Migration and Home Affairs
temporary external border
AT/DE/LU: vorläufige Außengrenze
BG: временна външна граница
CS: dočasná vnější hranice
EE: ajutine välispiir
ES: frontera temporal exterior
FI: väliaikainen ulkoraja
FR/BE/LU: frontière extérieure temporaire
GR: σύνορα (προσωρινώς εξωτερικά)
HU: ideiglenes külső határ
IE: teorainn sheachtrach shealadach
IT: frontiera esterna temporanea
LT: laikinoji išorės siena
LV: pagaidu ārējā robeža
MT: Fruntiera esterna temporanja // Konfini esterni temporanji
NL/BE: tijdelijke buitengrens
NO: midlertidig ytre grense (b) / mellombels ytre grense (n)
PL: tymczasowa granica zewnętrzna
PT: fronteira externa temporária
RO: frontieră externă temporară
SE: tillfälliga yttre gränser
SI: začasna zunanja meja
SK: dočasná vonkajšia hranica
  1. The common border between a Member State fully implementing the Schengen acquis and a Member State bound to apply the Schengen acquis in full, in conformity with its Act of Accession, but for which the relevant Council Decision authorising it to fully apply that acquis has not entered into force.
  2. The common border between two Member States bound to apply the Schengen acquis in full, in conformity with their respective Acts of Accession, but for which the relevant Council Decision authorising them to fully apply that acquis has not yet entered into force.

Source:Art. 2 (2) of Council Decision 574/2007/EC (External Border Fund Decision)

temporary migration
AT/DE/LU: temporäre Migration
BG: временна миграция
CS: dočasná migrace
EE: ajutine sisseränne
ES: migración temporal
FI: tilapäinen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration temporaire
GR: προσωρινή μετανάστευση
HU: ideiglenes migráció
IE: imirce shealadach
IT: migrazione temporanea
LT: trumpalaikė migracija
LV: īslaicīga migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni temporanja
NL/BE: tijdelijke migratie
NO: midlertidig migrasjon (b) / mellombels migrasjon (n)
PL: migracja tymczasowa
PT: migração Temporária
RO: migraţie temporară
SE: tillfällig migration
SI: začasna migracija
SK: dočasná migrácia

Migration for a specific motivation and/or purpose with the intention that afterwards there will be a return to the country of origin or onward movement.

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: long-term migration, short-term migration

With regard to the development of EU policy, this may be seen in the context of inter alia circular migration and/or seasonal workers.

Source: Developed by EMN

temporary protection
AT/DE/LU: vorübergehender Schutz
BG: временна закрила
CS: dočasná ochrana
EE: ajutine kaitse
ES: protección temporal
FI: tilapäinen suojelu
FR/BE/LU: protection temporaire
GR: προσωρινή προστασία
HU: ideiglenes védelem
IE: cosaint shealadach
IT: protezione temporanea
LT: laikinoji apsauga
LV: pagaidu aizsardzība
MT: Protezzjoni temporanja
NL/BE: tijdelijke bescherming
NO: midlertidig beskyttelse (b) / mellombels vern (n)
PL: tymczasowa ochrona
PT: protecção temporária
RO: protecţie temporară
SE: tillfälligt skydd
SI: začasna zaščita
SK: dočasná ochrana (EU acquis) / dočasné útočisko (national law)

A procedure of exceptional character to provide, in the event of a mass influxor imminent mass influx of displaced personsfrom third countrieswho are unable to return to their country of origin, immediate and temporary protection to such persons, in particular if there is also a risk that the asylum system will be unable to process this influx without adverse effects for its efficient operation, in the interests of the persons.

Broader Term: protection

Related Term: (civil) war refugee, displacement, international protection, mass influx

In LV, temporary protection is granted for a specified period of time if the applicant needs protection because they have been forced to leave their country of citizenship or, if the person is stateless, their country of former residence due to ethnic conflict or civil war.

Source:Art. 2(a) of Council Directive 2001/55/EC (Temporary Protection Directive)

Temporary protection

A procedure of exceptional character to provide, in the event of a mass influx or imminent mass influx of displaced persons from non-EU countries who are unable to return to their country of origin, immediate and temporary protection to such persons, in particular if there is also a risk that the asylum system will be unable to process this influx without adverse effects for its efficient operation, in the interests of the persons concerned and other persons requesting protection.


