted by that device or group of devices for the purposes of its or their operation, use, protection and maintenance.

integration
AT/DE/LU: Integration
BG: интеграция
CS: integrace
EE: lõimumine
ES: integración
FI: kotouttaminen/kotoutuminen
FR/BE/LU: intégration
GR: ένταξη
HU: integráció
IE: imeascadh
IT: integrazione
LT: integracija
LV: integrācija
MT: Integrazzjoni
NL/BE: integratie
NO: integrering
PL: integracja
PT: integração
RO: integrare
SE: integration
SI: integracija / vključevanje
SK: integrácia

In the EU context, a dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrantsand residents of Member States.


Narrower Term: Common Basic Principles, Handbook on Integration, European Website on Integration , National Contact Points on Integration

Related Term: host society, reintegration

Note:
1. Art. 79(4) of the TFEU gives the legal base for Union activities on integration. The promotion of fundamental rights, non-discrimination and equal opportunities for all are key integration issues.
2. At EU level, integration policy is developed within the framework of Common Basic Principles– CBP (of which the broad definition above is the first one).
3. For more information, see European Website on Integration.

Source:Action 1, section 2 of Communication on a Common Agenda for Integration, COM(2005) 389 final

Integration

A dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by migrants and by the societies that receive them.

Intellectual property rights (IPR)

Refers to the general term for the assignment of property rights through patents, copyrights and trademarks. These property rights allow the holder to exercise a monopoly on the use of the item for a specified period.

By restricting imitation and duplication, monopoly power is conferred, but the social costs of monopoly power may be offset by the social benefits of higher levels of creative activity encouraged by the monopoly earnings.

Interconnection payment

Charged by network operators on other service providers to recover the costs of the interconnection facilities (including the hardware and software for routing, signalling and other basic service functions) provided by the network operators.

intercultural dialogue
AT/DE/LU: interkultureller Dialog
BG: междукултурен диалог
CS: mezikulturní dialog
EE: kultuuridevaheline dialoog
ES: diálogo intercultural
FI: kulttuurienvälinen vuoropuhelu
FR/BE/LU: dialogue interculturel
HU: interkulturális párbeszéd
IE: idirphlé idirchultúrtha
IT: dialogo interculturale
LT: tarpkultūrinis dialogas
LV: starpkultūru dialogs
MT: Djalogu interkulturali
NL/BE: interculturele dialoog
NO: interkulturell dialog
PL: dialog międzykulturowy
PT: diálogo intercultural
RO: dialog intercultural
SE: interkulturell dialog
SI: medkulturni dialog
SK: medzikultúrny dialóg / interkultúrny dialóg

An open and respectful exchange of views between individuals and groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds and heritage on the basis of mutual understanding and respect.


Note:
1. Intercultural dialogue has long been a principle supported by the European Union and its institutions. The year 2008 was designated 'European Year of Intercultural Dialogue' (EYID) by the European Parliament and the Member States. It aimed to draw the attention of people in Europe to the importance of dialogue within diversity and between diverse cultures.
2. For more information, see the report on the evaluation of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008 (COM/2010/03561 final) .

Source:Section 1.4 of Council of Europe: White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue, May 2008

Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees
AT/DE/LU: (without abbreviation in parentheses)
BG: Междуправителствени консултации по миграция, убежище и бежанци
CS: Mezivládní konzultace k migraci, azylu a uprchlictví
DE: Zwischenstaatliche Beratungen über Migration, Asyl und Flüchtlinge
EE: valitsustevahelised konsultatsioonid rände-, varjupaiga- ja pagulasteemal
ES: IGC
FI: IGC (Euroopan, Pohjois-Amerikan ja Australian turvapaikka-, pakolais- ja siirtolaispolitiikkoja käsittelevät hallitustenväliset neuvottelut)
FR/BE/LU: Consultations intergouvernementales sur les politiques d'asile, de réfugiés et de migrations
HU: Kormányközi Tanácskozás/Együttműködés a Migrációról és a Menekültügyről /
IE: Comhairliúcháin Idir-Rialtasacha maidir le hImirce, Tearmann agus Dídeanaithe
IT: Consultazioni Inter-Governative in materia di Immigrazione, Asilo e Rifugiati
LT: Tarpvyriausybinės konsultacijos migracijos, prieglobsčio ir pabėgėlių klausimais
LV: Starpvaldību konsultācijas par migrācijas, patvēruma un bēgļu jautājumiem
MT: Konsultazzjonijiet Intergovernattivi fuq Migrazzjoni, Ażil u Rifuġjati
NL/BE: IGC (BE syn.: Intergouvernementeel Overleg over migratie, asiel en vluchtelingen )
NO: Flernasjonal informasjonsutveksling om migrasjons, asyl- og flyktningspørsmål
PL: międzyrządowe konsultacje nt. migracji, azylu i uchodźców
PT: consultas intergovernamentais sobre migrações, asilo e refugiados
RO: Consultări interministeriale cu privire la migraţie, azil şi refugiaţi
SE: IGC (Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees)
SI: Medvladna posvetovanja o migraciji, azilu in beguncih
SK: Medzivládne konzultácie o migrácii, azyle a utečencoch / IGC

An informal, non-decision making forum for intergovernmental information exchange and policy debate on issues of relevance to the management of international migratory flows, which brings together the participating states, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization for Migrationand the European Commission.



Synonym(s): IGC


Note:
1. The starting point for the IGC was a conference held in May 1985 under the auspices of the UNHCR. While historically focused on asylum issues, IGC has moved towards greater discussion and exchange of data on general migration policies since 2006.
2.For more information on participating states etc., see the IGC website

Source:Website of the IGC

internal EU border
AT/DE/LU: EU-Binnengrenze
BG: вътрешна граница на ЕС
CS: vnitřní hranice EU
EE: Euroopa Liidu sisepiir
ES: frontera interior (UE)
FI: EU:n sisäraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière intérieure de l’UE
GR: εσωτερικά σύνορα
HU: belső határ
IE: teorainn inmheánach an AE
IT: frontiera interna UE
LT: vidaus siena
LV: ES iekšējā robeža
MT: Konfini (Il-) interni / Fruntiera (Il-) interna tal-UE
NL/BE: EU binnengrens
NO: grense mellom Schengen-medlemsland
PL: granica wewnętrzna UE
PT: fronteira interna
RO: Frontieră internă UE
SE: inre gräns
SI: notranja meja EU
SK: vnútorná hranica EÚ

Schengen Member States’ common borders, including land borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river ports, sea ports and lake ports.


Synonym(s): internal Schengen border

Related Terms: border control, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code

Note:
1. IE and UK do not participate in the Schengen Area.
2. BG, HR and RO are Schengen candidate countries.
3. IS, LI, NO and CH are also Schengen Member States, although they are not EU Member States.
4. For updated information on membership to the Schengen Area, see the DG HOME website

Source:Derived by EMN from Art. 1 of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Internal EU border
  • the common land borders, including river and lake borders, of EU States,
  • the airports of EU States for internal flights,
  • sea, river and lake ports of EU States for regular ferry connections.
internal protection
BG: Подход за създаване на горещи точки
CZ: vnitrostátní ochrana
DE: interner Schutz
FI: järjestelykeskus-toimintamalli
FR: approche des hotspots
IE: foréigean saininscne, foréigean sainiúil don inscne
HU: belső védelem
IT: protezione all’interno del paese di origine
SK: vnútroštátna ochrana / vnútorná ochrana
SI: notranja zaščita
SV: Internt skydd
NO: intern beskyttelse (b) / internt vern (n)

The concept that an applicant is not in need of international protection if in a part of the country of origin, they
(a) have no well-founded fear of being persecuted or are not at real risk of suffering serious harm; or
(b) have access to protection against persecution or serious harm;
and they can safely and legally travel to and gain admittance to that part of the country and can reasonably be expected to settle there.



