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Migration and Home Affairs

Anti-Corruption report

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Corruption continues to be a challenge for Europe - a phenomenon that costs the European economy around 120 billion euros per year. EU member countries have taken many initiatives in recent years, but the results are uneven and more should be done to prevent and punish corruption.

Europeans are deeply worried about corruption - Eurobarometer survey results show that three quarters (76%) of Europeans think that corruption is widespread and more than half (56%) think that the level of corruption in their country has increased over the past three years.

EU Anti-Corruption Report 2014

The EU Anti-Corruption Report, published in February 2014, provided a clear picture of the situation regarding corruption in each Member State: measures in place, outstanding issues, policies that are working and areas that could be improved.It aimed at setting up a framework to facilitate the exchanges of best practices, identify EU trends, gather comparable data on the EU 27 and stimulate peer learning and further compliance with EU and international commitments, as well as preparing the ground for future EU policy initiatives in the area of anti-corruption.

The report showed that the nature and scope of corruption varies from one Member State to another and that the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies is quite different. It also showed how corruption is a phenomenon affecting all Member States, and how continued action is needed across the EU.

Since then, the EU Anti-Corruption Report has served as the basis for dialogue with national authorities while also informing broader debates across Europe. All EU countries have designated a national contact point to facilitate information exchange on anti-corruption policy. Together with the anti-corruption experience-sharing programme launched by the Commission in 2015, these efforts have encouraged national authorities to better implement laws and policies against corruption.

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Country specific information:

To request a country chapter in another EU language, please contact
HOME-CORRUPTION@ec.europa.eu

Austria

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Summary EN

Austria's fight against corruption has been strengthened by efforts in prevention and prosecution. In this report, the European Commission is suggesting that Austria ensures the necessary resources to specialised prosecutors for processing corruption cases. Furthermore, making access to bank account information easier, in cases of suspicion of corruption, would also make the prosecution of bribery more effective. The Commission also suggests that Austria introduces a monitoring mechanism for checking declarations of assets for elected and appointed senior officials.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 66 percent of Austrians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. The polls also show that Austria is the only country in Western Europe where a relatively large proportion – almost one-third of respondents – would find it acceptable to do a favour or give a gift in exchange for a public service. Four percent or Europeans, and 5 percent of Austrians, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. Four out of ten European and Austrian companies consider corruption to be an obstacle for doing business.

Summary DE

In Österreich ist die Korruptionsbekämpfung jetzt stärker auf Prävention und Strafverfolgung ausgerichtet. In ihrem heute veröffentlichten Bericht schlägt die Europäische Kommission Österreich vor, spezialisierte Staatsanwaltschaften mit den erforderlichen Ressourcen für die Bearbeitung von Korruptionsfällen auszustatten. Darüber hinaus würde ein erleichterter Zugang zu Bankkontendaten bei Verdacht auf Korruption auch die Strafverfolgung wirksamer machen. Die Kommission empfiehlt Österreich zudem, einen Überwachungsmechanismus für die Überprüfung der Vermögenserklärungen von hochrangigen gewählten oder bestellten Amtsträgern einzuführen.

Gemeinsam mit einer Analyse der Situation in jedem EU-Mitgliedstaat präsentiert die Europäische Kommission auch die Ergebnisse zweier umfangreicher Meinungsumfragen. Mehr als drei Viertel der europäischen und 66 % der österreichischen Umfrageteilnehmer sind sich darin einig, dass Korruption in ihrem Land gang und gäbe ist. Aus den Umfragen geht auch hervor, dass Österreich das einzige Land Westeuropas ist, in dem ein relativ hoher Anteil der Befragten (knapp ein Drittel) es akzeptabel fände, für die Erlangung einer öffentlichen Dienstleistung eine Gefälligkeit zu erweisen oder ein Geschenk zu machen. 4 % der europäischen und 5 % der österreichischen Umfrageteilnehmer geben an, dass von ihnen im vergangenen Jahr die Zahlung von Bestechungsgeld gefordert oder erwartet wurde. Für vier von zehn europäischen und österreichischen Unternehmen stellt Korruption ein Hindernis für ihre Geschäftstätigkeit dar.

