Migration and Home Affairs
Balanced approach to drug policies

The EU's drugs policy is based on two main pillars – drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction. Therefore law enforcement and public health considerations are mutually reinforcing elements in this policy. Furthermore, the drugs policy fully respects the European Convention on Human Rights, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and obligations arising from the United Nations International Conventions.

Bali Process
AT/DE/LU: Bali-Prozess
BG: Процесът "Бали"
CS: Balijský proces; Proces Bali
EE: Bali protsess
ES: Proceso de Bali
FI: Balin prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Bali
GR: Διαδικασία του Μπαλί
HU: Bali Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Bali
IT: Processo di Bali
LT: Balio procesas
LV: Bali process
MT: Proċess (Il-) ta' Bali
NL/BE: Bali proces
NO: Bali-prosessen
PL: Proces Bali
PT: Processo de Bali
RO: Procesul Bali
SE: Baliprocessen
SI: Baliski proces
SK: Balijský proces

An international forum dealing with smuggling of migrantsand trafficking in human beings, participated in by over 50 countries in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.

Synonym(s): Bali Process on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility , smuggling of migrants , trafficking in human beings

1. The Bali Process was established through a framework agreement that was initiated at the Regional Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime' held in Bali, Indonesia in February 2002.
2. It aims to facilitate discussion and information sharing about issues relating to people smuggling, human trafficking, and related transnational crime and appropriate responses to these issues.
3. For more information, see: http://www.baliprocess.net/

Source:Website of the Bali Process

Barcelona Process

Please see entry for Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

Basic act

Act of secondary law (regulation, directive or decision) laying down the objectives and conditions for budget implementation.

beneficiary of international protection
AT/DE/LU: Person, der internationaler Schutz zuerkannt wurde
BG: лице, на което е предоставена международна закрила
CS: osoba požívající mezinárodní ochrany
EE: rahvusvahelise kaitse saaja
EL: δικαιούχου διεθνούς προστασίας
ES: beneficiario de protección internacional
FI: kansainvälistä suojelua saava
FR/BE/LU: bénéficiaire d'une protection internationale
HU: nemzetközi védelemben részesülő személy
IE: tairbhí den chosaint idirnáisiúnta
IT: beneficiario di protezione internazionale
LT: prieglobstį gavęs asmuo
LV: starptautiskās aizsardzības saņēmējs
MT: Benefiċjarju(-a) tal-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL/BE: persoon die internationale bescherming geniet
NO: mottaker av internasjonal beskyttelse (asyl) (b) / mottakar av internasjonalt vern (asyl) (n)
PL: beneficjent ochrony międzynarodowej
PT: beneficiário de protecção internacional
RO: beneficiar al protectiei internationale
SE: person som beviljats internationellt skydd
SI: upravičenec do mednarodne zaščite
SK: osoba s postavením medzinárodnej ochrany (EU acquis) / osoba s udelenou medzinárodnou ochranou

A person who has been granted refugee statusor subsidiary protection status.

Narrower Term: Convention refugee

Related Term: applicant for international protection, person eligible for subsidiary protection

Source:Art. 2(b) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)

Better Regulation

"Better Regulation" means designing EU policies and laws so that they achieve their objectives at minimum cost. The Better Regulation agenda seeks to ensure that political decisions are prepared in an open, transparent manner, informed by the best available evidence and backed by the comprehensive involvement of stakeholders. This is necessary to ensure that the Union's interventions respect the overarching principles of subsidiary and proportionality i.e. acting only where necessary and in a way that does not go beyond what is needed to resolve the problem.

Better Regulation covers the whole policy cycle – policy design and preparation, adoption; implementation (transposition, complementary non-regulatory actions), application (including enforcement), evaluation and revision. For each phase of the policy cycle, there are a number of Better Regulation principles, objectives, tools and procedures to make sure that the EU has the best regulation possible. These relate to planning, impact assessment, stakeholder consultation, implementation and evaluation.

The Commission's approach to Better Regulation is outlined in the Better Regulation package of 19 May 2015. It notably includes the communication "Better regulation for better results – An EU agenda", as well as the Better Regulation guidelines and toolbox.