Synonym(s): internal flight alternative, internal protection alternative, internal relocation alternative, IFA


Note:  

The assessment whether an internal protection alternative is available in the country of origin is part of the assessment of the application of international protection and has to take into account all the circumstances of the individual case. This assessment is to be made in the context of the conditions in the place of relocation (including basic human rights, security conditions, socio-economic conditions, accommodation, access to health care facilities), in order to determine the impact on that individual of settling in the proposed place of relocation and whether the individual could live a relatively normal life without undue hardship. For further information see UNHCR: Guidelines  on international protection: Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, July  2003

 

Source: Derived by EMN from Art. 8 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

Internal Security Fund

A financial instrument for the period 2014 to 2020, which supports national and EU initiatives that contribute to ensuring a high level of security in the Union while facilitating legitimate travel. It is composed of two instruments, Internal Security Fund Borders and Visa and Internal Security Fund Police.

Source:
Internal Security Strategy

The EU Internal Security Strategy for the period 2015-2020 (also called "renewed internal security strategy) is defined in Council Conclusions of 16 June 2015. It constitutes the EU strategy shared by EU institutions and Member States aiming at tackling the security challenges and threats facing the EU until 2020. The strategy is composed of several policy documents: the Council Conclusions of 4-5 December 2014 and the Council Conclusions of 16 June 2015, with the principles it outlines based on the Commission’s Communication “European Agenda on Security”, taking into account the views expressed by the European Parliament.

In terms of content, the internal security strategy is in line with the principles and priorities for action defined by the Commission in its European Agenda on Security (see "European Agenda on Security"), namely (1) Tackling terrorism and preventing radicalisation, including online; (2) Disrupting organised crime; and (3) Fighting cybercrime.

internally displaced person
AT/DE/LU: Binnenvertriebener
BG: вътрешно разселено лице
CS: vnitřně přesídlená osoby
EE: riigisiseselt ümberasustatud isikud
ES: población desplazada internamente
FI: maan sisällä siirtymään joutunut henkilö / maan sisäinen pakolainen
FR/BE/LU: personne déplacée à l'intérieure de son propre pays
GR: εσωτερικώς εκτοπισμένο άτομο
HU: belső menekült
IE: duine easáitithe ina thír féin
IT: sfollato interno
LT: viduje perkeltasis asmuo
LV: iekšzemē pārvietota persona
MT: Persuna sfollata internament / f'pajjiżha stess
NL/BE: in eigen land ontheemd persoon
NO: internt fordrevet person (b) / internt fordriven person (n)
PL: osoba przesiedlona wewnętrznie
PT: deslocado interno
RO: persoană strămutată intern
SE: internflykting
SI: notranje razseljena oseba (NRO)
SK: vnútorne vysídlená osoba

A person or groups of persons who has been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised State border.



Synonym(s): IDP

Broader Term: displaced person

Related Term: de facto refugee, environmentally displaced person, refugee

Note:
For more information, see the website of the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)

Source:Art. 2 of UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement

International Organization for Migration
AT/DE/LU: Internationale Organisation für Migration
BG: Международна организация по миграция
CS: Mezinárodní ogranizace pro migraci
EE: Rahvusvaheline Migratsiooniorganisatsioon
EL: Διεθνούς Οργανισμού Μετανάστευσης
ES: Organización Internacional para las Migraciones
FI: Kansainvälinen siirtolaisuusjärjestö
FR/BE/LU: Organisation internationale pour les migrations
HU: Nemzetközi Migrációs Szervezet
IE: an Eagraíocht Idirnáisiúnta um Imirce
IT: Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni
LT: Tarptautinė migracijos organizacija
LV: Starptautiskā Migrācijas organizācija
MT: Organizzazzjoni (L-) Internazzjonali għall-Migrazzjoni
NL/BE: Internationale Organisatie voor Migratie
NO: Den internasjonale migrasjonsorganisasjonen
PL: Międzynarodowa Organizacja do Spraw Migracji
PT: Organização Internacional para as Migrações
RO: Organizaţia Internaţională pentru Migraţie
SE: IOM (International Organization for Migration)
SI: Mednarodna organizacija za migracije
SK: Medzinárodná organizácia pre migráciu / IOM

An intergovernmental organisation in the field of migration dedicated to ensuring the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, be they refugees, displaced persons or other uprooted people.


Synonym(s): IOM


Note:
1. The agency was created in 1951.
2. It is one of the main inter-governmental organisations in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.
3. For further information, see the website of IOM.

Source:Website of the International Organisation of Migration

international protection
AT/DE/LU: interner Schutz
BG: международна закрила
CS: vnitrostátní ochrana
EE: rahvusvaheline kaitse
ES: protección (internacional)
FI: sisäisen paon mahdollisuus / suojelu alkuperämaassa
FR/BE/LU: protection à l'intérieur du pays
GA: cosaint inmheánach
GR: διεθνής προστασία
HU: belső védelem
IE: cosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: protezione all’interno del paese di origine
LT: prieglobstis
LV: iekšējā aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: internationale bescherming
NO: intern beskyttelse (b) / internt vern (n)
PL: ochrona wewnętrzna
PT: protecção internacional
RO: protecţie internaţională
SE: Internt skydd
SI: notranja zaščita
SK: vnútroštátna ochrana / vnútorná ochrana

In the global context, the actions by the international community on the basis of international law, aimed at protecting the fundamental rights of a specific category of persons outside their countries of origin, who lack the national protection of their own countries.

In the EU context, protection that encompasses refugee status and subsidiary protection status.


Narrower Term: refugee status, subsidiary protection

Broader Term: protection

Related Term: asylum, Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967, humanitarian protection, temporary protection, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Source: Global context: UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms
EU context: Derived by EMN from Art. 2(a) of Directive 2011/95/EC (Recast Qualification Directive)

International protection

The actions by the international community on the basis of international law, aimed at protecting the fundamental rights of a specific category of persons outside their countries of origin, who lack the national protection of their own countries.

According to Directive 2011/95/EU, "international protection" means the recognition by an EU State of a non-EU national or a stateless person as a refugee or as a person eligible for subsidiary protection.

