Migration and Home Affairs
G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group
AT/DE/LU: soziales Geschlecht
BG: социален пол
CS: gender
EE: sugu
ES: género
FI: sukupuoli
FR/BE/LU: genre
GR: γένος
HU: (társadalmi) nem(i szerep)
IE: inscne
IT: genere
LT: lytis
LV: dzimums
MT: Konferenza (Il-) tad-Diretturi Ġenerali tas-Servizzi tal-Immigrazzjoni (GDISC)
NL/BE: gender
NO: kjønn
PL: gender, płeć społeczno-kulturowa
PT: género
RO: gen
SE: genus
SI: spol
SK: rod

The socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and needs predominantly connected to being male or female in given societies or communities at a given time.

Related Term: sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, social group, LGB(TI)

1. People fleeing human rights violations and persecution due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity may qualify for international protection. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) refers in Art. 10 'Reasons for persecution' to gender related aspects, including gender identity, which shall be given due consideration for the purposes of determining membership of a particular social group or identifying a characteristic of such a group.

2. UNHCR and EASO use the following definition of 'gender identity': '"Each person's deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body - which may involve, if chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means - and other expressions of gender, including of dress, speech and mannerism (see ICJ, Yogyakarta Principles - Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, ('Yogyakarta Principles'), March 2007. .

Source:Derived by EMN from the list of Concepts and Definitions on the UN Woman website

gender-based persecution
AT/DE/LU: Verfolgung aufgrund des Geschlechts
BG: преследване, основано на пола
CZ: pronásledování na základě genderové příslušnosti
FI: sukupuoleen perustuva vaino
FR/BE/LU: persécution fondée sur le genre
IE: géarleanúint ar bhonn inscne
HU: nemi hovatartozáson alapuló üldöztetés
IT: persecuzione di genere
LV: dzimumspecifiska vajāšana
PL: prześladowanie ze względu na płeć
SE: könsrelaterad förföljelse
SK: prenasledovanie z dôvodu rodovej príslušnosti
SI: preganjanje na podlagi spola
SV: könsrelaterad förföljelse
NO: kjønnsbasert forfolgelse (b) /kjønnsbasert forfølging (n)

The causal relationship between gender  and persecution i.e. when the reason for persecution is related to a person's gender.

Synonym(s): gender-related persecution

Narrower Term: gender-specific violence

Related Term: gender, social group, female genital  mutilation


1. Gender-based persecution is a term that has no legal meaning per se. It is used to encompass the range of different claims in which gender is a relevant consideration in the determination of refugee status. Gender-related claims may be brought by either women or men, although they are more commonly brought by women.
2. Although gender is not specifically referenced as one of the grounds on which an individual can be recognized as a refugee and given protection, it is widely accepted that it can influence or dictate the reasons for persecution and as such there is no need to add an additional ground to the Refugee Convention definition. A gender-sensitive interpretation should be given to each of the Convention grounds 'race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion' although gender-based persecution is predominantly interpreted within the parameters of the particular social group ground.


Source: Crawley, Heaven: Gender-Related Persecution and Women’s Claims to Asylum and UNHCR: Guidelines on international protection: Gender-related persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Regfuees - May 2002

gender-specific violence
AT/DE/LU: Verfolgung aufgrund des Geschlechts
BG: Насилие свързано с полова принадлежност
CZ: násilí na základě genderové příslušnosti
FI: sukupuolistunut väkivalta / sukupuoliperusteinen väkivalta
FR/BE/LU: persécution fondée sur le genre
IE: foréigean dírithe ar inscne
HU: nemhez kötődő erőszak
IT: violenza di genere
LV: dzimumspecifiska vardarbīb
PL: przemoc uwarunkowana płcią
SE: könsspecifikt våld
SK: rodovo podmienené násilie / rodovo motivované násilie
SI: specifično spolno preganjanje
NO: kjønnsbasert vold (b) / kjønnsbasert vald (n)

Different types and forms of  harm and human right violations  which are gender-specific but which do not necessarily constitute persecution because of gender. 