In the absence of a generally accepted definition under international law, “terrorism” can be defined as the intentional and systematic use of actions designed to provoke terror in the public as a means to certain ends. Terrorism can be the act of an individual or a group of individuals acting in their individual capacity or with the support of a State. It may also be the act of a State, whether against the population (human rights violations such as forced labour, deportation, genocide, etc.), or in the context of an international armed conflict against the civil population of the enemy State.

Terrorist Finance Tracking Programme (TFTP)

A United States government program to access the SWIFT transaction database, revealed by The New York Times in June 2006. Based in Belgium, SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) establishes common standards for financial transactions worldwide. The Terrorist Finance Tracking Program is viewed as a tool in the ""Global War on Terrorism"". It is said to allow additional scrutiny that could prove instrumental in tracking transactions between terrorist cells. Concerns have been raised that this classified program might be a violation of US and European financial privacy laws, because individual search warrants to access financial data were not obtained in advance.

In February 2010, on the basis of these privacy concerns, the European Parliament rejected the conclusion of an agreement allowing US authorities access to European financial transactions data. In May 2010, the Commission started negotiating a new agreement, with the aim of ensuring better data protection safeguards.

The EDPS adopted an opinion on the European Commission's draft agreement in June 2010 in which he called for further data protection improvements. In July 2010, the European Parliament gave its approval to the conclusion of a revised agreement.

Terrorist financing

The provision or collection of funds, by any means, directly or indirectly, with the intention that they should be used or in the knowledge that they are to be used, in full or in part, to carry out any of the offences defined in Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA.

Terrorist propaganda

Propagation of a particular extremist worldview that brings individuals to consider and justify violence.

Terrorist radicalisation

Complex phenomenon of people embracing opinions, views and ideas that could lead to committing terrorist acts.

EU research has provided useful comparative results on radicalisation and de-radicalisation processes and on the evolving and complex social context of religions, multiculturalism and political extremism in many Member States. There is a growing consensus that drivers conducive to radicalisation may include a strong sense of alienation, perceived injustice or humiliation reinforced by social marginalisation, xenophobia and discrimination, limited education or employment possibilities, criminality or psychological problems. These factors can be exploited by recruiters who prey on vulnerabilities and grievances through manipulation.

The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
The European Police Office (EUROPOL)

Europol is the EU agency responsible for law enforcement cooperation. According to Art. 88 TFEU its mandate is to "support and strengthen action by the competent authorities of the Member States and their mutual cooperation in preventing and combating serious crime affecting two or more Member States, terrorism and forms of crime which affect a common interest covered by a Union policy". Its current legal basis is Council Decision 2009/371/JHA, which will be replaced by a Regulation as from 1 May 2017 (Regulation 2016/794 of 11 May 2016).

Europol's main task consists in collecting, storing, processing, analysing and exchanging information received by the competent authorities of the Member States. The production of criminal intelligence is among its core tasks. Europol also offers operational assistance to Member States. For instance, Europol provides the expertise of analysts in support of cross-border investigations. Europol may also take part in a Joint Investigation Team (JIT). Distinguishing features of Europol's regime are the detailed rules in the field of data protection and data security.


The Swedish Initiative

Council Framework Decision 2006/960/JHA is known as the Swedish Initiative. It provides a common legal framework for the effective and expeditious exchange of existing information and criminal intelligence between EU Member States' law enforcement authorities. This instrument, proposed by Sweden, was adopted in 2006. It sets out rules for the cross-border exchanges of criminal information and intelligence, ensuring procedures for cross-border data exchanges are not stricter than those applying to exchanges at national level. It regulates the conditions for exchanging information and intelligence among EU Member States, including time limits and admissible justifications for refusing to share data.


third country
AT/DE/LU: Drittstaat
BG: трета страна
CS: třetí země
EE: kolmas riik
ES: tercer país
FI: kolmas maa
FR/BE/LU: pays tiers
GR: τρίτη χώρα
HU: harmadik ország
IE: tríú tír
IT: paese terzo
LT: trečioji šalis
LV: trešā valsts
MT: Pajjiż terz
NL/BE: derde land
NO: tredjeland
PL: kraj trzeci
PT: país terceiro
RO: ţară/stat terţ
SE: tredjeland
SI: tretja država
SK: tretia krajina

A country that is not a member of the European Union as well as a country or territory whose citizens do not enjoy the European Union right to free movement, as defined in Art. 2(5) of the Schengen Borders Code.