Belgium

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Summary EN

Belgium has the necessary anti-corruption framework in place, but more can be done. Today, there is a risk that corruption in Belgium is not addressed in a consistent manner due to varying competences at regional and federal level. Thus, in this report, the European Commission is suggesting that ethical rules are implemented for all appointed and elected officials at federal, regional and local levels. Furthermore, Belgium should increase the capacity of the justice system and law enforcement to make sure that corruption cases are prosecuted before their time limits run out. The Commission also suggests that anticorruption legislation on party funding is extended to parties that do not receive federal subsidies.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 67 percent of Belgians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and 3 percent of Belgian people, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. Four out of ten European and Belgian companies consider corruption to be an obstacle for doing business.

Summary FR

La Belgique dispose du cadre nécessaire pour lutter contre la corruption, mais il est possible de faire mieux encore. Aujourd’hui, le risque existe que la corruption ne soit pas traitée de la même manière partout en Belgique, en raison de la répartition des compétences entre les niveaux régional et fédéral. Dans le rapport présenté aujourd’hui, la Commission européenne propose donc que des règles d'éthique soient appliquées à l'ensemble du personnel politique et administratif aux niveaux fédéral, régional et local. De plus, la Belgique est invitée à renforcer les capacités des systèmes judiciaire et répressif, de telle sorte que tout acte de corruption donne lieu à des poursuites avant l'expiration du délai de prescription. La Commission propose également que le champ d'application de la législation anticorruption visant le financement des partis soit étendu aux partis qui ne reçoivent pas de subventions fédérales.

En plus d'une analyse de la situation dans chaque État membre de l’UE, la Commission européenne présente les résultats de deux vastes sondages d’opinion. Plus des trois quarts des citoyens européens, et 67 % des Belges, estiment que la corruption est très répandue dans leur propre pays. 4 % des Européens, et 3 % des Belges, déclarent avoir été explicitement ou implicitement invités à payer un pot-de-vin au cours de l’année écoulée. Environ un Européen sur quatre estime être touché par la corruption dans sa vie quotidienne. Quatre entreprises européennes et belges sur dix considèrent la corruption comme un obstacle aux affaires.

Summary NL

België beschikt over het nodige kader voor de bestrijding van corruptie, maar er kan nog meer worden gedaan. Zoals de zaken er nu voorstaan, bestaat het risico dat corruptie in België niet op consistente wijze wordt aangepakt als gevolg van de verschillende bevoegdheden op regionaal en op federaal niveau. Daarom stelt de Europese Commissie in het vandaag gepresenteerde verslag voor om ethische regels in te voeren voor alle benoemde en gekozen ambtsdragers op federaal, regionaal en lokaal niveau. Voorts moet België de capaciteit van zijn gerechtelijk apparaat en rechtshandhaving vergroten om ervoor te zorgen dat gevallen van corruptie worden vervolgd voordat zij verjaren. De Commissie stelt ook voor om de corruptiebestrijdingswetgeving inzake de financiering van politieke partijen uit te breiden tot partijen die geen federale subsidies ontvangen.

Naast een analyse van de situatie in elke lidstaat van de EU presenteert de Europese Commissie ook twee uitgebreide opiniepeilingen. Meer dan drie kwart van de Europese burgers en 67 procent van de Belgen is het erover eens dat corruptie in hun eigen land wijdverbreid is. Vier procent van de Europeanen en 3 procent van de Belgen zegt dat hen in het afgelopen jaar werd gevraagd om steekpenningen te betalen of dat dit van hen werd verwacht. Ongeveer één op de vier Europeanen is van oordeel dat corruptie hen raakt in hun dagelijks leven. Vier op de tien Europese en Belgische ondernemingen vinden dat corruptie het doen van zaken belemmert.