Synonym(s): gender-specific harm, gender-based violence, GBV

Broader Term: gender-based persecution

Related Term: gender, female genital mutilation


1. Such forms of harm are more frequently used against women or affect women in a manner which is different to men and include, for example, sexual violence, rape, female genital mutilation, domestic abuse, forced abortion and sterilisation and denial of access to contraception.
2. The Recast Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU) recognises that gender-specific acts may amount to persecution.
3. Gender-specific violence is understood as a narrower term to gender-based persecution.


Source: Crawley, Heaven: Gender-Related Persecution and Women’s Claims to Asylum 

General Directors of Immigration Services Conference
AT/DE/LU: Konferenz der Generaldirektoren der Einwanderungsbehörden (GDISC)
BG: Конференция на генералните директори на имиграционните служби
CS: Sdružení generálních ředitelů imigračních služeb (GDISC)
FI: GDISC (Maahanmuuttovirastojen johtajien konferenssi)
FR/BE/LU: Conférence des directeurs généraux des services d'immigration (GDGSI)
GR: Διάσκεψη των Γενικών Διευθυντών των Υπηρεσιών Μετανάστευσης
HU: GDISC (Bevándorlási Hatóságok Főigazgatóinak Konferenciája)
IE: Comhdháil Stiúrthóirí Ginearálta ar Sheirbhísí Imirce (GDISC)
IT: Conferenza dei Direttori generali dei Servizi immigrazione
LT: Imigracijos tarnybų generalinių direktorių konferencija
LV: Imigrācijas dienestu ģenerāldirektoru konference (GDISC)
MT: Konvenzjoni (Il-) ta’ Ġinevra tal-1951 u l-Protokol tal-1967
NO: GDISC-konferansen / The General Directors' Immigration Services Conference (GDISC)
PL: Konferencja Dyrektorów Generalnych Służb Imigracyjnych (GDISC)
RO: Conferinţa Directorilor Generali ai Serviciilor de Imigrare (GDISC)
SI: Konferenca generalnih direktorjev služb za priseljevanje (GDISC)
SK: Konferencia generálnych riaditeľov imigračných služieb / GDISC

A network established in order to facilitate practical cooperation in the field of asylum and migration between the Immigration Services of the different member countries.

Synonym(s): GDISC

Related Term: European Asylum Support Office

1.The GDISC was initiated in 2004. 2. Member countries comprise the 28 EU Member States, the three EU candidate countries (Iceland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey), the potential EU candidate Bosnia and Herzegovina and two Schengen associated countries (Norway and Switzerland).
3. For more information, see: http://www.gdisc.org/

Source:Derived by the EMN from the website of GDISC

General Programme "Security and Safeguarding Liberties"

Funding programme that aims to ensure effective European cross-border cooperation in the fight against crime and terrorism and in the strengthening of crime prevention. Related activities are supported through the implementation of two specific programmes: “Prevention, Preparedness and Consequence Management of Terrorism” (CIPS) and “Prevention of and Fight against Crime” (ISEC). The General Programme also funds the European Police College (CEPOL) and the European Police Office (Europol).

Geneva Convention & Protocol

The United Nations Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees, as amended by the New York Protocol of 31 January 1967.

Geneva Convention (1951)
Geneva Convention and Protocol
Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967
AT/DE/LU: Genfer Konvention von 1951 und Protokoll von 1967
BG: Женевска конвенция за статута на бежанците от 1951 г. и Протокол от 1967 г.
CS: Ženevská úmluva o uprchlících a Protokol z r. 1967
EE: 1951. a Genfi konventsioon ja 1967. a protokoll
ES: Convenio de Ginebra de 1951 y Protocolo de 1967
FI: Geneven yleissopimus vuodelta 1951 ja sen pöytäkirja vuodelta 1967
FR/BE/LU: Convention de Genève de 1951 et Protocole de 1967
GR: Σύμβαση της Γενεύης και Πρωτόκολλο
HU: Az 1951-es Genfi Egyezmény és az 1967-es Kiegészítő Jegyzőkönyv
IE: Coinbhinsiún na Ginéive (1951) agus Prótacal na Ginéive (1967)
IT: Convenzione di Ginevra del 1951 e Protocollo di New York del 1967
LT: 1951 m. Ženevos konvencija ir 1967 m. Protokolas
LV: 1951.gada Ženēvas konvencija un 1967.gada protokols
MT: Ġeneru / Ġens / Sess
NL/BE: Geneefse Conventie & Protocol Conventie van Genève (NL syn.: Verdrag van Genève, (In daily practice: Vluchtelingenverdrag)
NO: Genève-konvesjonen (1951) og Genève-protokollen (1967)
PL: Konwencja Genewska z 1951 r. i Protokół z 1967 r.
PT: Convenção de Genebra e Protocolo
RO: Convenţia de la Geneva din 1951 şi Protocolul de Implementare din 1967
SE: 1951 års konvention och 1967 års tilläggsprotokoll om flyktingars rättsliga ställning
SI: Ženevska konvencija iz leta 1951 in Protokol iz leta 1967
SK: Ženevský dohovor z roku 1951 a Protokol z roku 1967 / Dohovor o právnom postavení utečencov z 28. júla 1951 a Newyorský protokol z 31. januára 1967