Narrower Term: safe third country, third-country national

Source:Derived by EMN from the description of 'free movement of citizens' on the website of Eurofound

Third party confiscation

The confiscation of assets that have been transferred by an investigated or convicted person to third parties.

third-country national
AT/DE/LU: Drittstaatsangehöriger
BG: гражданин на трета страна
CS: státní přáslušník třetí země
EE: kolmanda riigi kodanik
ES: nacional de tercer país
FI: kolmannen maan kansalainen
FR/BE/LU: ressortissant d'un pays tiers
GR: υπήκοος τρίτης χώρας
HU: harmadik országbeli állampolgár
IE: náisiúnach tríú tír
IT: cittadino di un paese terzo
LT: trečiosios šalies pilietis
LV: trešās valsts pilsonis
MT: Ċittadin(a) ta' pajjiż terz
NL/BE: onderdaan van een derde land (syn. derde lander)
NO: tredjelandsborger (b) / tredjelandsborgar (n)
PL: obywatel kraju trzeciego
PT: nacional de país terceiro
RO: cetăţean terţ/al unui stat terţ
SE: tredjelandsmedborgare
SI: državljan tretje države
SK: štátny príslušník tretej krajiny

Any person who is not a citizen of the European Union within the meaning of Art. 20(1) of TFEU and who is not a person enjoying the Union right to free movement, as defined in Art. 2(5) of the Schengen Borders Code.


Broader Term: third country

Related Term: union citizen

1. According to this definition, nationals of NO, IS, LI and CH are not considered to be third-country nationals. This is also consistent with Art. 2(6) of the Schengen Borders Code.
2. The Migration Statistics Regulation 862/2007 has a slightly different definition for a third-country national, which considers nationals of NO, IS, LI and CH as third-country nationals. This definition is also applied in Council Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive), Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive), Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive), Directive 2005/71/EC (Researchers Directive) and Directive 2004/114/EC (Students Directive). This definition was considered to be too narrow for use by the EMN.
3. Nationals of Micro-States (Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City) are treated as third-country nationals since, although there are no border controls, there is no formal agreement for them to be 'beneficiaries of the free movement of persons' as defined in the EU acquis. This also means that they cannot be part of the Schengen Agreement.

Source:Art. 3(1) of Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive) and Art. 2(6) of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

third-country national found to be illegally present
AT/DE/LU: Drittstaatsangehöriger, dessen illegaler Aufenthalt festgestellt wird
BG: незаконно пребиваващ гражданин на трета страна
CS: státní příslušník třetí země, u kterého bylo zjištěno, že nedovoleně pobývá na území
EE: ebaseaduslikult riigis viibiv kolmanda riigi kodanik
ES: nacional de tercer país detectado en situación irregular
FI: laittomasti maassa oleskeleva kolmannen maan kansalainen
FR/BE/LU: ressortissant d'un pays tiers en séjour irrégulier
GR: υπήκοοι τρίτων χωρών παράνομα διαμένοντες
HU: harmadik országbeli állampolgárok, akikről megállapították, hogy illegálisan tartózkodnak
IE: náisiúnach tríú tír atá i láthair go neamhdhleathach
IT: cittadino di un paese terzo presente irregolarmente
LT: neteisėtai esantis trečiosios šalies pilietis
LV: trešās valsts pilsonis, kas nelikumīgi uzturas dalībvalstī
MT: Ċittadin(a) ta' pajjiż terz preżenti illegalment
NL/BE: derdelander van wie vaststaat / is vastgesteld dat deze illegaal verblijft
NO: tredjelandsborger med ulovlig opphold (b) / tredjelandsborgar med ulovleg opphald (n)
PL: obywatele krajów trzecich, co do których stwierdzono fakt nielegalnego przebywania
PT: nacionais de países terceiros detectados em situação ilegal
RO: cetăţean terţ depistat cu şedere ilegală
SE: olagligt närvarande tredjelandsmedborgare
SI: državljan tretje države za katerega se ugotovi da je nezakonito navzoč
SK: štátny príslušník tretej krajiny neoprávnene sa zdržiavajúci na území členského štátu EÚ

A third-country nationalwho is officially found to be on the territory of a Member State and who does not fulfil, or no longer fulfils, the conditions for stay or residence in that Member State.

Synonym(s): illegally resident migrant, illegally staying migrant, illegally staying third-country national

Narrower Term: overstayer

Broader Term: irregular migrant,irregular stay

Related Term: illegal employment of an illegally staying third-country national

Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive) uses the term 'illegally staying third-country national' with the same definition.