Bulgaria

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Summary EN

Fighting corruption has long been a priority for Bulgaria, and legal reforms have resulted in the establishment of new structures. However, corruption remains widespread. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Bulgaria should shield anti-corruption institutions from political influence and appoint their management in a transparent, merit-based procedure. Random assignment of cases in courts should be ensured by an effective nationwide system. Also, the Commission is suggesting that a code of ethics is adopted for members of the National Assembly, and that dissuasive sanctions for corruption in public procurement are enforced at national and local level.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 84 percent or Bulgarians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and 11 percent of Bulgarians, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. And only 9 percent of Bulgarians - the lowest percentage in the EU - consider that there are sufficient prosecutions to deter people from corrupt practices.

Summary BG

Борбата с корупцията отдавна е приоритет за България, а законодателните реформи доведоха до създаването на нови структури. Въпреки това корупцията продължава да се шири. В доклада ни днес Европейската комисия предлага на България да предпазва институциите за борба с корупцията от политическо влияние и да назначава управленските им кадри съобразно прозрачна процедура, основаваща се на качествата на кандидатите. Случайното разпределение на делата в съдилищата следва да се гарантира чрез ефективна общонационална система. Комисията предлага също така да бъде приет етичен кодекс за народните представители, а в областта на обществените поръчки да се налагат възпиращи санкции, както на национално, така и на местно равнище.

Освен анализ на ситуацията във всяка държава — членка на ЕС, Европейската комисия представя и две обширни проучвания на общественото мнение. Повече от три четвърти от европейските граждани и 84 % от българите са съгласни, че корупцията е широко разпространена в тяхната страна. Четири процента от европейците и 11 % от българите споделят, че през изминалата година им е бил поискан или се е очаквало да дадат подкуп. Само 9 % от българите — най-ниският дял в ЕС — смятат, че се провеждат достатъчно наказателни преследвания, за да се възпрат хората от корупционни практики.

Croatia

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Summary EN

Croatia has made considerable efforts in recent years to improve its anti-corruption framework. However, there appears to be more emphasis on repression of corruption as opposed to prevention. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Croatia should develop codes of conduct for elected officials at central and local levels with adequate accountability tools, carry out substantial checks of asset declarations and conflicts of interests of public officials, and establish an effective mechanism for prevention of corruption in state-owned and state-controlled companies. Furthermore, the Commission is suggesting that Croatia implements a strategy for preventing corruption in public procurement, including with regard to the healthcare sector,and ensures protection mechanisms for whistleblowers who report corruption.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 94% of Croatians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and six percent of Croatians, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. And 81% of Croatian businesses believe that favouritism and corruption hamper business competition in Croatia.

Summary HR

Proteklih je godina Hrvatska uložila znatne napore u sve veću borbu protiv korupcije. No čini se da je naglasak stavljen na suzbijanje, a ne na sprečavanje korupcije. U današnjem izvješću Komisija Hrvatskoj predlaže stvaranje kodeksa ponašanja izabranih dužnosnika na središnjoj i lokalnoj razini uz odgovarajuće instrumente za jamčenje odgovornosti, temeljito provjeravanje prijava o imovinskom stanju i sukoba interesa javnih dužnosnika te uspostavu učinkovitog mehanizma za sprečavanje korupcije u državnim poduzećima i poduzećima kojima upravlja država. Nadalje, Komisija predlaže provedbu strategije sprečavanja korupcije u javnoj nabavi, među inim i u zdravstvu, te uspostavu mehanizama za zaštitu zviždača koji prijavljuju slučajeve korupcije.

Uz analizu stanja u svakoj državi članici EU-a, Europska komisija predstavlja i dvije opsežne ankete. Više od tri četvrtine europskih građana (94 % u Hrvatskoj) smatra da je u njihovoj zemlji raširena korupcija. 4 % Europljana (6 % Hrvata) prošle je godine bilo u prilici da mora platiti mito ili je na neki način svjedočio korupciji. U 81 % hrvatskih poduzeća smatra se da im korupcija stvara prepreke u poslovanju.