The UN multilateral treaty which is the key legal document defining who is a refugee and who is not, the rights of refugees and the legal obligations of States towards them.

Synonym(s): Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees and its New York Protocol of 31 January 1967, CRSR, Geneva Convention and Protocol, The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol, Refugee Convention, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 Geneva Convention, 1967 Geneva Protocol

Related Term: Convention refugee , international protection, refugee law, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1. The 1967 Protocol removed geographical and temporal restrictions from the Convention. The 1951 Convention consolidates previous international instruments relating to refugees and provides the most comprehensive codification of the rights of refugees at international level. In contrast to earlier international refugee instruments, which applied to specific groups of refugees, the 1951 endorses a single definition of the term 'refugee' in Art. 1.
2. The Convention is both a status and rights-based instrument and is underpinned by a number of fundamental principles, most notably non-discrimination, non-penalisation and non-refoulement.

Source:Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

Geneva Protocol (1967)
Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol
AT/DE/LU: Völkermord
BG: геноцид
CS: genocida
EE: genotsiid
ES: genocidio
FI: kansanmurha/joukkotuhonta
FR/BE/LU: génocide
GR: γενοκτονία
HU: népirtás
IE: cinedhíothú
IT: genocidio
LT: genocidas
LV: genocīds
MT: Ġenoċidju
NL/BE: genocide (syn. volkerenmoord)
NO: folkemord
PL: ludobójstwo
PT: genocídio
RO: genocid
SE: folkmord
SI: genocid
SK: genocída

An act committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.

Related Term: ethnic cleansing


  1. As outlined in the Convention, these acts include:
    1. (a) killing members of the group;
    2. (b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
    3. (c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
    4. (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
    5. (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  2. The definition is also outlined in Art. 6 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Source:Art. 2 of the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948

Global Approach to Migration
Global Approach to Migration

The external dimension of the EU's migration policy that brings together migration, external relations and development policy to address migration in an integrated, comprehensive and balanced way in partnership with non-EU countries. It comprises the whole migration agenda, including legal and irregular migration, combating trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, strengthening protection for refugees, enhancing migrant rights and harnessing the positive links that exist between migration and development. It is underscored by the fundamental principles of partnership, solidarity and shared responsibility and uses the concept of "migratory routes" to develop and implement policy.

Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
AT/DE/LU: Gesamtansatz für Migration und Mobilität
BG: Глобален подход към миграцията и мобилността
CS: Globální přístup k migraci a mobilitě
EE: globaalne lähenemine rändele ja rahvastiku liikuvusele
ES: Enfoque Global de la Migración
FI: maahanmuuttoa koskeva kokonaisvaltainen lähestymistapa
FR/BE/LU: approche globale sur la question des migrations
GR: σφαιρική προσέγγιση της μετανάστευσης
HU: A migráció és mobilitás átfogó globális megközelítése
IE: Cur Chuige Domhanda i leith Imirce agus Soghluaisteachta
IT: Approccio globale in materia di migrazione e mobilità
LT: Visuotinis požiūris į migraciją ir mobilumą
LV: vispārēja pieeja migrācijai un mobilitātei
MT: Approċċ Globali għall-Migrazzjoni u l-Mobilità
NL/BE: wereldwijde aanpak van migratie
NO: global tilnærming til migrasjon og mobilitet
PL: Globalne Podejście do Migracji i Mobilności
PT: abordagem global da imigração
RO: Abordarea Globală a migraţiei şi Mobilitate
SE: No usual translation
SI: Globalni pristop k migraciji in mobilnosti
SK: Globálny prístup k migrácii a mobilite / GPMM

The overarching framework of the European Union's external migration policy based on genuine partnership with non-EU countries and addressing all aspects of migration and mobility issues in an integrated, comprehensive and balanced manner.