Source:Art. 2(r) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)

third-country national mobility

Please see entry for intra-EU mobility

tolerated stay

Please see entry for postponement of removal

AT/DE/LU: Folter
BG: изтезания
CS: mučení
EE: piinamine
ES: tortura
FI: kidutus
FR/BE/LU: torture
HU: kínzás
IE: céasadh
IT: tortura
LT: kankinimas
LV: spīdzināšana
MT: Tortura
NL/BE: foltering
NO: tortur
PL: tortury
PT: tortura
RO: tortură
SE: tortyr
SI: mučenje
SK: mučenie

Any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from them or a third person information or a confession, punishing them for an act they or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing them or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.

Related Term: serious harm, vulnerable person

1. The right to freedom from torture is enshrined in many international treaties, most notably the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the UN Convention against Torture (UNCAT). The acceptance that torture is forbidden under any circumstances, including war, public emergency or terrorist threat, indicates that universally it is considered as a fundamental principle of customary international law. This means that even States that have not ratified any of the international treaties explicitly prohibiting torture are banned from using it against anyone, anywhere, under any circumstances.
2. Regional conventions, such as the European Convention on Human Rights (Art. 3) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union(Art. 4), also recognise torture as a prohibited act.
3. Both the UNCAT and the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951 expressly prohibit the return of an asylum-seeker to a country where they may be at risk of torture.
4. In the EU, Art. 21 of Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Receptions Conditions Directive) explicitly considers the situation of vulnerable asylum seekers with special needs, including victims of torture. EU Member States are obliged to identify victims of torture within the asylum procedure and to assess whether they have special reception needs, including the need to access appropriate medical and psychological treatment or care.

Source:Art. 1 of UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

total migration
AT/DE/LU: Wanderungsvolumen
BG: общ размер на миграцията
CS: celková migrace
EE: rände koguarv
ES: migración total
FI: kokonaismuutto
FR/BE/LU: volume migratoire
GR: καθολική μετανάστευση
HU: teljes migráció
IE: imirce iomlán
IT: migrazione totale
LT: bendra migracija
LV: migrācijas apjoms/bruto migrācija
MT: Migrazzjoni totali
NL/BE: totale migratie
NO: samlet migrasjon (b) / samla migrasjon (n)
PL: migracja (brutto)
PT: migração bruta
RO: migraţie totală
SE: bruttomigration
SI: sum migracija / skupna migracija
SK: celková migrácia

The sum of the immigrations and emigrations which yields the total volume of migration.

Related Term: crude rate of net migration, migration flow, net migration, population stock

Source:Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration (THESIM) project

Trafficking in human beings

Trafficking in human beings is a violation of fundamental rights, and as such it is explicitly prohibited under Article 5 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Trafficking in human beings is also listed as a crime in Article 83 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Crimes listed in Article 83 are known as ‘Euro crimes’. These are particularly serious crimes with a cross-border dimension.

The EU has developed a comprehensive legal and policy framework to address trafficking in human beings in particular the Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims (Anti-trafficking Directive) and the EU Strategy towards the eradication of trafficking in human beings 2012-2016.

Article 2 par.1 of the Anti-trafficking Directive defines trafficking in human beings as

"The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer of control over those persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation"

In 2010 the Commission appointed an EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, who is responsible for improving coordination and consistency between EU institutions, EU agencies, the Member States and international actors, and for developing new and improving existing EU policies to tackle trafficking in human beings.

trafficking in human beings
AT/DE/LU: Menschenhandel
BG: трафик на хора
CS: obchodování s lidmi
EE: inimkaubandus
ES: trata de seres humanos
FI: ihmiskauppa
FR/BE/LU: traite des êtres humains
GR: εμπορία ανθρώπων
HU: emberkereskedelem
IE: gáinneáil i ndaoine
IT: tratta di esseri umani
LT: prekyba žmonėmis
LV: cilvēku tirdzniecība
MT: Traffikar ta' Persuni
NL/BE: mensenhandel
NO: menneskehandel
PL: handel ludźmi
PT: tráfico de seres humanos
RO: trafic de fiinţe umane
SE: människohandel
SI: trgovina z ljudmi
SK: obchodovanie s ľuďmi

The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer of control over those persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.

Synonym(s): human trafficking

Related Term: exploitation, National Referral Mechanism, Palermo Protocol

1. A position of vulnerability means a situation in which the person concerned has no real or acceptable alternative but to submit to the abuse involved.
2. Exploitation includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs.
3. The EU anti-trafficking website provides a one-stop-shop for practitioners and the public interested in the problem of trafficking.

