Migration and Home Affairs
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W X
Labour exploitation

All work or service that is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered him-/herself voluntarily.

Labour immigration

Migration mainly for economic reasons or in order to seek material improvements.

labour matching
AT/DE/LU: Ausrichtung des Profils der Arbeitskräfte auf die Arbeitsmarkterfordernisse
BG: срещане на търсенето и предлагането на работна сила
CZ: párování nabídky s poptávkou na pracovním trhu
FI: työvoiman kohtaanto / työvoiman kysynnän ja tarjonnan kohtaanto
FR/BE/LU: rapprochement de l'offre et de la demande de main-d'œuvre / adéquation entre le profil du travailleur et les caractéristiques du poste (FR)
IE: comhoiriúnú saothair
HU: munkaerő-kereslet és -kínálat összehangolása
IT: incontro fra domanda e offerta di lavoro
LV: darbaspēka atbilstība
NO: kobling av arbeidssøker til arbeidstilbud (b) / kopling av arbeidssøkjar til arbeidstilbod (n)
PL: dopasowanie kwalifikacji i umiejętności pracownika do wymogów konkretnej oferty pracy
SE: Arbetskraftsmatchning
SK: umiestňovanie pracovných síl
SI: ustrezno kvalificirani delavci

The process by which the skills and qualifications of a worker is compared with the requirements of a particular job vacancy, to establish whether they match wholly or partly.


Related Term: skill matching 

Note: 
There is no recognized international definition of the term, although it is frequently used by employment agencies (public and private) as well as by economic and labour market research and policy discussions.

Source: Derived by EMN on the basis of information on the Website of the World Association of Public Employment Services (WAPES)

labour migrant

Please see entry for migrant worker

labour shortage
AT/DE/LU: Arbeitskräftemangel
BG: недостиг на работна сила
CZ: nedostatek pracovních sil
FI: työvoimapula
FR/BE/LU: pénurie de main d'œuvre
IE: ganntanas lucht saothair
HU: munkaerőhiány
IT: labour shortage carenza di forza lavoro
LV: darbaspēka trūkums
NO: mangel på arbeidskraft
PL: niedobór siły roboczej
SE: Arbetskraftsbrist
SK: nedostatok pracovnej sily / nedostatková profesia
SI: pomanjkanje delavcev

Shortage of labour of a particular type in a particular labour market which may be said to exist when the number of vacancies has been (or is expected to be) above a  level considered to represent 'normal' turnover at the prevailing wages and working conditions for an extended period. 


Related Term: skill shortage

Note: 
There is no recognized international definition of the term, although it is frequently used by employment agencies (public and private) as well as by economic and labour market research and policy discussions.

Source: Derived by EMN from sources quoted in "Collecting statistics on imbalances in the demand for labour", Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE,16 (1999). Pp 105 - 121.

legal entry
AT/DE/LU: legale Einreise
BG: законно влизане
CS: oprávněný vstup
EE: seaduslik (riiki) sisenemine
ES: entrada legal
FI: laillinen maahantulo
FR/BE/LU: entrée légale
GR: νόμιμη είσοδος
HU: legális beutazás / belépés
IE: iontráil dhleathach
IT: ingresso autorizzato
LT: teisėtas atvykimas
LV: likumīga ieceļošana
MT: Dħul legali
NL/BE: legale binnenkomst
NO: lovlig innreise (b) / lovleg innreise (n)
PL: legalny wjazd
PT: legalne przekroczenie granicy,
RO: intrare legală
SE: laglig inresa
SI: zakonit vstop
SK: oprávnený vstup (national law) / legálny vstup

In the global context, the entry of an alien into a foreign country in compliance with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

In the Schengen context, and for a stay not exceeding three months per six-month period, the entry of a third-country national into a Schengen Member State in compliance with Art. 5 of the Schengen Borders Code.


Narrower Term: admission onto the territory

Related Term: border control, irregular entry

Source: Global context: Derived by EMN from the definition of 'entry' in IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011 and the definition of 'illegal entry' in the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols
Schengen context: Derived by EMN from Art. 5 of Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Legal entry

Entry of a non-EU national into a Schengen State, for a stay not exceeding three months per a six-month period, which satisfies the requirements laid down in the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation 562/2006).