A measurable unique, physical characteristic or personal behavioural trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of a person.

biometric data
AT/DE/LU: biometrische Daten
BG: биометрични данни
CS: biometrické údaje
EE: biomeetrilised andmed
EL: βιομετρικά δεδομένα
ES: datos biométricos
FI: biometriset tiedot
FR/BE/LU: données biométriques
HU: biometrikus adat
IE: sonraí bithmhéadracha
IT: dati biometrici
LT: biometriniai duomenys
LV: biometriskie dati
MT: Data/Dejta bijometrika
NL/BE: biometrische gegevens
NO: biometriske data
PL: dane biometryczne
PT: dados biométricos
RO: date biometrice
SE: biometriska data
SI: biometrični podatki
SK: biometrický údaj

Data relating to the physical, physiological or behavioural characteristics of an individual which allow their unique identification, such as facial images or dactyloscopic data.

Synonym(s): biometrics

Source:Art. 3(11) of Proposal for a Directive on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and the free movement of such data - COM(2012) 10 final


Please see entry for biometric data

black market

Please see entry for informal economy

Black Sea Synergy
AT/DE/LU: Schwarzmeer- synergie
BG: Черноморско сътрудничество
CS: Černomořská synergie
DE: Schwarzmeersynergie
EE: Musta mere sünergia (koostöö)
EL: Συνέργεια του Ευξείνου Πόντου
ES: Sinergia del mar Negro
FI: Mustanmeren synergia
FR/BE/LU: Synergie de la mer Noire
HU: Fekete-tengeri szinergia
IE: Sineirge na Mara Duibhe
IT: Sinergia del Mar Nero
LT: Juodosios jūros sinergija
LV: Melnās jūras reģiona sinerģija
MT: Sinerġija tal-Baħar l-Iswed
NL/BE: Black Sea synergy (no usual translation)
NO: Svartehavssynergien
PL: Synergia Czarnomorska
PT: Sinergia do Mar Negro
RO: Sinergia Marii Negre
SE: Svartahavssynergin
SI: Črnomorska Sinergija
SK: Čiernomorská synergia

An institutionalised forum for EU cooperation encouraging cooperation between the EU and the countries surrounding the Black Sea and for tackling common problems while encouraging political and economic reform.

Broader Term: European Neighbourhood Policy

Related Term: Eastern Partnership, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

1.The Black Sea synergy is part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)of the EU and is intended as a flexible framework complementing existing EU policy, seeking to tackle the significant opportunities and challenges in the Black Sea area that require coordinated action at the regional level in the sectors such as energy, transport, environment, movement and security.
2. A conference between EU and Black Sea Foreign Affairs Ministers in Kiev (Ukraine) in 2008 initiated the synergy.
3. For more information, see: Black Sea synergy – A new regional cooperation initiative, COM(2007) 160 final, 11 April 2007.

Source:Website of the Black Sea synergy


A line separating land territory or maritime zones of two States or subparts of States. It can also refer to a region that is found at the margin of settled and developed territory.

border area
AT/DE/LU: Grenzgebiet, Grenzregion
BG: гранична зона
CS: pohraniční oblast
EE: piiriala
ES: zona fronteriza
FI: raja-alue
FR/BE/LU: zone frontalière
GR: συνοριακή ζώνη
HU: határmenti terület
IE: ceantar teorann
IT: zona di frontiera
LT: pasienio teritorija
LV: pierobeža
MT:  Żona ta' mal-konfini
NL/BE: grensgebied
NO: grenseområde
PL: strefa przygraniczna
PT: zona fronteiriça
RO: zonă de frontieră
SE: gränsområde
SI: obmejno območje
SK: pohraničná oblasť (EU acquis) / prihraničné územie (national law)

An area that extends no more than 30 kilometres from the border.

Related Term: local border traffic , border resident

Subsequent to Art. 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation), a Member State may specify the local administrative districts that are to be considered part of 'the border area' in a bilateral agreements with its neighbouring third country(s). If part of any such district lies between 30 and 50 kilometres from the border line, it shall nevertheless be considered as part of the border area.