Synonym(s): GAMM, Global Approach to Migration,GAM
Narrower Term: migration profile,migration routes initiative

Related Term: Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration, Asia-Europe Meeting, Bali Process, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Cotonou Agreement, 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean, Global Forum on Migration and Development, High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration, migration profile, Migration, asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative, mobility partnership, Prague Process

1. The Global Approach to Migration (GAM) was first defined by the European Council in December 2005 (COM(2007) 247) and further developed in 2007 and 2008. It has constituted the framework for the cooperation of the EU with third countries in the area of migration and asylum. The Stockholm Programme adopted in 2009 also acknowledged the importance of consolidating, strengthening and implementing the GAM.
2.The approach comprises the whole migration agenda, including legal and irregular migration, combating trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants, strengthening protection for refugees, enhancing migrant rights and harnessing the positive links that exist between migration and development.
3. In 2011, the global approach was evaluated. As a result of this, the Commission highlighted the need for further strengthening the external migration policy and published in November 2011 the Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final on a new impetus to the EU's external migration policy. The renewed GAMM focuses on four main priorities: improving the organisation of legal migration and facilitated mobility, preventing and reducing irregular migration in an efficient, yet humane way, strengthening the synergies between migration and development, and strengthening international protection systems and the external dimension of asylum.

Source:Communication on the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743 final

Global Forum on Migration and Development
AT/DE/LU: Weltforum über Migration und Entwicklung
BG: Глобален форум за миграция и мобилност
CS: Globální fórum k migraci a rozvoji
EE: ülemaailmne rände-ja arengupoliitika foorum
ES: Foro Mundial sobre Migración y Desarrollo
FI: Muuttoliikettä ja kehitystä käsittelevä maailmanlaajuinen foorumi
FR/BE/LU: Forum mondial sur la migration et le développement
HU: Migrációs és Fejlesztési Globális Fórum (GFMD)
IE: Fóram Domhanda maidir le hImirce agus Forbairt
IT: Forum Globale su Migrazione e Sviluppo (GFMD)
LT: Pasaulinis migracijos ir vystymosi forumas
LV: Pasaules forums par migrāciju un attīstību
MT: Forum Globali fuq Migrazzjoni u Żvilupp (GFMD)
NL/BE: Globaal Forum omtrent Migratie en Ontwikkeling
NO: Globalt forum for migrasjon og utvikling (GFMD)
PL: Światowe Forum na Rzecz. Migracji i Rozwoju (GFMD)
PT: Forum global sobre migrações e desenvolvimento
RO: Forumul Glrobal cu privire la Migraţie şi Dezvoltare
SE: Globalt forum för migration och utveckling (GFMD)
SI: Globalni forum o migraciji in razvoju
SK: Globálne fórum o migrácii a rozvoji / GFMD

An initiative of the UN Member States to address the migration and development interconnections in practical and action-orientated ways.

Synonym(s): GFMD

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility, Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development, Cotonou Agreement, migration profile

1.The first session of the GFMD was held in 2007. 2. The GFMD is a voluntary, informal, non-binding and government-led process open to all States and Observers of the UN, to advance understanding and cooperation on the mutually reinforcing relationship between migration and development. 3. For more information, see the website of GFMD

Source:Website of the Global Forum on Migration and Development

Grooming of children on the Internet

Solicitation of children for sexual purposes on the Internet.