legalisation

Please see entry for regularisation

LGB(TI)
AT/DE/LU: LGB(TI)
BG: ЛГБТ
CZ: LGB(TI)
FI: HLB(TI)
FR/BE/LU: LGB(TI)
IE: LADTI / (daoine) Leispiacha, Aeracha, Déghnéasacha, Trasinscneacha agus Idirghnéasacha
HU: LGB(TI) / Leszbikus, Meleg,Biszexuális (Transznemű,Interszexuális)
IT: LGB(TI)
FR: LGB(TI)
LV: LGB(TI)
NO: LGB(TI)
PL: LGB(TI)
SE: HBT(Q) / homosexuella, bisexuella, trans- och (queerpersoner)
SK: lesbické, homosexuálne, bisexuálne, (transrodové a intersexuálne) osoby
SI: LGB(TI) / Lezbijke, geji, bi- in transseksualci

An acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, (trans and intersex) people

Synonym(s): LGB, LGBT, LGBTQIA

Related Term: gender-based persecution, gender-specific violence, social group

Note: 

1. There is no uniform or standardised terminology relating to diverse sexual orientations and gender identities. Terminology regarding LGB(TI) varies immensely across (sub-)cultures and countries/regions and may change over time.
2. The term was added as LGB(TI) may experience persecution, serious harm and discrimination in their countries of origin and thus it may be a reason for which people claim international protection.
3. (TO) appears between parentheses because the number of persons claiming international protection due to being transgender or intergender are negligible, whereas there are much higher numbers claiming international protection for being lesbian, gay or bisexual.
4. Art. 10 of the Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU) reiterates that sexual orientation may be invoked as one of the five existing Convention grounds for persecution.

 

Source: Derived by EMN from EASO: Researching the situation of lesbian, gay and bisexual persons (LGB) in countries of origin, 2015

Lisbon Treaty
AT/DE/LU: Vertrag von Lissabon
BG: Договорът от Лисабон
CS: Lisabonská smlouva
EL: Η Συνθήκη της Λισαβόνας
ES: Tratado de Lisboa
FI: Lissabonin sopimus
FR/BE/LU: Traité de Lisbonne
HU: Lisszaboni Szerződés
IE: Conradh Liospóin
IT: Trattato di Lisbona
LT: Lisabonos sutartis
LV: Lisabonas līgums
MT: Trattat (It-) ta’ Lisbona
NL/BE: Verdrag van Lissabon 
NO: Lisboa-traktaten
PL: Traktat Lizboński
PT: Tratado de Lisboa
SE: Lissabonfördraget
SI: Lizbonska pogodba
SK: Lisabonská zmluva

An international agreement – initially known as the Reform Treaty – which amends the two treaties that form the constitutional basis of the European Union and which aims to enhance the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the European Union and to improve the coherence of its actions.


Synonym(s): Reform Treaty, Treaty of Lisbon

Related Term: Common European Asylum System

Note:
1. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the 27 Member States on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009. It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), which is also known as the Treaty on European Union, and the Treaty of Rome (1952), which is also known as the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEEC). At Lisbon, the Treaty of Rome was renamed the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2. Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU, and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding.
3. The Treaty of Lisbon broadened the competences of the EU in asylum issues. According to Art. 78 TFEU, a common policy on asylum is developed through the ordinary legislative procedure. There is no mentioning of minimum standards as before which sets the aim to convergence. The Article provides for the legal basis for the CEAS. For further information, see the entry for 'Common European Asylum System' in this EMN Glossary.
4. For more information see the Website of the Lisbon Treaty.

Source:Derived by EMN from Website on the Lisbon Treaty

local border traffic
AT/DE/LU: kleiner Grenzverkehr
BG: местен граничен трафик
CS: malý pohraniční styk
EE: kohalik piiriliiklus
ES: tráfico fronterizo local
FI: paikallinen rajaliikenne
FR/BE/LU: trafic frontalier local
GR: τοπική διασυνοριακή κυκλοφορία
HU:  kishatárforgalom
IE: trácht teorann áitiúil
IT: traffico frontaliero locale
LT: vietinis eismas per sieną
LV: vietējā pierobežas satiksme
MT: Traffiku lokali mal-fruntiera / mal-konfini
NL/BE: klein grensverkeer
NO: lokal grensetrafikk
PL: mały ruch graniczny
PT: pequeno tráfego fronteiriço
RO: mic trafic de frontieră
SE:  lokal gränstrafik
SI: lokalni obmejni promet
SK: malý pohraničný styk (EU acquis) / prihraničná doprava (national law)

The regular crossing of an external land border by border residentsin order to stay in a border area, for example for social, cultural or substantiated economic reasons, or for family reasons, for a period not exceeding three months.


Related Term: border area, border resident frontier worker

Source:Art. 3(3) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

Local border traffic

The regular crossing of an external land border by border residents in order to stay in a border area, for example for social, cultural or substantiated economic reasons, or for family reasons, for a period not exceeding three months.