Source:Art. 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

Border checks

Checks carried out at border crossing points to ensure that persons, including their means of transport and the objects in their possession, may be authorised to enter the territory of the Schengen States or authorised to leave it.

border control
AT/DE/LU: Grenzkontrolle
BG: граничен контрол
CS: pohraniční kontrola
EE: piirikontroll
ES: control fronterizo
FI: rajavalvonta
FR/BE/LU: contrôle aux frontières
GR: συνοριακός έλεγχος / έλεγχος των συνόρων
HU: határellenőrzés
IE: rialú teorann
IT: controllo di frontiera
LT: pasienio kontrolė
LV: robežkontrole
MT: Kontroll mal-konfini / mal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grenstoezicht (syn.: grensbewaking, grenscontrole)
NO: grensekontroll
PL: kontrola graniczna
PT: controlo de fronteira
RO: control de frontieră
SE: gränskontroll
SI: nadzor meje
SK: kontrola hraníc

The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for the purposes of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code), in response exclusively to an intention to cross or the act of crossing that border, regardless of any other consideration, consisting of border checks and border surveillance.

Related Terms: European Border Surveillance System, external EU border, internal EU border, irregular entry, legal entry, refusal of entry, schengen borders code

Source:Art. 2(9) of Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border control

The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for the purposes of Regulation 562/2006, exclusively in response to an intention to cross or the act of crossing that border, regardless of any other consideration, consisting of border checks and border surveillance.

border crossing
AT/DE/LU: Grenzübertritt
BG: пресичане на границата
CS: překročení hranice
EE: piiriületus
ES: cruce de frontera
FI: rajanylitys
FR/BE/LU: franchissement de la frontière
GR: συνοριακή διέλευση
HU: határátlépés
IE: trasnú teorann
IT: attraversamento della frontiera
LT: sienos kirtimas
LV: robežšķērsošana
MT: Qsim tal-konfini / tal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grensoverschrijding
NO: grensepassering
PL: przekraczanie granicy
PT: passagem de fronteira
RO: trecerea frontierei
SE: gränspassage
SI: prečkanje meje
SK: prekročenie hranice / prekročenie štátnej hranice

The physical act of crossing a border either at a border crossing point or another point along the border.

Narrower Term: border crossing point

Source: Developed by EMN

Border crossing

The physical act of crossing a border either at a border crossing point or another point along the border.

border crossing point
AT/DE/LU: Grenzübergang, Grenzübergangsstelle
BG: гранично-пропускателен пункт
CS: hraniční přechod
EE: piiriületuspunkt
ES: paso fronterizo
FI: rajanylityspaikka
FR/BE/LU: point de passage frontalier
GR: σημείο συνοριακής διέλευσης
HU: határátkelőhely
IE: pointe trasnaithe teorann
IT: valico di frontiera
LT: sienos perėjimo punktas
LV: robežšķērsošanas vieta
MT: Il-Punt / Il-Post ta' qsim il-fruntiera/ il-konfini
NL/BE: grensovergang (syn.: grensdoorlaatpost, grenspost)
NO: grensepasseringssted (b) / grensepasseringsstad (n)
PL: przejście graniczne
PT: ponto de passagem fronteiriço
RO: punct de trecere a frontierei
SE: gränsövergångsställe
SI: mejni prehod
SK: hraničný priechod

Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for the crossing of external EU borders.

Broader Term: border crossing

Source:Art. 2(8) of Regulation No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)

Border crossing point

Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for crossing external borders.

border resident
AT/DE/LU: Grenzbewohner
BG: граничен жител
CS: obyvatel pohraniční oblasti
EE: piiriala elanik
ES: residente fronterizo
FI: raja-alueen asukas
FR/BE/LU: frontalier
GR: κάτοικος της μεθορίου
HU: határ menti lakos
IE: cónaitheoir teorann
IT: frontaliero
LT: pasienio gyventojas
LV: pierobežas iedzīvotājs
MT: Resident(a) ta' mal-konfini / mal-fruntiera
NL/BE: grensbewoner
NO: grenseboer (b) / grensebuar (n)
PL: mieszkaniec strefy przygranicznej
PT: residente fronteiriço
RO: locuitor din zona de frontieră
SE: gränsboende
SI: obmejni prebivalec
SK: obyvateľ pohraničnej oblasti

In the EU migration context, a third–country nationalwho has been lawfully resident in the border areaof a country neighbouring a Member State for a period specified in a bilateral agreement between a Member State(s) and neighbouring third country, which shall be at least one year.