Intra-corporate transfer

The temporary secondment for occupational or training purposes of a third-country national who, at the time of application for an intra-corporate transferee permit, resides outside the territory of the Member States, from an undertaking established outside the territory of a Member State, and to which the third-country national is bound by a work contract prior to and during the transfer, to an entity belonging to the undertaking or to the same group of undertakings which is established in that Member State, and, where applicable, the mobility between host entities established in one or several second Member States.

intra-corporate transferee
AT/DE/LU: innerbetrieblich versetzte Person
BG: вътрешно-корпоративен трансфер
CS: vnitropodnikově převáděný pracovník
EE: ettevõttesisene üleviimine
ES: trabajador transnacional
FI: sisäisen siirron saanut työntekijä / yrityksen tilapäisesti toiseen maahan lähettämä työntekijä
FR/BE/LU: personne faisant l'objet d'un transfert temporaire intragroupe
GR: ενδο-επιχειρησιακή
HU: vállalaton belül áthelyezett személy
IE: aistrí ionchorparáideach
IT: lavoratore straniero distaccato (persona trasferita all'interno della stessa società in un altro paese)
LT: bendrovės viduje perkeliamas asmuo
LV: uzņēmuma ietvaros pārcelts darbinieks/uzņēmuma iekšienē nosūtīts darbinieks
MT: Ħaddiem trasferit minn post għal ieħor tal-istess kumpanija // Trasferiment intra-korporattiv ta' ħaddiem
NL/BE: binnen een onderneming overgeplaatste persoon
NO: utstasjonert arbeidstaker (b) / utstasjonert arbeidstakar (n)
PL: pracownik przenoszony wewnątrz przedsiębiorstwa
PT: pessoas transferidas temporariamente pela empresa
RO: transferat intra-corporaţie
SE: företagsinternt förflyttad person
SI: oseba premeščena znotraj podjetja
SK: pracovník presunutý v rámci spoločnosti

A third-country national subject to a temporary secondment from an undertaking established outside the territory of a Member State and to which the third-country national is bound by a work contract to an entity belonging to the undertaking or to the same group of undertakings which is established inside this territory.



Note:
The World Trade Organisation's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), liberalises trade in services, including the temporary movement of natural persons as service suppliers. Mode 4 refers to the presence of persons of one WTO member in the territory of another for the purpose of providing a service. It does not concern persons seeking access to the employment market in the host member, nor does it affect measures regarding citizenship, residence or employment on a permanent basis. For more information, see http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/mouvement_persons_e/mouvement_persons_e.htm

Source:Derived from Arts. 3(b) and 3(c) of Proposal for a Directive on conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals in the framework of an intra-corporate transfer (COM(2010) 378 final)

Intra-corporate transferee

Any non-EU national subject to the temporary secondment from an undertaking established outside the territory of an EU State and to which the non-EU national is bound by a work contract, to an entity belonging to the undertaking or to the same group of undertakings which is established inside this territory.

intra-EU mobility
AT/DE/LU: EU-Binnen-mobilität, EU-Binnenmigration
BG: движение в рамките на ЕС
CS: mobilita v rámci EU
DE: EU-Binnenmobilität
EE: Euroopa Liidu sisene liikuvus
ES: movilidad intracomunitaria
FI: EU:n sisäinen liikkuvuus
FR/BE/LU: mobilité intra-UE
HU: EU-n belüli mobilitás
IE: gluaisteacht san AE
IT: mobilità intra-UE
LT: judumas ES viduje
LV: ES iekšējā mobilitāte
MT: Intramobbiltà fl-UE
NL/BE: mobiliteit binnen de EU
NO: mobilitet mellom EUs medlemsland
PL: mobilność wewnątrzunijna
PT: mobilidade intra UE
RO: mobilitate intra UE
SE: EU-intern rörlighet
SI: notranja mobilnost v EU
SK: mobilita v rámci Európskej únie / mobilita v rámci EÚ

Action of persons (EU nationals or legally resident third-country nationals) undertaking their right to free movement by moving from one EU Member State to another.


Synonym(s): EU mobility, free movement, inter-EU migration, intra-EU migration, intra-EU/EFTA-mobility, third-country national mobility

Related Term: right to free movement

Note:
1. Free movement/intra-EU mobility is available under two different schemes. The first scheme is a very open one and applicable to EU citizens who benefit from full freedom of movement. The second scheme concerns migrant workers. Rules applicable here are less generous and limited to specific categories of third-country nationals, i.e. long-term residents, highly skilled workers, researchers and students.
2. Through separate agreements between the EU and IS, LI, NO and CH, the same rights to free movementapply to their citizens and their territories.

Source: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'right to free movement' in the EMN Glossary

irregular entry
AT/DE/LU: irreguläre Ein- reise
BG: незаконно влизане
CS: neoprávněný vstup na území
DE: irreguläre Einreise
EE: ebaseaduslik (riiki) sisenemine
EL: παράνομη είσοδος
ES: entrada irregular
FI: säännöstenvastainen / laiton maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: entrée irrégulière
HU: szabálytalan határátlépés
IE: iontráil aimhrialta
IT: ingresso irregolare
LT: neteisėtas atvykimas
LV: nelikumīga ieceļošana
MT: Dħul irregolari
NL/BE: illegale binnenkomst
NO: irregulær innreise
PL: nieregularny wjazd
PT: entrada irregular
SE: olaglig inresa
SI: ilegalen vstop / nedovoljen vstop
SK: nelegálny vstup / neoprávnený vstup

In the global context, crossing borders without complying with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

In the Schengen context, the entry of a third-country nationalinto a Schengen Member State who does not satisfy Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code.


Synonym(s): illegal entry

Broader Term: irregular migration
Related Term: border control, legal entry

Note:
1. The European Commission favours nowadays the term 'irregular entry (e.g. see: DG HOME e-Library Glossary) instead of 'illegal entry'.
2. Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code states that for stays not exceeding three months per six-month period, the entry conditions for third-country nationals shall be the following:

  1. they are in possession of a valid travel document or documents authorising them to cross the border;
  2. they are in possession of a valid visa, if required pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (17), except where they hold a valid residence permit;
  3. they justify the purpose and conditions of the intended stay, and they have sufficient means of subsistence, both for the duration of the intended stay and for the return to their country of origin or transit to a third country into which they are certain to be admitted, or are in a position to acquire such means lawfully;
  4. they are not persons for whom an alert has been issued in the SISfor the purposes of refusing entry;
  5. they are not considered to be a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any of the Member States, in particular where no alert has been issued in Member States' national data bases for the purposes of refusing entry on the same grounds.

3. For more information, see Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Source: Global context: Definition for 'illegal entry' in Art. 3(b) of the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Schengen context: Developed by EMN

Irregular entry

Crossing borders without complying with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

The entry of a non-EU national into a Schengen State without complying with the requirements laid down in the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation 562/2006).

Irregular immigration

The immigration of a person to a new place of residence using irregular or illegal means, without valid documents or carrying false documents.

irregular migrant
AT/DE/LU: irregulärer Migrant
BG: незаконен мигрант
CS: nelegální migrant
EE: ebaseaduslik sisserändaja
ES: inmigrante en situación irregular
FI: säännöstenvastaisesti / laittomasti maassa oleskeleva henkilö
FR/BE/LU: migrant en séjour irrégulier
GR: παράνομος μετανάστης
HU: irreguláris migráns
IE: imirceach aimhrialta
IT: migrante irregolare
LT: neteisėtas migrantas
LV: neatbilstīgs migrants (EU acquis) / nelikumīgs migrants (national)
MT: Migrant(a) irregolari
NL/BE: illegaal verblijvende migrant
NO: irregulær migrant
PL: migrant nieregularny
PT: imigrante irregular
RO: migrant ilegal
SE: irreguljär migrant
SI: ilegaln migrant / nezakonit priseljenec
SK: nelegálny migrant / migrant bez platného povolenia na pobyt

In the global context, a person who, owing to irregular entry, breach of a condition of entry or the expiry of their legal basis for entering and residing, lacks legal status in a transit or host country.