Cyprus

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Summary EN

Cyprus has demonstrated commitment to prevent corruption by amending legislation and establishing a coordinating body. At the same time, the small number of prosecuted cases indicates a need to strengthen the enforcement system. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Cyprus streamlines procedures to ensure effective investigations of corruption within the police. Codes of conduct for elected and appointed officials should also be introduced, in order to declare assets periodically. Furthermore, the Commission is suggesting that Cyprus restrains the possibility of state-owned companies to sponsor political events, regulates donations to election candidates, and obliges parties to publish financial information online.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. 57 percent of Cypriots, and 26 percent of Europeans overall, state that they are personally affected by corruption in their daily lives. Four percent of Europeans, and 3 percent of Cypriots, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. 83% of Cypriots - the highest percentage in the EU - say that the only way to succeed in business is through political connections. Furthermore, 85% of Cypriot entrepreneurs think that favouritism and corruption hamper business competition.

Summary EL

Η Κύπρος έχει αποδεδειγμένα δεσμευτεί για την πρόληψη της διαφθοράς μέσω της τροποποίησης της νομοθεσίας της και της ίδρυσης συντονιστικού φορέα. Ταυτόχρονα, ο μικρός αριθμός των υποθέσεων που διώκονται ποινικά δείχνει ότι χρειάζεται ενίσχυση του συστήματος επιβολής της νομοθεσίας. Στην έκθεσή της, σήμερα, η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή προτείνει στην Κύπρο να απλουστεύσει τις διαδικασίες, ώστε να εξασφαλίζεται η αποτελεσματικότητα των ερευνών της αστυνομίας σε υποθέσεις διαφθοράς. Θα πρέπει επίσης να θεσπιστούν κώδικες δεοντολογίας για τους αιρετούς και διορισμένους λειτουργούς, ώστε τα περιουσιακά τους στοιχεία να δηλώνονται σε τακτά χρονικά διαστήματα. Επιπλέον, η Επιτροπή προτείνει στην Κύπρο να περιορίσει τη δυνατότητα των κρατικών εταιρειών να χρηματοδοτούν πολιτικές εκδηλώσεις, να ρυθμίσει τις δωρεές προς τους υποψηφίους στις εκλογές και να καταστήσει υποχρεωτική τη δημοσίευση των οικονομικών στοιχείων των κομμάτων στο διαδίκτυο.

Παράλληλα με μια ανάλυση της κατάστασης σε κάθε κράτος μέλος της ΕΕ, η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή παρουσιάζει και δύο εκτενείς δημοσκοπήσεις. To 57% των Κυπρίων και το 26% των Ευρωπαίων συνολικά δηλώνουν ότι επηρεάζονται προσωπικά από τη διαφθορά στην καθημερινή τους ζωή. Το 4% των ευρωπαίων πολιτών και το 3% των Κυπρίων δηλώνουν ότι κατά το περασμένο έτος τους ζητήθηκε, ρητά ή έμμεσα, να καταβάλουν χρηματικό δώρο. Το 83% των Κυπρίων — το υψηλότερο ποσοστό στην ΕΕ — δηλώνουν ότι ο μόνος τρόπος για επιτυχημένη επιχειρηματική δραστηριότητα είναι μέσω πολιτικών διασυνδέσεων. Επιπλέον, το 85% των κύπριων επιχειρηματιών θεωρούν ότι η ευνοιοκρατία και διαφθορά παρεμποδίζουν την ανταγωνιστικότητα των επιχειρήσεων.

Czech Republic

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Summary EN

Over the last decade, a strategic framework for fighting corruption has been evolving in the Czech Republic. However, persistent problems relate to public procurement practices and the misuse of public funds. Attempts to put in place legislation covering conflicts of interest in the civil service have so far been unsuccessful. In this report, the European Commission suggests that such legislation be put in place, also covering merit-based recruitment and guarantees against arbitrary dismissal. The Commission is also suggesting that electoral campaign expenditures and donations are made public in annual financial reports, and to strengthen the ability of prosecutors to handle corruption cases in an independent manner.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 95 percent of Czechs, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. 8 percent of the Czechs say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, which is twice as much as the European average. 71 percent of Czech businesses, the highest percentage in the EU, state that corruption is a major obstacle for doing business.