grounds for persecution
group determination of refugee status
AT/DE/LU: Gruppenfeststellung der Flüchtlingseigenschaft
BG: групово определяне на статут на бежанец
CS: no translation
EE: grupi pagulasseisundi kindlaksmääramine
ES: determinación colectiva de la condición de refugiado
FI: pakolaisaseman ryhmämäärittäminen
FR/BE/LU: détermination collective du statut de réfugié
GR: Ομάδα για τον καθορισμό του καθεστώτος του πρόσφυγα
HU: we do not use this term, it could be translated as "csoportos elismerés menekültként"
IE: stádas dídeanaí a chinneadh mar ghrúpa
IT: riconoscimento collettivo dello status di rifugiato
LT: pabėgėlio statusas (suteikiamas grupei)
LV: bēgļa statusa noteikšana grupai
MT: Għarfien kollettiv tal-istatus ta' rifuġjat
NL/BE: vaststelling van prima facie vluchtelingschap (syn.: vaststelling van vluchtelingschap zonder meer)
NO: gruppeavgjørelse av flyktningstatus (b) / gruppeavgjerd av flyktningestatus (n)
PL: grupowe uznanie statusu uchodźcy
PT: determinação colectiva do estatuto de refugiado (refugiados prima facie)
RO: determinarea statutului de refugiat în cazul unui grup
SE: no translation
SI: skupinsko določanje statusa begunca
SK: skupinové určenie štatútu utečenca

A practice by which all persons forming part of a large-scale influx are regarded as refugees on a prima facie basis, ensuring that protection and assistance needs are met without prior individual determination of refugee status.

Synonym(s): prima facie determination of refugee status

Related Term: group persecution, prima facie refugee

refugee statusmust normally be determined on an individual basis, but when large populations are displaced under circumstances that indicate that most members of the population could individually be considered refugees, and where the need to provide protection and assistance is urgent and/or where it may not be possible for practical reasons to carry out an individual determination of refugee status, each member of that population in question can be regarded prima facie (in the absence of evidence to the contrary) as a refugee. In other words, the presumption is that individual members of the population concerned would be considered as refugees in need of protection. For more information, see UNHCR: Refugee status determination 2005.

Source:UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms

Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group, Migration Experts Sub-Group
AT/DE/LU: Gruppe der Acht (Rom-Lyon-Gruppe), Untergruppe von Migrationsexperten
BG: no translation
CS: G8 - skupina Řím - Lyon, podskupina migračních expertů
EE: G8, rände-ekspertide alagrupp
ES: subgrupo de expertos en migración Roma/Lyon del G8
FI: G8-maiden Roma / Lyon-ryhmän maahanmuuttaja-asiantuntijoiden alatyöryhmä
FR/BE/LU: sous-groupe des experts en migrations du Groupe de Lyon/Rome (G8)
HU: G8 Lyon/Róma Migrációs Szakértői Alcsoport
IE: Fo-Ghrúpa G8 Lyon/na Róimhe de Shaineolaithe Imirce
IT: Sottogruppo G8 Roma/Lione di esperti in migrazione (R/L)
LT: Didžiojo aštuoneto Liono/Romos ekspertų migracijos klausimais pogrupis
LV: G8 Romas - Lionas grupas migrācijas ekspertu apakšgrupa
MT: Grupp (Il-) ta' appoġġ G8 Lyon-Roma b'esperti fuq il-migrazzjoni
NL/BE: G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group
NO: G8 Lyon/Roma-undergruppen av migrasjonseksperter (b) / G8 Lyon/Roma-undergruppa av migrasjonsekspertar (n)
PL: Podgrupa ekspertów w zakresie migracji Lyon/Rzym - G8
PT: subgrupo de peritos de migração Leão/Roma – G8
RO: No usual translation
SE: G8:s Roma/Lyon-grupp
SI: Skupna osmih Rim - Lion, Podskupina strokovnjakov za migracije
SK: Podskupina migračných expertov skupiny G8 Lyon-Rím

A working group within the framework of G8 countries which tackles irregular migrationand trafficking in the broader context of combating terrorism and transnational crime.

Synonym(s): G8 Lyon/Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group, Roma-Lyon Group

1. The G8 Roma-Lyon Group mainly focuses on strategies relating to public security in an effort to combat terrorism and transnational crime. It gathers experts who are all civil servants from the G8 members, mainly from justice, foreign affairs and law enforcement services and intelligence agencies. The Group consists of several sub-groups dealing with different aspects of transnational crime.
2. G8 countries are Canada, FR, DE, IT, Japan, Russia, UK and the United States of America, with the European Commission also attending meetings.