In the EU context, a third-country nationalpresent on the territory of a Schengen State who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils, the conditions of entry as set out in the Schengen Borders Code, or other conditions for entry, stay or residence in that Member State.


Synonym(s): clandestine migrant, illegal migrant, insufficiently documented migrant, migrant in an irregular situation, migrant with irregular status, unauthorised migrant, undocumented migrant

Narrower Term: third-country national to be found to be illegally present

Note:
1. The IOM definition covers inter alia those persons who have entered a transit or host country lawfully but have stayed for a longer period than authorised or subsequently taken up unauthorised employment.
2. The term 'irregular' is preferable to 'illegal' migrant because the latter carries a criminal connotation, entering a country in an irregular manner, or staying with an irregular status, is not a criminal offence but an infraction of administrative regulations. Apart from this, juridically and ethically, an act can be legal or illegal but a person cannot. Thus more and more the term 'migrant in an irregular situation' or 'migrant with irregular status' is preferred.
3. The European Commission has used the term 'third-country national found to be illegally present' or 'illegally resident/staying third-country national' in legislation.
4. The Council of Europe differentiates between illegal migration and irregular migrant. Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas 'irregular' is preferred when referring to a person.

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. Ed. 2011
EU context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'illegal stay' in Art. 3 of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

Irregular migrant

People who enter a country, usually in search of employment, without the necessary documents and permits.

According to Directive 2008/115/EC, an "irregular migrant" is a non-EU national present on the territory of a Schengen State who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils, the conditions of entry as set out in the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation 562/2006), or other conditions for entry, stay or residence in an EU State.

irregular migration
AT/DE/LU: irreguläre Migration
BG: незаконна миграция
CS: nelegální migrace
EE: ebaseaduslik ränne
ES: inmigración irregular
FI: säännösten vastainen / laiton maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration irrégulière
HU: irreguláris migráció
IE: imirce aimhrialta
IT: migrazione irregolare
LT: neteisėta migracija
LV: neatbilstīga migrācija (EU acquis) / nelikumīga migrācija (national) 
MT: Migrazzjoni irregolari
NL/BE: irreguliere migratie (not currently used; more common is 'illegale migratie')
NO: irregulær migrasjon
PL: migracja nieregularna
PT: migração irregula
RO: migraţie ilegală
SE: irreguljär migration
SI: ilegana migracija / neregulirana migracija / nedovoljena migracija
SK: nelegálna migrácia

Movement of persons to a new place of residence or transit that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries.


Synonym(s): clandestine migra-tion, illegal immigration, illegal migration, unauthorised migration, undocumented migration

Note:
1.There is no universally accepted definition of irregular migration. From the perspective of destination countries it is entry, stay or work in a country without the necessary authorisation or documents required under immigration regulations. From the perspective of the sending country, the irregularity is, for example, seen in cases in which a person crosses an international boundary without a valid passport or travel document or does not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. There is, however, a tendency to restrict the use of the term to cases of smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons.
2. Defining irregular migration has been the subject of considerable debate. Terms such as illegal, undocumented, non-documented, and unauthorised migration can have different connotations in national policy debates. Due to this and the assocation with criminality the term 'illegal migration" should be avoided, as most irregular migrants are not criminals. Being in a country without the required papers is, in most countries, not a criminal offence but an administrative infringement.
3. While the UN use the term 'irregular' or 'undocumented' migration, the European Commission favoured for a long time the term 'illegal immigration', but more recently refers to 'irregular migration' as well.
4. The Council of Europe differentiates between illegal migration and irregular migrant. Referring to Resolution 1509 (2006) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, ‘illegal’ is preferred when referring to a status or process, whereas 'irregular' is preferred when referring to a person.

Source: Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd. ed. 2011 and DG Home e-Library Glossary

Irregular migration

The movement of a person to a new place of residence or transit using irregular or illegal means, without valid documents or carrying false documents.

irregular stay
AT/DE/LU: irregulärer Aufenthalt
BG: незаконно пребиваване
CS: neoprávněný pobyt
EE: ebaseaduslik (riigis) viibimine
EL: παράνομη διαμονή
ES: estancia irregular
FI: säännösten vastainen / laiton maassa  oleskelu
FR/BE/LU: séjour irrégulier
HU: szabálytalan tartózkodás
IE: cuairt aimhrialta
IT: soggiorno irregolare
LT: neteisėtas buvimas
LV: nelikumīga uzturēšanās
MT: Qagħda/Waqfa/Żjara irregolari
NL/BE: illegaal verblijf
NO: irregulært opphold (b) / irregulært opphald (n)
PL: nieregularny pobyt
PT: permanência irregular
RO: ședere ilegală
SE: olaglig vistelse
SI: ilegalno prebivanje / nedovoljeno prebivanje
SK: neoprávnený pobyt (national law) / nelegálny pobyt

The presence on the territory of a Member State, of a third-country nationalwho does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils the conditions of entry as set out in Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Codeor other conditions for entry, stay or residence in that Member State.


Synonym(s): illegal stay

Broader Term: irregular migration

Related Term: irregular entry, overstayer, third-country national found to be illegally present

Note:
The European Commission favours nowadays the term 'irregular stay' (e.g. see: DG HOME e-Library Glossary) instead of 'illegal stay' which was the term used in the Directive 2008/115/EU (Return Directive).

Source:Art. 3 (2) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)

Irregular stay

The presence on the territory of a Schengen State of a non-EU national who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils, the conditions of entry as set out in the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation 562/2006), or other conditions for entry, stay or residence in an EU State.

ius sanguinis
AT/DE/LU: Abstammungsprinzip, Ius sanguinis
BG: no translation
CS: ius sanguinis
EE: vereõigus
ES: ius sanguinis
FI: periytymisperiaate
FR/BE/LU: droit du sang
GR: αρχή του αίματος; ius sanguinis
HU: ius sanguinis (vér szerinti leszármazás elve)
IE: ius sanguinis
IT: ius sanguinis
LT: kraujo teisė
LV: Ius sanguinis
MT: Ius sanguinis
NL/BE: ius sanguinis / jus sanguinis
NO: jus sanguinis / nedstammingsprinsippet
PL: prawo krwi
PT: ius sanguinis
RO: ius sanguinis/ legea sângelui
SE: No usual translation
SI: jus sanguinis
SK: právo krvi / ius sanguinis

The determination of a person's nationalityon the basis of the nationality of their parents (or one parent or one particular parent) at the time of the target person's birth and at the time of acquisition of nationality by the target person (the two points in time are different in cases of acquisition after birth).


Synonym(s): jus sanguinis

Related Term: acquisition of citizenship, Ius soli

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

ius soli
AT/DE/LU: Territorialprinzip, Ius soli, Geburtslandprinzip
BG: no translation
CS: ius soli
EE: sünnikohaõigus
ES: ius soli
FI: syntymäperiaate
FR/BE/LU: droit du sol
GR: αρχή του εδάφους; ius soli
HU: ius soli ( területi elv)
IE: ius soli
IT: ius soli
LT: žemės teisė
LV: Ius soli
MT: Ius soli
NL/BE: jus soli / territorialprinsippet
NO: jus soli / territorialprinsippet
PL: prawo ziemi
PT: ius soli
RO: ius soli/ legea locului
SE: No usual translation
SI: jus soli
SK: právo zeme / ius soli

The principle that the nationalityof a person is determined on the basis of their country of birth.