Summary CS

Strategický rámec pro boj s korupcí v České republice se v průběhu posledního desetiletí stále vyvíjí. Přetrvávají však problémy spojené se zadáváním veřejných zakázek a zneužíváním veřejných prostředků. Snahy o zavedení právní úpravy týkající se střetu zájmů ve státní službě byly zatím bezúspěšné. V naší dnešní zprávě Evropská komise navrhuje, aby k zavedení takové právní úpravy došlo a aby se věnovala rovněž náboru pracovníků na základě zásluh a zárukám bránícím svévolnému propuštění. Komise rovněž navrhuje, aby byly v rámci výročních finančních zpráv zveřejňovány výdaje na volební kampaně i dary a aby byla zavedena objektivní kritéria pro jmenování a odvolání nejvyšších představitelů státního zastupitelství. Dále by měly být zavedeny záruky bránící politickému ovlivňování vyšetřování.

Vedle analýzy situace v jednotlivých členských státech EU představuje Evropská komise také dva rozsáhlé průzkumy veřejného mínění. Více než tři čtvrtiny evropských občanů a celých 95 % Čechů souhlasí s tvrzením, že korupce je v jejich zemi rozšířená. 8 % Čechů uvádí, že byli v minulém roce požádáni o úplatek nebo se od nich úplatek očekával, což je dvojnásobek evropského průměru. 71 % českých podniků – nejvyšší podíl v EU – uvádí, že korupce představuje hlavní překážku pro podnikání.

Denmark

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Summary EN

Denmark is among the top EU performers in terms of transparency, integrity and control of corruption. Some room for improvement remains however, especially with regards to the financing of political parties and the framework for prosecuting corporations on grounds of bribery in foreign countries. In this report, the European Commission suggests to further improve the transparency and supervisory mechanisms of the financing of political parties and individual candidates. The Commission is also suggesting that further efforts are undertaken to fight foreign bribery, by, for example, raising the level of fines for corporations.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Amongst the Danes, that number is only 20 percent, and Denmark is consistently ranked among the least corrupt countries in the EU. Less than one percent of Danish citizens have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, compared to the EU average of four percent.

Summary DA

Danmark er blandt de EU-lande, der kan fremvise de bedste resultater, hvad angår gennemsigtighed, integritet og kontrol med korruption. Der er dog stadig plads til visse forbedringer, navnlig hvad angår økonomisk støtte til politiske partier og rammen for retsforfølgelse af virksomheder på grund af bestikkelse i udlandet. Europa-Kommissionen foreslår i sin rapport i dag yderligere at forbedre gennemsigtigheden og kontrollen med den økonomiske støtte til de politiske partier og de enkelte kandidater. Den foreslår også, at der gøres en yderligere indsats for at bekæmpe virksomhedernes brug af bestikkelse i udlandet ved f.eks. at hæve bødernes størrelse.

Sammen med en analyse af situationen i hver enkelt EU-medlemsstat fremlægger Europa-Kommissionen også to omfattende opinionsundersøgelser. Mere end tre fjerdedele af EU-borgerne mener, at der er udbredt korruption i deres hjemland. Blandt danskerne er det kun 20 %, der er af den opfattelse, og Danmark indtager konsekvent pladsen som et af de mindst korrupte lande i EU. Under 1 % af danskerne var blevet bedt om eller havde forventet at skulle betale bestikkelse inden for det seneste år sammenlignet med EU-gennemsnittet på 4 %.