Local border traffic regime

A derogation from the general rules governing the border control of persons crossing the external borders of Schengen States, which facilitates border crossing for border residents.

lodging an application for international protection
AT/DE/LU: einen förmlichen Antrag auf internationalen Schutz stellen
BG: подаване на молба за международна закрила
CZ: poskytnutí údajů k podané žádosti o mezinárodní ochranu
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua koskevan hakemuksen jättäminen
FR/BE/LU: introduire une demande de protection internationale
IE: iarratas ar chosaint idirnáisiúnta a thaisceadh
HU: nemzetközi védelem iránti kérelem előterjesztése (szándék)
IT: inoltro di una domanda di protezione internazionale
LV: pieteikuma iesniegšana starptautiskās aizsardzības saņemšanai
PL: (formalne) złożenie wniosku o ochronę międzynarodową
SE: Lämna in ansökan om internationellt skydd
SI: vloga prošnje za mednarodno zaščito
SK: podanie žiadosti o medzinárodnú ochranu
NO: fremme en søknad om internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / søkje om internasjonalt vern (n)

The act of formalising the application for international protection with the determining authority or any other body charged with lodging as per national practice.


Related Term: access to the procedure for international protection, making an application for international protection

Note: 

1. According to Art. 6 (2) of Directive 2013/32 (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive), Member States have to ensure that a person who has made an application for international protection has an effective opportunity to lodge it as soon as possible and have to inform applicants where and how to lodge.
2. Member States may require that applications for international protection are lodged in person and/or at a designated place (Art.6 (3) of the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).
3. An application for international protection shall be deemed to have been lodged once a form submitted by the applicant or, where provided for in national law, an official report has reached the competent authorities of the Member State concerned (Art. 6 (4) of the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).

 

Source: Derived by EMN from Art. 6 (2-4) of Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive)

long-stay visa
AT/DE/LU: Visum für den längerfristigen Aufenthalt, (EU acquis), Langzeit-Visum
BG: виза за дългосрочно пребиваване
CS: dlouhodobé vízum
EE: pikaajaline viisa
EL: θεώρηση για διαμονή μακράς διαρκείας
ES: visado para estancia de larga duración
FI: pitkäaikainen viisumi
FR/BE/LU: visa de long séjour
GR: θεώρηση για διαμονή μακράς διαρκείας
HU: hosszú távú tartózkodásra jogosító vízum
IE: víosa fadchuairte
IT: visto per soggiorno di lunga durata
LT: ilgalaikė viza
LV: ilgtermiņa vīza
MT: Resident(a) fit-tul
NL/BE: visum voor verblijf van langere duur
NO: oppholdstillatelse (b) / opphaldsløyve (n)
PL: wiza długoterminowa
PT: visto de longa duração
RO: viză de lungă şedere
SE: visering för längre vistelse
SI: vizum za dolgoročno bivanje
SK: dlhodobé vízum

The authorisation or decision issued by one of the Member States in accordance with its national law or Union law required for entry for an intended stay in that Member State of more than three months.


Broader Term: visa

Related Term: airport transit visa, short-stay visa, transit visa

Source:Art. 2(m) of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)

long-term migrant
AT/DE/LU: langfristig aufhältiger Migrant, Langzeit-Migrant
BG: дългосрочен мигрант
CS: dlouhodobý migrant
EE: pikaajaline sisserändaja
ES: persona migrante de carácter permanente
FI: pitkään oleskellut maahanmuuttaja
FR/BE/LU: migrant de longue durée
GR: μετανάστης επί μακρόν διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodói jogállással rendelkező személy (not commonly used, ’letelepedett’ is used for persons who have the right to stay for an indefinite period)
IE:  imirceach fadtéarmach
IT:  migrante di lungo periodo
LT: ilgalaikis migrantas
LV: ilgtermiņa migrants
MT: Viża għal żjara/miġja/waqfa fit-tul
NL/BE: langverblijvende migrant (syn.: langdurige migrant)
NO: migrant med langvarig opphold (b) / migrant med langvarig opphald (n)
PL: migrant długookresowy
PT: migrante de longa duração
RO: migrant pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigrant
SI: migrant za daljše obdobje
SK: dlhodobý migrant

A person who moves to a country other than that of their usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes their new country of usual residence.