Synonym(s): jus soli

Related Term: acquisition of citizenship, Ius sanguinis

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

jus sanguinis

Please see entry for ius sanguinis

jus soli

Please see entry for ius soli

Labour exploitation

All work or service that is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered him-/herself voluntarily.

Labour immigration

Migration mainly for economic reasons or in order to seek material improvements.

labour matching
AT/DE/LU: Ausrichtung des Profils der Arbeitskräfte auf die Arbeitsmarkterfordernisse
BG: срещане на търсенето и предлагането на работна сила
CZ: párování nabídky s poptávkou na pracovním trhu
FI: työvoiman kohtaanto / työvoiman kysynnän ja tarjonnan kohtaanto
FR/BE/LU: rapprochement de l'offre et de la demande de main-d'œuvre / adéquation entre le profil du travailleur et les caractéristiques du poste (FR)
IE: comhoiriúnú saothair
HU: munkaerő-kereslet és -kínálat összehangolása
IT: incontro fra domanda e offerta di lavoro
LV: darbaspēka atbilstība
NO: kobling av arbeidssøker til arbeidstilbud (b) / kopling av arbeidssøkjar til arbeidstilbod (n)
PL: dopasowanie kwalifikacji i umiejętności pracownika do wymogów konkretnej oferty pracy
SE: Arbetskraftsmatchning
SK: umiestňovanie pracovných síl
SI: ustrezno kvalificirani delavci

The process by which the skills and qualifications of a worker is compared with the requirements of a particular job vacancy, to establish whether they match wholly or partly.


Related Term: skill matching 

Note: 
There is no recognized international definition of the term, although it is frequently used by employment agencies (public and private) as well as by economic and labour market research and policy discussions.

Source: Derived by EMN on the basis of information on the Website of the World Association of Public Employment Services (WAPES)

labour migrant

Please see entry for migrant worker

labour shortage
AT/DE/LU: Arbeitskräftemangel
BG: недостиг на работна сила
CZ: nedostatek pracovních sil
FI: työvoimapula
FR/BE/LU: pénurie de main d'œuvre
IE: ganntanas lucht saothair
HU: munkaerőhiány
IT: labour shortage carenza di forza lavoro
LV: darbaspēka trūkums
NO: mangel på arbeidskraft
PL: niedobór siły roboczej
SE: Arbetskraftsbrist
SK: nedostatok pracovnej sily / nedostatková profesia
SI: pomanjkanje delavcev

Shortage of labour of a particular type in a particular labour market which may be said to exist when the number of vacancies has been (or is expected to be) above a  level considered to represent 'normal' turnover at the prevailing wages and working conditions for an extended period. 


Related Term: skill shortage

Note: 
There is no recognized international definition of the term, although it is frequently used by employment agencies (public and private) as well as by economic and labour market research and policy discussions.

Source: Derived by EMN from sources quoted in "Collecting statistics on imbalances in the demand for labour", Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE,16 (1999). Pp 105 - 121.

legal entry
AT/DE/LU: legale Einreise
BG: законно влизане
CS: oprávněný vstup
EE: seaduslik (riiki) sisenemine
ES: entrada legal
FI: laillinen maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: entrée légale
GR: νόμιμη είσοδος
HU: legális beutazás / belépés
IE: iontráil dhleathach
IT: ingresso autorizzato
LT: teisėtas atvykimas
LV: likumīga ieceļošana
MT: Dħul legali
NL/BE: legale binnenkomst
NO: lovlig innreise (b) / lovleg innreise (n)
PL: legalny wjazd
PT: legalne przekroczenie granicy,
RO: intrare legală
SE: laglig inresa
SI: zakonit vstop
SK: oprávnený vstup (national law) / legálny vstup

In the global context, the entry of an alien into a foreign country in compliance with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

In the Schengen context, and for a stay not exceeding three months per six-month period, the entry of a third-country national into a Schengen Member State in compliance with Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code.


Narrower Term: admission onto the territory

Related Term: border control, irregular entry

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'entry' in IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011 and the definition of 'illegal entry' in the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols
Schengen context: Derived by EMN from Art. 5 of Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Legal entry

Entry of a non-EU national into a Schengen State, for a stay not exceeding three months per a six-month period, which satisfies the requirements laid down in the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation 562/2006).

legalisation

Please see entry for regularisation

LGB(TI)
AT/DE/LU: LGB(TI)
BG: ЛГБТ
CZ: LGB(TI)
FI: HLB(TI)
FR/BE/LU: LGB(TI)
IE: LADTI / (daoine) Leispiacha, Aeracha, Déghnéasacha, Trasinscneacha agus Idirghnéasacha
HU: LGB(TI) / Leszbikus, Meleg,Biszexuális (Transznemű,Interszexuális)
IT: LGB(TI)
FR: LGB(TI)
LV: LGB(TI)
NO: LGB(TI)
PL: LGB(TI)
SE: HBT(Q) / homosexuella, bisexuella, trans- och (queerpersoner)
SK: lesbické, homosexuálne, bisexuálne, (transrodové a intersexuálne) osoby
SI: LGB(TI) / Lezbijke, geji, bi- in transseksualci

An acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, (trans and intersex) people

Synonym(s): LGB, LGBT, LGBTQIA

Related Term: gender-based persecution, gender-specific violence, social group

Note: 

1. There is no uniform or standardised terminology relating to diverse sexual orientations and gender identities. Terminology regarding LGB(TI) varies immensely across (sub-)cultures and countries/regions and may change over time.
2. The term was added as LGB(TI) may experience persecution, serious harm and discrimination in their countries of origin and thus it may be a reason for which people claim international protection.
3. (TO) appears between parentheses because the number of persons claiming international protection due to being transgender or intergender are negligible, whereas there are much higher numbers claiming international protection for being lesbian, gay or bisexual.
4. Art. 10 of the Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU) reiterates that sexual orientation may be invoked as one of the five existing Convention grounds for persecution.

 

Source: Derived by EMN from EASO: Researching the situation of lesbian, gay and bisexual persons (LGB) in countries of origin, 2015

Lisbon Treaty
AT/DE/LU: Vertrag von Lissabon
BG: Договорът от Лисабон
CS: Lisabonská smlouva
EL: Η Συνθήκη της Λισαβόνας
ES: Tratado de Lisboa
FI: Lissabonin sopimus
FR/BE/LU: Traité de Lisbonne
HU: Lisszaboni Szerződés
IE: Conradh Liospóin
IT: Trattato di Lisbona
LT: Lisabonos sutartis
LV: Lisabonas līgums
MT: Trattat (It-) ta’ Lisbona
NL/BE: Verdrag van Lissabon 
NO: Lisboa-traktaten
PL: Traktat Lizboński
PT: Tratado de Lisboa
SE: Lissabonfördraget
SI: Lizbonska pogodba
SK: Lisabonská zmluva

An international agreement – initially known as the Reform Treaty – which amends the two treaties that form the constitutional basis of the European Union and which aims to enhance the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the European Union and to improve the coherence of its actions.