Estonia

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Summary EN

Corruption levels in Estonia in an international comparison can be considered to be low. However, the European Commission today suggests additional efforts to improve transparency and oversight of the financing of political parties, as well as of public procurement. The Commission is also suggesting that Estonia should adopt a code of conduct for Members of Parliament, accompanied by an efficient mechanism of supervision and sanctions.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 65 percent of Estonians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Estonians say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, the same number as the European average.

Summary ET

Rahvusvahelises võrdluses võib korruptsiooni taset Eestis pidada madalaks. Euroopa Komisjon soovitab täna siiski teha täiendavaid jõupingutusi, et parandada erakondade rahastamise ning riigihangete läbipaistvust ja järelevalvet. Euroopa Komisjon soovitab Eestil vastu võtta parlamendisaadikute käitumisjuhend, millele on lisatud tõhus järelevalve- ja karistusmehhanism.

Lisaks ELi iga liikmesriigi olukorra analüüsile tutvustab Euroopa Komisjon ka kahte ulatuslikku arvamusküsitlust. Rohkem kui kolm neljandikku ELi kodanikest ja 65 % eestlastest on seisukohal, et korruptsioon on nende kodumaal laialt levinud. Neli protsenti eestlastest ütleb, et neile on viimase aasta jooksul esitatud palve maksta altkäemaksu või on neilt seda oodatud. See näitaja on Euroopa keskmisel tasemel. Neli kümnest Euroopa ettevõtjast on arvamusel, et korruptsioon takistab ettevõtlust.

Finland

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Summary EN

So overall, Finland is one of the top performers in the EU as regards anti-corruption. However, there have been a few high-level corruption cases where favours were exchanged on the basis of informal relationships, and lobbying by businesses providing campaign financing to politicians. In this report, the European Commission therefore suggests that Finland obliges municipalities and regions to secure transparency in public contracts with private entrepreneurs. The Commission also suggests that the anti-corruption Unit of the National Bureau of Investigations should effectively support investigations of corruption-related crimes, and coordinate anti-corruption procedures between government agencies.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Approximately one in four Europeans, but only 9 percent of Finns, say that they are affected by corruption in their everyday lives. Four percent of Europeans, and less than one percent of Finns, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary FI

Kaiken kaikkiaan Suomi on korruption torjunnan osalta EU:n kärkimaita. Suomessa on kuitenkin tullut esiin muutamia korkean tason korruptiotapauksia, joissa on ollut kyse palveluksien vaihtamisesta epävirallisten suhteiden pohjalta ja poliitikoille kampanjarahoitusta antaneiden yritysten harjoittamasta lobbauksesta. Euroopan komissio esittää tänään julkaistavassa kertomuksessaan, että Suomi velvoittaa kunnat ja alueet varmistamaan läpinäkyvyyden yksityisten yrittäjien kanssa tehtävissä hankintasopimuksissa. Komissio esittää myös, että keskusrikospoliisin korruptiontorjuntayksikön olisi tuloksellisesti tuettava korruptioon liittyvien rikosten tutkintaa ja koordinoitava korruptiontorjuntamenettelyjä virastojen välillä.

Euroopan komissio esittelee kunkin jäsenvaltion tilannetta koskevan analyysin lisäksi kaksi laajaa mielipidetiedustelua. Useampi kuin kolme neljästä EU:n kansalaisesta pitää korruptiota kotimaassaan laajalle levinneenä. Noin yksi neljästä eurooppalaisesta, mutta vain 9 % suomalaisista, on sitä mieltä, että korruptio vaikuttaa heidän jokapäiväiseen elämäänsä. Eurooppalaisista neljä prosenttia ja suomalaisista vähemmän kuin yksi prosentti ilmoitti, että heiltä on pyydetty tai odotettu lahjuksia viimeksi kuluneen vuoden aikana.