Broader Term: migrant

Related Term: long-term migration, short-term migrant

Source:OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

long-term migration
AT/DE/LU: langfristige Migration, Langzeit-Migration
BG: дългосрочна миграция
CS: dlouhodobá migrace
EE: pikaajaline sisseränne
EL: μακροχρόνια μετανάστευση
ES: migración de larga duración
FI: pitkäaikainen maahanmuutto
FR/BE/LU: migration de longue durée
GR: μακροχρόνια μετανάστευση
HU: huzamos idejű tartózkodási céllal történő migráció
IE: imirce fhadtéarmach
IT: migrazione di lungo periodo
LT: ilgalaikė migracija
LV: ilgtermiņa migrācija
MT: Migrant(a) fit-tul / għal żmien twil
NL/BE: lange-termijnmigratie
NO: langtidsmigrasjon
PL: migracja długookresowa
PT: migração de longa duração
RO: migraţie pe termen lung
SE: långtidsmigration
SI: migracija za daljše obdobje
SK: dlhodobá migrácia

Movement of individuals who change their country of usual residencefor a period of at least one year, so that the country of destinationeffectively becomes their new country of usual residence.


Synonym(s): permanent-type migration, permanent migration

Broader Term: Migration

Related Term: long-term migrant, short-term migration

Note:
Long-term migration' and 'permanent migration' are often understood as quasi-synonyms. The OECD defines permanent migration as 'a concept relating to undertaking migration with a view to, or which results in, settling on a permanent basis in the country of destination.

Source: Derived by EMN from the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migrationand OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms

Long-term residence permit

A residence permit issued to a non-EU national by the EU State concerned upon the acquisition of long-term resident status.

long-term resident
AT/DE/LU: langfristig Aufenthaltsberechtigter
BG: дългосрочно пребиваващ
CS: dlouhodobě pobývající rezident
EE: pikaajaline elanik
ES: residente de larga duración
FI: pitkään oleskellut
FR/BE/LU: résident de longue durée
GR: επί μακρών διαμένων
HU: huzamos tartózkodás jogával rendelkező személy
IE: cónaitheoir fadtéarmach
IT: soggiornante di lungo periodo 
LT: ilgalaikis gyventojas
LV: pastāvīgais iedzīvotājs
MT: Migrazzjoni fit-tul
NL/BE: langdurig ingezetene
NO: person med permanent oppholdtillatelse (b) / person med permanent opphaldsløyve (n)
PL: rezydent długoterminowy
PT: residente de longa duração
RO: rezident pe termen lung
SE: varaktigt bosatt
SI: rezident za daljše obdobje
SK:  osoba s dlhodobým pobytom

A third-country national who has long-term resident status as provided for under Arts. 4 to 7 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long-Term Residents Directive) or as provided for under national legislation.


Related Term: right of residence

Note:
1.EU Member States must recognise long-term resident status after five years of uninterrupted legal residence. This is however dependent upon the person having a stable and regular source of income, health insurance and, when required by the EU Member State, having complied with integration measures. The applicant must also not constitute a threat to public security or public policy.
2. Directive 2011/51/EU of 11 May 2011 amended Directive 2003/109/EC to extend its scope of application to beneficiaries of international protection.
3. The UN Recommendations on Statistics on International Migration set one year of intended residence as the lower threshold.

Source:Art. 2(b) of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive)

Long-term resident

Any non-EU national who has long-term resident status as provided for under Directive 2003/109/EC.

loss of citizenship
AT/DE/LU: Verlust der Staatsangehörigkeit/Staatsbürgerschaft
BG: загуба на гражданство
CS: pozbytí státního občanství
EE: kodakondsuse kaotamine
ES: pérdida de nacionalidad
FI: kansalaisuuden menettäminen
FR/BE/LU: perte de la citoyenneté
GR:  απώλεια ιθαγένειας
HU: állampolgárság elvesztése
IE: cailleadh saoránachta
IT: perdita di cittadinanza
LT: pilietybės netekimas
LV: pilsonības zaudēšana
MT: Telf ta' ċittadinanza
NL/BE: verlies van het staatsburgerschap
NO: tap av statsborgerskap (b) / tap av statsborgarskap (n)
PL: utrata obywatelstwa
PT: perda de nacionalidade
RO: pierderea cetăţeniei
SE: förlust av medborgarskap
SI: izguba državljanstva
SK: strata štátneho občianstva

Any mode of loss of the status as citizen of a country , voluntarily or involuntarily, automatically or by an act by the public authorities.


Synonym(s): loss of nationality
Broader Term: citizenship

Note :
The main types of loss are renunciation, withdrawal and lapse of citizenship.

Source:EUDO Online Glossary on Citizenship and Nationality

loss of nationality

Please see entry for loss of citizenship