Synonym(s): Reform Treaty, Treaty of Lisbon

Related Term: Common European Asylum System

Note:
1. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the 27 Member States on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), which is also known as the Treaty on European Union, and the Treaty of Rome (1952), which is also known as the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEEC). At Lisbon, the Treaty of Rome was renamed the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2. Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU, and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding.
3. The Treaty of Lisbon broadened the competences of the EU in asylum issues. According to Art. 78 TFEU, a common policy on asylum is developed through the ordinary legislative procedure. There is no mentioning of minimum standards as before which sets the aim to convergence. The Article provides for the legal basis for the CEAS. For further information, see the entry for 'Common European Asylum System' in this EMN Glossary.
4. For more information see the Website of the Lisbon Treaty.

Source:Derived by EMN from Website on the Lisbon Treaty

local border traffic
AT/DE/LU: kleiner Grenzverkehr
BG: местен граничен трафик
CS: malý pohraniční styk
EE: kohalik piiriliiklus
ES: tráfico fronterizo local
FI: paikallinen rajaliikenne
FR/BE/LU: trafic frontalier local
GR: τοπική διασυνοριακή κυκλοφορία
HU:  kishatárforgalom
IE: trácht teorann áitiúil
IT: traffico frontaliero locale
LT: vietinis eismas per sieną
LV: vietējā pierobežas satiksme
MT: Traffiku lokali mal-fruntiera / mal-konfini
NL/BE: klein grensverkeer
NO: lokal grensetrafikk
PL: mały ruch graniczny
PT: pequeno tráfego fronteiriço
RO: mic trafic de frontieră
SE:  lokal gränstrafik
SI: lokalni obmejni promet
SK: malý pohraničný styk (EU acquis) / prihraničná doprava (national law)

The regular crossing of an external land border by border residentsin order to stay in a border area, for example for social, cultural or substantiated economic reasons, or for family reasons, for a period not exceeding three months.


Related Term: border area, border resident frontier worker

Source:Art. 3(3) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

Local border traffic

The regular crossing of an external land border by border residents in order to stay in a border area, for example for social, cultural or substantiated economic reasons, or for family reasons, for a period not exceeding three months.

Local border traffic regime

A derogation from the general rules governing the border control of persons crossing the external borders of Schengen States, which facilitates border crossing for border residents.

lodging an application for international protection
AT/DE/LU: einen förmlichen Antrag auf internationalen Schutz stellen
BG: подаване на молба за международна закрила
CZ: poskytnutí údajů k podané žádosti o mezinárodní ochranu
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskevan hakemuksen jättäminen
FR/BE/LU: introduire une demande de protection internationale
IE: iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta a thaisceadh
HU: nemzetközi védelem iránti kérelem előterjesztése (szándék)
IT: inoltro di una domanda di protezione internazionale
LV: pieteikuma iesniegšana starptautiskās aizsardzības saņemšanai
PL: (formalne) złożenie wniosku o ochronę międzynarodową
SE: Lämna in ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: vloga prošnje za mednarodno zaščito
SK: podanie žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu
NO: fremme en søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / søkje om internasjonalt vern (n)

The act of formalising the application for international protection with the determining authority or any other body charged with lodging as per national practice.


Related Term: access to the procedure for international protection, making an application for international protection

Note: 

1. According to Art. 6 (2) of Directive 2013/32 (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive), Member States have to ensure that a person who has made an application for international protection has an effective opportunity to lodge it as soon as possible and have to inform applicants where and how to lodge.
2. Member States may require that applications for international protection are lodged in person and/or at a designated place (Art.6 (3) of the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).
3. An application for international protection shall be deemed to have been lodged once a form submitted by the applicant or, where provided for in national law, an official report has reached the competent authorities of the Member State concerned (Art. 6 (4) of the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).

 

Source: Derived by EMN from Art. 6 (2-4) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

long-stay visa
AT/DE/LU: Visum für den längerfristigen Aufenthalt, (EU acquis), Langzeit-Visum
BG: виза за дългосрочно пребиваване
CS: dlouhodobé vízum
EE: pikaajaline viisa
EL: θεώρηση για διαμονή μακράς διαρκείας
ES: visado para estancia de larga duración
FI: pitkäaikainen viisumi
FR/BE/LU: visa de long séjour
GR: θεώρηση για διαμονή μακράς διαρκείας
HU: hosszú távú tartózkodásra jogosító vízum
IE: víosa fadchuairte
IT: visto per soggiorno di lunga durata
LT: ilgalaikė viza
LV: ilgtermiņa vīza
MT: Resident(a) fit-tul
NL/BE: visum voor verblijf van langere duur
NO: oppholdstillatelse (b) / opphaldsløyve (n)
PL: wiza długoterminowa
PT: visto de longa duração
RO: viză de lungă şedere
SE: visering för längre vistelse
SI: vizum za dolgoročno bivanje
SK: dlhodobé vízum

The authorisation or decision issued by one of the Member States in accordance with its national law or Union law required for entry for an intended stay in that Member State of more than three months.


Broader Term: visa

Related Term: airport transit visa, short-stay visa, transit visa

Source:Art. 2(m) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

long-term migrant
AT/DE/LU: langfristig aufhältiger Migrant, Langzeit-Migrant
BG: дългосрочен мигрант
CS: dlouhodobý migrant
EE: pikaajaline sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante de carácter permanente
FI: pitkään oleskellut maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant de longue durée
GR: μετανάστης επί μακρόν διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodói jogállással rendelkező személy (not commonly used, ’letelepedett’ is used for persons who have the right to stay for an indefinite period)
IE:  imirceach fadtéarmach
IT:  migrante di lungo periodo
LT: ilgalaikis migrantas
LV: ilgtermiņa migrants
MT: Viża għal żjara/miġja/waqfa fit-tul
NL/BE: langverblijvende migrant (syn.: langdurige migrant)
NO: migrant med langvarig opphold (b) / migrant med langvarig opphald (n)
PL: migrant długookresowy
PT: migrante de longa duração
RO: migrant pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigrant
SI: migrant za daljše obdobje
SK: dlhodobý migrant

A person who moves to a country other than that of their usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes their new country of usual residence.


Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: long-term migration, short-term migrant

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

long-term migration
AT/DE/LU: langfristige Migration, Langzeit-Migration
BG: дългосрочна миграция
CS: dlouhodobá migrace
EE: pikaajaline sisseränne
EL: μακροχρόνια μετανάστευση
ES: migración de larga duración
FI: pitkäaikainen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration de longue durée
GR: μακροχρόνια μετανάστευση
HU: huzamos idejű tartózkodási céllal történő migráció
IE: imirce fhadtéarmach
IT: migrazione di lungo periodo
LT: ilgalaikė migracija
LV: ilgtermiņa migrācija
MT: Migrant(a) fit-tul / għal żmien twil
NL/BE: lange-termijnmigratie
NO: langtidsmigrasjon
PL: migracja długookresowa
PT: migração de longa duração
RO: migraţie pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigration
SI: migracija za daljše obdobje
SK: dlhodobá migrácia

Movement of individuals who change their country of usual residencefor a period of at least one year, so that the country of destinationeffectively becomes their new country of usual residence.