France

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Summary EN

In France, legislative measures have recently been taken on the issue of conflicts of interests among politicians and public officials. However, corruption-related risks in the public procurement sector and in international business transactions have not been addressed. In this report, the European Commission therefore suggests that France should conduct a comprehensive assessment to identify risks at local level, and set priorities for anti-corruption measures related to public procurement. The Commission is also suggesting that France improves the legislation on foreign bribery, addresses the recommendations on party funding that have been raised by the Council of Europe, and makes efforts to increase the operational independence of prosecutors.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 68 percent of the French, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and two percent of the French, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. Four out of ten European companies consider corruption to be an obstacle for doing business. The number for France is higher - six out of ten French companies consider this an obstacle.

Summary FR

La France a pris récemment, en matière de conflits d’intérêts, des mesures législatives applicables au personnel politique et aux agents publics. En revanche, les risques de corruption dans le secteur des marchés publics et dans les transactions commerciales internationales n’ont pas été traités. Dans le rapport présenté aujourd’hui, la Commission européenne propose donc que la France procède à une évaluation globale visant à détecter les risques au niveau local et fixe des priorités pour des mesures de lutte contre la corruption dans le secteur des marchés publics. La Commission propose également que la France renforce sa législation sur la corruption étrangère, donne suite aux recommandations sur le financement des partis formulées par le Conseil de l’Europe et s'efforce d'accroître l’indépendance opérationnelle des parquets.

En plus d'une analyse de la situation dans chaque État membre de l’UE, la Commission européenne présente les résultats de deux vastes sondages d’opinion. Plus des trois quarts des citoyens européens, et 68 % des Français, estiment que la corruption est très répandue dans leur propre pays. 4 % des Européens, et 2 % des Français, déclarent avoir été explicitement ou implicitement invités à payer un pot-de-vin au cours de l’année écoulée. Au niveau européen, quatre entreprises sur dix considèrent la corruption comme un obstacle aux affaires. En France, le chiffre est plus élevé, puisque cet avis est partagé par six entreprises françaises sur dix.

Germany

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Summary EN

When it comes to fighting corruption, Germany is amongst the best countries of the EU. However, more can be done. In this report, the European Commission points out that Germany would benefit from the introduction of strict penalties for corruption of elected officials. The Commission is also suggesting that Germany should develop a policy to deal with the 'revolving door' phenomenon, where officials leave office to work for companies they may have recently helped. Furthermore, increasing awareness of the risks of foreign bribery amongst small and medium sized enterprises would be helpful, and Germany could also do more to address concerns over the way election campaigns are financed.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Although few Germans have direct experience of bribery, four percent of Europeans overall say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year. 9 percent of Germans say that they personally know someone who has taken bribes.

Summary DE

Im Hinblick auf die Korruptionsbekämpfung gehört Deutschland zu den erfolgreichsten Ländern der EU. Es kann jedoch noch mehr getan werden. In ihrem heutigen Bericht empfiehlt die Europäische Kommission Deutschland härtere Strafen für die Bestechung und Bestechlichkeit von gewählten Amtsträgern. Zudem schlägt die Kommission Deutschland vor, Regeln für den Umgang mit Interessenkonflikten nach Ausscheiden aus dem Amt festzulegen, d. h. für den Fall, dass Amtsträger ihr Amt niederlegen, um für Unternehmen zu arbeiten, denen sie möglicherweise zuvor geholfen haben. Des Weiteren wird eine Sensibilisierung für die Risiken der Auslandsbestechung bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen empfohlen. Auch könnte Deutschland mehr tun, um Bedenken hinsichtlich der Wahlkampffinanzierung auszuräumen.

Gemeinsam mit einer Analyse der Situation in jedem EU-Mitgliedstaat präsentiert die Europäische Kommission auch die Ergebnisse zweier umfangreicher Meinungsumfragen. Mehr als drei Viertel der europäischen Umfrageteilnehmer sind sich darin einig, dass Korruption in ihrem Land gang und gäbe ist. 4 % geben an an, dass von ihnen im vergangenen Jahr die Zahlung von Bestechungsgeld gefordert oder erwartet wurde, aber nur wenige Deutsche haben unmittelbare Erfahrungen mit Bestechung gemacht. 9 % der deutschen Befragten geben an, persönlich jemanden zu kennen, der sich hat bestechen lassen.