Related Term:  border area, frontier worker, local border traffic

Source:Art. 3(6) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic Regulation)

Border resident

Non-EU national who has been lawfully resident in the border area of a country neighbouring a Schengen State for a period specified in a bilateral Agreement between a Schengen State(s) and a neighbouring non-EU country, which shall be at least one year.

Border surveillance

The surveillance of borders between border crossing points and the surveillance of border crossing points outside the fixed opening hours, in order to prevent persons from circumventing border checks.


A network of computers or devices that have been infected by malicious software (e.g. a computer virus), which can be activated without the computer or device users' knowledge in order to perform specific actions, such as large-scale attacks of information systems (cyber attacks).

brain circulation
AT/DE/LU: Brain Circulation
BG: cirkulace mozků
CS: cirkulace mozků
EE: oskustööjõu ringlus
ES: circulación de cerebros
FI: aivokierto
FR/BE/LU: circulation des cerveaux
GR: κυκλοφορία εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό)
HU: there is no widely accepted term: "agykörforgás" is used in some documents
IE: cúrsaíocht daoine oilte
IT: circolazione di cervelli
LT: protų apykaita
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka aprite
MT: Ċirkolazzjoni ta' mħuħ / ta' nies bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: mobiliteit van hoogopgeleide personen (syn.: brain circulation)
NO: kunnskapsmobilitet/kunnskapssirkulasjon
PL: cyrkulacja mózgów
PT: circulação de cérebros
RO: circulaţia creierelor
SE: kunskapsspridning
SI: "kroženje možganov"
SK: cirkulácia mozgov

The possibility for developing countries to draw on the skills, know-how and other forms of experience gained by their migrants – whether they have returned to their country of origin or not – and members of their diaspora.

Related Term: brain drain, brain gain, brain waste, circular migration

Source:Annex 5 of Communication on Migration and Development, COM(2005) 390

Brain drain

The loss suffered by a country as a result of the emigration of (highly) qualified persons.

brain gain
AT/DE/LU: Brain Gain
BG: привличане на мозъци
CS: příliv mozků
EE: oskustööjõu sissevool
ES: captación de cerebros
FI: aivotuonti
FR/BE/LU: afflux de cerveaux
GR: κέρδος εγκεφάλων (είναι μεταφορικό) -
HU: there is no widely accepted term, several can be used: agyvisszaszívás / tudásnyerés / brain gain
IE: inimirce daoine oilte
IT: acquisizione di cervelli
LT: protų pritraukimas
LV: kvalificēta darbaspēka pieplūdums
MT:  Akkwist / Ksib ta' mħuħ // ta' nies bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: brain gain
NO: kunnskapsgevinst
PL: No usual translation
PT: brain gain
RO: atragerea creierelor/"brain gain"
SE: No usual translation
SI: "pridobitev možganov"
SK: získavanie mozgov

The benefit to a country as a result of the immigration of a highly qualified person.

Synonym(s): reverse brain drain

Related Term: brain drain, brain waste, brain circulation, circular migration

Note :
This can apply to, for example, a EU Member State receiving a highly qualified migrant, as well as a third-country national returning to their country of origin.

Source:Derived by EMN from the definition of 'brain drain' in the EMN Glossary

brain waste
AT/DE/LU: Brain Waste
BG: разхищение на мозъци
CS: plýtvání mozky
EE: oskustööjõu alarakendatus
ES: subempleo
FI: aivotuhlaus
FR/BE/LU: gaspillage des cerveaux
GR: διαρροή εγκεφάλων
HU:  képességek elpazarlása
IE: cur amú éirime
IT:  spreco di cervelli
LT: protų švaistymas
LV: intelektuālā potenciāla izšķērdēšana
MT: Ħela ta' mħuħ / ta' nies bi kwalifiki għoljin
NL/BE: brain waste
NO: kunnskapssløsing
PL: marnotrawstwo mózgów
PT: brain waste
RO: "brain waste"
SE: No usual translation
SI: "izguba možganov"
SK: plytvanie mozgami (EU acquis) / mrhanie mozgami

The non-recognition of the skills (and qualifications) acquired by a migrant outside of the EU, which prevents them from fully using their potential.