Synonym(s): permanent-type migration, permanent migration

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: long-term migrant, short-term migration

Note:
Long-term migration' and 'permanent migration' are often understood as quasi-synonyms. The OECD defines permanent migration as 'a concept relating to undertaking migration with a view to, or which results in, settling on a permanent basis in the country of destination.

Source: Derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migrationand OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Long-term residence permit

A residence permit issued to a non-EU national by the EU State concerned upon the acquisition of long-term resident status.

long-term resident
AT/DE/LU: langfristig Aufenthaltsberechtigter
BG: дългосрочно пребиваващ
CS: dlouhodobě pobývající rezident
EE: pikaajaline elanik
ES: residente de larga duración
FI: pitkään oleskellut
FR/BE/LU: résident de longue durée
GR: επί μακρών διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodás jogával rendelkező személy
IE: cónaitheoir fadtéarmach
IT: soggiornante di lungo periodo 
LT: ilgalaikis gyventojas
LV: pastāvīgais iedzīvotājs
MT: Migrazzjoni fit-tul
NL/BE: langdurig ingezetene
NO: person med permanent oppholdtillatelse (b) / person med permanent opphaldsløyve (n)
PL: rezydent długoterminowy
PT: residente de longa duração
RO: rezident pe termen lung
SE: varaktigt bosatt
SI: rezident za daljše obdobje
SK:  osoba s dlhodobým pobytom

A third-country national who has long-term resident status as provided for under Arts. 4 to 7 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long-Term Residents Directive) or as provided for under national legislation.


Related Term: right of residence

Note:
1.EU Member States must recognise long-term resident status after five years of uninterrupted legal residence. This is however dependent upon the person having a stable and regular source of income, health insurance and, when required by the EU Member State, having complied with integration measures. The applicant must also not constitute a threat to public security or public policy.
2. Directive 2011/51/EU of 11 May 2011 amended Directive 2003/109/EC to extend its scope of application to beneficiaries of international protection.
3. The UN Recommendations on Statistics on International Migration set one year of intended residence as the lower threshold.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive)

Long-term resident

Any non-EU national who has long-term resident status as provided for under Directive 2003/109/EC.

loss of citizenship
AT/DE/LU: Verlust der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: загуба на гражданство
CS: pozbytí státního občanství
EE: kodakondsuse kaotamine
ES: pérdida de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuuden menettäminen
FR/BE/LU: perte de la citoyenneté
GR:  απώλεια ιθαγένειας
HU: állampolgárság elvesztése
IE: cailleadh saoránachta
IT: perdita di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės netekimas
LV: pilsonības zaudēšana
MT: Telf ta' ċittadinanza
NL/BE: verlies van het staatsburgerschap
NO: tap av statsborgerskap (b) / tap av statsborgarskap (n)
PL: utrata obywatelstwa
PT: perda de nacionalidade
RO: pierderea cetăţeniei
SE: förlust av medborgarskap
SI: izguba državljanstva
SK: strata štátneho občianstva

Any mode of loss of the status as citizen of a country , voluntarily or involuntarily, automatically or by an act by the public authorities.


Synonym(s): loss of nationality
Broader Term: citizenship

Note :
The main types of loss are renunciation, withdrawal and lapse of citizenship.

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

loss of nationality

Please see entry for loss of citizenship

making an application for international protection
AT/DE/LU: einen Antrag auf internationalen Schutz stellen
BG: изразено желание за подаване на молба за международна закрила
CZ: podat žádost o mezinárodní ochranu
FI: ilmoitus kansainvälistä suojelua koskevan hakemuksen tekemisestä
FR/BE/LU: présenter une demande de protection internationale
IE: iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta a dhéanamh
HU: nemzetközi védelem iránti kérelem benyújtása (a menekültügyi hatóság előtt)
IT: presentazione di una domanda di protezione internazionale
LV:izteikt vēlmi iesniegt starptautiskās aizsardzības pieteikumu
NO: søke om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / søkje om internasjonalt vern (n)
SE: Ansöka om internationellt skydd
PL: złożenie wniosku o ochronę międzynarodową (wyrażenie woli ubiegania się o ochronę międzynarodową)
SK: požiadanie o medzinárodnú ochranu
SI: sestaviti prošnjo za mednarodno zaščito

The expression of intent to apply for international protection.



Related Term: access to the procedure for international protection, lodging an application for international protection

1. As of 20 July 2015, Member States must register all applications made as well as those lodged. This is to ensure effective monitoring of access to procedure. EASO will gather data on applications made as of 15 September 2015 as part of its Early Warning and Preparedness System (EPS). To that end, Member States should register the fact that those persons are applicants for international protection as soon as possible.
2. Third-country nationals and stateless persons who have expressed their wish to apply for international protection are applicants for international protection, who should therefore comply with the obligations, and benefit from the rights, outlined in Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive.

Source: 

Derived by EMN from Art. 6 (1) and 6 (5) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and
EASO: Background document for Member States on application of Art. 6 of the recast Asylum Procedures Directive, 2015

Malware

Any piece of software that performs undesirable operations such as data theft or some other type of computer compromise, including viruses, trojans, worms and spyware.

Man-made crisis

Results of human activity, such as chemical spills, industrial accidents, marine pollution, war and terrorist attacks.

managed migration
AT/DE/LU: gesteuerte Migration
BG: управление на миграционните процеси
CS: řízená migrace
EE: juhitud ränne
ES: gestión integral de la migración
FI: hallittu maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: gestion des migrations
GR: ελεγχόμενη μετανάστευση
HU: migráció kezelés / migráció menedzsment (+ well-managed migration = megfelelően kezelt migráció)
IE: imirce bhainistithe
IT: migrazione gestita
LT: valdoma migracija
LV: pārvaldīta migrācija
MT: Ġestjoni ta' flussi migratorji
NL/BE: gereguleerde migratie
NO: styrt migrasjon
PL: migracja zarządzana
PT: migração assistida/ Gestão de Migrações
RO: migraţie controlată
SE: reglerad migration
SI: upravljanje migracij / vodene migracije
SK: riadená migrácia

An approach used by the EU and Member States to structure the management of all aspects of Migration into and within the EU of both third-country nationals and EU nationals, particularly the entry, admission, residence, integration and return, as well as of refugees and others in need of protection.


Synonym(s): migration management

Related Term: economic migration, forced migration, quota

Source: Developed by EMN

Management

Comprises three main tasks:

  • supervision and responsibility for increasing the performance of others,
  • allocating labour, material and capital to produce a high return,
  • decision making.
mandate refugee
AT/DE/LU: Mandatsflüchtling
BG: бежанец по мандата на Върховния комисар на ООН за бежанците (ВКБООН)
CS: mandatorní uprchlík
EE: mandaadipagulane
ES: refugiado (bajo mandato)
FI: mandaattipakolainen
FR/BE/LU: réfugié relevant du mandat du HCR
GR: πρόσφυγας εντολής
HU: mandátumos menekült
IE: dídeanaí mandáide
IT: rifugiato ex Mandato
LT: pabėgėlis pagal mandatą
LV: UNHCR mandāta bēglis
MT: Rifuġjat(a) b'digriet / b'mandat
NL/BE: mandaatvluchteling
NO: overføringsflyktning
PL: uchodźca mandatowy
PT:  refugiados (Mandato)
RO: refugiat sub mandat UNHCR
SE: no translation
SI: mandatni begunec
SK: mandátny utečenec

A person who meets the criteria of the UNHCR Statute and qualifies for the protection of the UN provided by the High Commissioner, regardless of whether or not they are in a country that is a party to the Geneva Convention of 1951, or whether or not they have been recognised by the host country as a refugee under either of these instruments.