Source:Art. 2 of Directive 2011/36/EU (Trafficking Directive)

AT/DE/LU: Auszubildender
BG: стажант
CS: stážista
EE: praktikant
ES: persona en prácticas
FI: harjoittelija
FR/BE/LU: stagiaire
GR: εκπαιδευόμενος
HU: gyakornok
IE: duine faoi oiliúint
IT: tirocinante/apprendista
LT: stažuotojas
LV: praktikants/stažieris
MT: Persuna titħarreġ / fuq taħriġ
NL/BE: stagiair
NO: praktikant
PL: stażysta
PT: estagiários/formandos
RO: stagiar
SE: praktikant
SI: pripravnik
SK: stážista

In the EU migration context, a worker whose presence in the territory of a Member State is strictly limited in duration and closely connected with increasing their skills and qualifications in their chosen profession before returning to their own countries to pursue their careers.

Narrower Term: remunerated trainee, unremunerated trainee

Source:Council Resolution of 20 June 1994 on limitation on admission of third-country nationals to the territory of the Member States for employment

transfer order
AT/DE/LU: Überstellungsanordnung
BG: заповед за прехвърляне
CS: rozhodnutí o transferu, rozhodnutí o přemístění
EE: üleandmise otsus (No usual translation)
ES: orden de traslado
FI: siirtomääräys
FR/BE/LU: obligation de transfert
GR: εντολή μεταφοράς
HU: átadásról rendelkező végzés
IE: ordú um aistriú
IT: ordine di trasferimento
LT: nurodymas perduoti
LV: lēmums par patvēruma meklētāja pārsūtīšanu
MT: Ordni ta' trasferiment
NL/BE: overdrachtsbevel
NO: overføringsvedtak
PL: No translation
PT: decisão de transferência
RO: ordin de transfer
SE: beslut om överföring
SI: nalog za transfer
SK: príkaz na presun / príkaz na transfer

The formal obligation of an applicant for international protection to leave a Member State and, within a specified period, go to the designated Member State responsible for examining their application for international protection.

Broader Term: Dublin transfer

Related Term: Dublin Convention, Dublin Regulation

Source: Derived by EMN from Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

AT/DE/LU: Durchreise, Transit
BG: транзит
CS: tranzit
EE: läbisõit/transiit
ES: tránsito
FI: kauttakulku
FR/BE/LU: transit
GR: διέλευση
HU: tranzit
IE: idirthuras
IT: transito
LT: tranzitas
LV: tranzīts
MT: Transitu
NL/BE: transit (NL syn.: doorreis)
NO: transitt
PL: tranzyt
PT: trânsito
RO: tranzit
SE: transit
SI: tranzit
SK: tranzit

In the context of migration: Passage through a country of transit of a third-country national travelling from their country of origin to an EU Member State.

In the context of a visa: Passage through a Member State(s) of a third-country national travelling from one third country to another third country.

Source: Context of migration: Developed by EMN
Context of a visa: Derived by EMN from definition for 'transit visa' in Common Consular Instructions (2005/C 326/01)

transit visa

Please see entry for visa

travel document
AT/DE/LU: Reisedokument
BG: документ за пътуване
CS: cestovní doklad
EE: reisidokument
ES: documento de viaje
FI: matkustusasiakirja
FR/BE/LU: document de voyage
HU: úti okmány
IE: doiciméad taistil
IT: documento di viaggio
LT: kelionės dokumentas
LV: ceļošanas dokuments
MT: Dokument tal-ivvjaġġar
NL/BE: reisdocument
NO: reisedokument
PL: dokument podróży
PT: documento de viagem
RO: document de călătorie
SE: resehandling
SI: potna listina
SK: cestovný doklad

A document issued by a government or international treaty organisation which is acceptable proof of identity for the purpose of entering another country.

Narrower Term: visa

Related Term: fraudulent travel or identity document

1. Passports and visas are the most widely used forms of travel documents.
2. Some States also accept certain identity cards or other documents, such as residence permits.

Source:Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

Travel document

A passport or other equivalent document entitling the holder to cross the external borders and to which a visa may be affixed. EU citizens can also use ID cards as a travel document to enter into or exit from another EU State.

Treaty of Lisbon

Please see entry for Lisbon Treaty

Tripoli conclusions

At the Tripoli EU-Africa Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development in November 2006, Africa and the EU adopted for the first time a joint strategy, in the form of the Tripoli Declaration, to respond to the challenges and maximise the benefits of international migration.