Source:Website of the Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group

group persecution
AT/DE/LU: Gruppenverfolgung
BG: групово преследване
CS: no translation
EE: grupi tagakiusamine
ES: no translation
FI: ryhmään kohdistuva vaino
FR/BE/LU: persécution à l'encontre d'un groupe
GR: Δίωξη (ομάδα)
HU: csoportos üldöztetés
IE: géarleanúint ghrúpa
IT: persecuzione di gruppo
LT: persekiojamoji grupė
LV: grupas vajāšana
MT: Persekuzzjoni ta' grupp(-i) ta' nies
NL/BE: groepsvervolging
NO: forfølgelse av en gruppes medlemmer (b) / forfølging av medlemmene av ei gruppe (n)
PL: grupowe prześladowanie
PT: grupo alvo de perseguição
RO: persecuţie de grup
SE: förföljelse av en grupp
SI: skupinsko preganjanje
SK: prenasledovanie skupiny

A concept which recognises that persecutioncan be enacted against members of a section of the population (a 'group') that is suffering oppression or is threatened as a whole in its home country according to one of the criteria defined in the Geneva Convention of 1951to an extent that the members of such a group are not only covertly or potentially at risk, but quite tangibly and imminently requiring thus a certain intensity of persecution to warrant the general assumption of the individual persecution of each group member, irrespective of whether an individual has indeed been the victim of such persecution. In any case, whilst a group may be persecuted, an application for international protectionmust be examined on an individual basis in the Member States, and not all together as one group.

Broader Term: persecution

Related Term: group determination of refugee status, prima facie refugee

1. This concept has no legal definition in the Member States.
2. 'Group' is interpreted broadly as referring to persons of a particular religious belief, social (e.g. homosexuals), and/or coming from a particular region within a country.
3. An assumption of group persecution requires a certain intensity of persecution to warrant the general assumption of the individual persecution of each group member, irrespective of whether an individual has indeed been the victim of such persecution. This requires a threat emanating from so large a number of violations of rights protected by asylum law that it goes beyond separate individual infringements or a large number of individual infringements, but rather constitutes acts of persecution in the specific territory aimed at the group as a whole which increase, are repeated and spread to such an extent that there is not only a possibility, but a direct imminent danger of becoming a victim oneself for any member of such a group.
4. With consideration to the general principle of subsidiarity in refugee law, group persecution will only entitle a refugee to protection abroad, if the danger is present in the entire territory of the country of origin, i.e. if there is no internal alternative for protection. For the purposes of the danger of persecution after return, such an internal alternative must be reasonable and accessible from the country of refuge.
5.For more information on group persecution, see the European Database of Asylum Law( EDAL), i.e. German Federal Administrative Court, ruling of 12 April 2009 - 10 C 11.08.

Source:Definition according to the consistent practice of the German Federal Administrative Court based on ruling of 15 May 1990 - 9 C 17.89

guest worker
AT/DE/LU: Gastarbeiter
BG: гост работник
CS: no translation
EE: võõrtöötaja
ES: trabajador invitado
FI: vierastyöläinen
FR/BE/LU: travailleur étranger
GR: μετακαλούμενος εργαζόμενος
HU: vendégmunkás
IE: aoi-oibrí
IT: lavoratore ospite
LT: besisvečiuojantis darbuotojas
LV: viesstrādnieks
MT: Ħaddiem mistieden
NL/BE: gastarbeider
NO: gjestearbeider (b) / gjestearbeidar (n)
PL: gastarbaiter
PT: trabalhador convidado
RO: lucrător vizitator
SE: gästarbetare
SI: gostujoči delavec
SK: zahraničný hosťujúci pracovník

An economic migrantrecruited for a restricted time of settlement and employment.

Broader Term: economic migrant

This term is no longer used in the EU context. It was more or less restricted to migration flows in the 1950s and 1960s.

Source: Developed by EMN

guest worker

Please see entry for migrant worker