Broader Term: refugee

Source:IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

marriage of convenience
AT/DE/LU: Scheinehe
BG: фиктивен брак
CS: účelové manželství
EE: fiktiivabielu/näiline abielu
ES: matrimonio de complacencia
FI: lumeavioliitto
FR/BE/LU: mariage de complaisance
GR: γάμος συμφέροντος
HU: érdekházasság
IE: pósadh áise
IT: matrimonio fittizio
LT: fiktyvi santuoka
LV: fiktīva laulība
MT: Żwieġ ta’ konvenjenza / għall-konvenjenza
NL/BE: schijnhuwelijk
NO: proformaekteskap
PL: małżeństwo zawarte w celu obejścia przepisów umożliwiających legalizację pobytu / małżeństwo fikcyjne
PT: casamento de conveniência
RO: căsătorie de convenienţă
SE: skenäktenskap
SI: poroka iz koristoljubja
SK: účelové manželstvo

A marriage contracted for the sole purpose of enabling the person concerned to enter or reside in a Member State.


Related Term: adoption of convenience, civil partnership of convenience, partnership of convenience

Note:
For further information, see EMN : Marriages of convenience and false declarations of parenthood, 2012.

Source:Art. 16 (2b) of Council Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)

mass influx
AT/DE/LU: Massenzustrom
BG: масово навлизане
CS: hromadný příliv
EE: massiline sisseränne
ES: afluencia masiva
FI: joukoittainen maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: afflux massif
GR:  μαζική εισορρή
HU: tömeges beáramlás
IE: mórphlódú isteach
IT: afflusso massiccio
LT: antplūdis
LV: masveida pieplūdums
MT: Influss tal-massa / ta' massa
NL/BE: massale toestroom (syn.: massale instroom)
NO: massetilstrømning (b) / massetilstrøyming (n)
PL: masowy napływ
PT: afluxo maciço
RO: aflux masiv
SE: massiv tillströmning
SI: množični priliv / množični prihod
SK: hromadný prílev

Arrival in the Community of a large number of displaced persons, who come from a specific country or geographical area, whether their arrival in the Community was spontaneous or aided, for example through an evacuation programme.


Related Term: temporary protection

Source:Art. 2(d) of Council Directive 2001/55/EC (Temporary Protection Directive)

Mass influx of displaced persons

Arrival in the EU of a large number of displaced persons, who come from a specific country or geographical area, whether their arrival in the EU was spontaneous or aided, for example through an evacuation programme. Displaced persons are non-EU nationals or stateless persons who have had to leave their country or region of origin, or have been evacuated, in particular in response to an appeal by international organisations, and who are unable to return in safe and durable conditions because of the situation prevailing in that country.

material reception conditions
AT/DE/LU: materielle Aufnahmebedingungen
BG: материални условия за приемане
CS: materiální podmínky přijetí
EE: materiaalsed varjupaigataotlejate vastuvõtutingimused
ES: condiciones materiales de acogida
FI: aineelliset vastaanotto-olosuhteet
FR/BE/LU: conditions matérielles d'accueil
GR: υλικές συνθήκες υποδοχής
HU: a befogadás anyagi feltételei
IE: coinníollacha ábhartha glactha
IT: condizioni materiali di accoglienza
LT: materialinės priėmimo sąlygos
LV: materiālie uzņemšanas nosacījumi
MT: Kondizzjonijiet materjali tal-akkoljenza
NL/BE: materiële opvangvoorzieningen
NO: materielle mottaksforhold (b) / materielle mottakstilhøve (n)
PL: materialne warunki przyjmowania
PT: condições materiais de acolhimento
RO: condiţii materiale de recepţie
SE: materiella mottagningsvillkor
SI: materialni pogoji sprejema
SK: materiálne prijímacie podmienky (EU acquis) / materiálne podmienky prijímania (national law)

The reception conditions that include housing, food and clothing provided in kind, or as financial allowances or in vouchers, or a combination of the three, and a daily expenses allowance.


Note:
For further information, see EMN: The Organisation of Reception Facilities for Asylum Seekers in different Member States, 2013.

Source:Art. 2(g) of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive)

Material reception conditions

Reception conditions that include housing, food and clothing, provided in kind or as financial allowances or in vouchers, and a daily expenses allowance.

medical benefits

Please see entry for access to healthcare

Methamphetamine

A synthetic substance. Normally seen as a white powder, it acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system. Methamphetamine has some limited therapeutic use, but most is manufactured in clandestine laboratories, particularly in the USA and the Far East. It is under international control and closely related to amphetamine

Source:
migrant
AT/DE/LU: Migrant
BG: мигрант
CS: migrant
EE: sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante
FI: maahanmuuttaja/maastamuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant
GR: μετανάστης
HU: migráns
IE: imirceach
IT: migrante
LT: migrantas
LV: migrants
MT: Migrant(a)
NL/BE: migrant
NO: migrant
PL: migrant
PT: migrante
RO: migrant
SE: migrant
SI: migrant
SK: migrant

In the global context, a person who is outside the territory of the State of which they are nationals or citizens and who has resided in a foreign country for more than one year irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means, regular or irregular, used to migrate.

In the EU / EFTA legal context, a person who either:

  1. establishes their usual residence in the territory of an EU / EFTA Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months, having previously been usually resident in another Member State or a third country; or
  2. having previously been usually resident in the territory of the EU / EFTA Member State, ceases to have their usual residence in the EU / EFTA Member State for a period that is, or is expected to be, of at least 12 months.


Narrower Term: economic migrant, emigrant, forced migrant, immigrant, short-term migrant, long-term migrant , stranded migrant

Related Term: Migration

Note:

1. Expressing the wish to apply for international protection, even in an indirect/non explicit manner, constitutes making an application.
2. At international level, no universally accepted definition for 'migrant' exists, but the UN recommendations for statistics on international migration and on population censuses specifies at least one year as the criterion for change of country of usual residence to define this change as ‘migration’.
3. Under the UN definition, those travelling for shorter periods as tourists and business persons would not be considered migrants. However, common usage includes certain kinds of shorter-term migrants such as seasonal workers.
4. The term 'migrant' is usually understood to cover all cases where the decision to migrate is taken freely by the individual concerned for reasons of 'personal convenience' and without intervention of an external compelling factor; it therefore applies to persons, and family members, moving to another country or region to better their material or social conditions and improve the prospect for themselves or their family.
5. This definition does not include intra-EU mobility of citizens or residents, even though national concepts of international migration may include mobility, as will national statistics on international migration.


Source: Global context: derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration and UNESCO
EU context: Derived by EMN from Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database and the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration

Migrant

A broader-term of an immigrant and emigrant, referring to a person who leaves one country or region to settle in another, often in search of a better life.