Related Term: brain drain, brain gain, brain circulation

Source:Derived by EMN from Footnote 28 of Communication on Migration and Development, COM(2005) 390 final

Brain waste

The non-recognition of the skills and qualifications acquired by migrants outside of the EU, which prevents them from fully using their potential.

Budapest Convention on Cybercrime

The main international treaty of 2001 on crimes committed via the Internet and other computer networks, dealing particularly with infringements of copyright, computer-related fraud, child pornography and violations of network security. It also contains a series of powers and procedures such as the search of computer networks and interception. The Budapest Convention on Cybercrime is a Council of Europe convention open for signature by its member States and non-member States which have participated in its elaboration and for accession by other non-member States.

Budapest Process
AT/DE/LU: Budapest-Prozess
BG: Будапещенски процес
CS: Budapešťský proces
EE: Budapesti protsess
ES: Proceso de Budapest
FI: Budapestin prosessi
FR/BE/LU: Processus de Budapest
GR: Διαδικασία της Βουδαπέστης
HU: Budapest Folyamat
IE: Próiseas Bhúdaipeist
IT: Processo di Budapest
LT: Budapešto procesas
LV:  Budapeštas process
MT: Proċess (Il-) ta' Budapest
NL/BE: Boedapest proces
NO: Budapest-prosessen
PL: Proces Budapeszteński
PT: Processo de Budapeste
RO: Procesul Budapesta
SE: Budapestprocessen
SI: Budimpeštanski proces
SK: Budapeštiansky proces

A consultative forum of more than 50 governments from the wider European region and ten international organisations, which aims to promote good governance in the field of migration, to develop comprehensive and sustainable systems for orderly migration and to exchange information and best practices on a wide range of migration issues (legal migration,irregular migration, asylum, visa, border management, trafficking in human beingsand smuggling of migrants, readmission and return).

Related Term: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility

1. The Budapest Process was initiated by DE in 1991.
2. Through this dialogue, the Process promotes a harmonised approach in dealing with irregular migration challenges and support for the transfer and common understanding of migration concepts and policies.
3. For more information see the website of the Budapest Process.

Source: Derived by the EMN from the page describing Budapest Process of the Website of ICMPD and the website of the Budapest Process

Budapest process

A consultative forum of more than fifty Governments from the wider European region and ten international organisations, which aims to promote good governance in the field of migration, a harmonised approach in dealing with irregular migration challenges and support for the transfer and common understanding of migration concepts and policies.

burden of proof
AT/DE/LU: Beweislast
BG: тежест на доказване
CS: důkazní břemeno
EE: tõendamiskoormis
ES:  carga de la prueba
FI: todistustaakka
FR/BE/LU: charge de la preuve
GR: υποχρέωση της απόδειξης της βασιμότητας του ισχυρισμού
HU: bizonyítási teher
IE: dualgas cruthúnais
IT: onere della prova
LT: įrodinėjimo pareiga
LV: pierādīšanas pienākums
MT: Piż (Il-) tal-prova / Obbligu (L-) li jinġiebu l-provi
NL/BE: bewijslast
NO: bevisbyrde
PL: ciężar dowodu
PT: ónus da prova
RO: sarcina dovezii
SE: bevisbörda
SI: dokazno breme
SK: dôkazné bremeno

In the global context, a party’s duty to prove a disputed assertion or charge. In the migration context, the duty of a non-national seeking entry into a foreign State to prove that they are entitled to enter and not inadmissible under the laws of that State. In the context of refugee statusdetermination procedures, the duty of the applicant to establish their case, to produce evidence that they have a well-founded fear of persecution.

Note :
1. In refugee status determination procedures, it is the applicant who has the burden of establishing the veracity of their allegations and the accuracy of the facts on which the refugee claim is based. The burden of proof is discharged by the applicant rendering a truthful account of facts relevant to the claim so that, based on the facts, a proper decision may be reached.
2. For further information see UNHCR: Note on Burden and Standard of Proof in Refugee Claims, 16 December 1998.

Source:Derived by EMN from the IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed., 2011

business migrant

Please see entry for highly qualified migrant