Greece

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Summary EN

The institutions fighting corruption in Greece are under the same pressure as much of Greece's public administration. Although there have been some positive steps, including the development of sectoral strategies and the appointment of a national anti-corruption coordinator, corruption poses considerable challenges in Greece. The anti-corruption framework remains complex and struggles to deliver results. In this report, the European Commission points out that public procurement remains a risk area, where greater oversight would be beneficial. More could also be done to carry out the sector-specific plans and to strengthen the work of the anti-corruption coordinator. Increasing supervision of party funding and declarations of interests by politicians, and revisiting the issue of immunity, would also contribute to a better situation in Greece.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Amongst Greeks, that number is 99 percent. Four percent of Europeans, and 7 percent of Greeks, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary EL

Οι φορείς καταπολέμησης της διαφθοράς στην Ελλάδα υφίστανται τις ίδιες πιέσεις που δέχεται και μεγάλο μέρος της ελληνικής δημόσιας διοίκησης. Αν και έχουν γίνει κάποια θετικά βήματα, συμπεριλαμβανομένης της ανάπτυξης τομεακών στρατηγικών και του διορισμού εθνικού συντονιστή για την καταπολέμηση της διαφθοράς, η διαφθορά δημιουργεί σοβαρά προβλήματα στην Ελλάδα. Το πλαίσιο για την καταπολέμηση της διαφθοράς εξακολουθεί να είναι περίπλοκο και δυσκολεύεται να παραγάγει αποτελέσματα. Στην έκθεσή της, σήμερα, η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή επισημαίνει ότι ο τομέας των δημόσιων συμβάσεων εξακολουθεί να ενέχει κινδύνους και ότι η αύξηση της εποπτείας στον συγκεκριμένο τομέα θα ήταν επωφελής. Θα μπορούσαν επίσης να γίνουν περισσότερα όσον αφορά την υλοποίηση των τομεακών σχεδίων και την ενίσχυση του έργου του συντονιστή για την καταπολέμηση της διαφθοράς. Η εντατικότερη εποπτεία της χρηματοδότησης των κομμάτων και των δηλώσεων συμφερόντων των πολιτικών, καθώς και η επανεξέταση του ζητήματος της βουλευτικής ασυλίας, θα συνέβαλαν επίσης στη βελτίωση της κατάστασης στην Ελλάδα.

Παράλληλα με μια ανάλυση της κατάστασης σε κάθε κράτος μέλος της ΕΕ, η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή παρουσιάζει και δύο εκτενείς δημοσκοπήσεις. Πάνω από τα τρία τέταρτα των ευρωπαίων πολιτών συμφωνούν ότι η διαφθορά είναι ευρέως διαδεδομένη στη χώρα τους. Μεταξύ των Ελλήνων, το ποσοστό αυτό είναι 99%. Το 4% των Ευρωπαίων και το 7% των Ελλήνων δήλωσαν ότι κατά το περασμένο έτος τους ζητήθηκε, ρητά ή έμμεσα, να καταβάλουν χρηματικό δώρο.

Hungary

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Summary EN

Hungary has in place a number of tools to increase integrity and transparency in public administration. Some ambitious anti-corruption policies have been developed. However, concerns remain, such as those related to informal relations between businesses and political actors at local level. The European Commission, in this report, points to a number of areas where further efforts can be made, notably when it comes to financing of political parties, and control mechanisms surrounding public procurement procedures and conflicts of interest among public officials. More efforts can be made to strengthen accountability standards for elected and appointed officials, and to deal with risks concerning favouritism in public administration. Further steps can also be taken to progressively eliminate the practice of gratitude payments in the healthcare sector.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 89 percent of Hungarians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and 13 percent of Hungarians, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary HU

Magyarország különböző eszközöket alkalmaz a közigazgatás integritásának és átláthatóságának fokozására. Nagyra törő korrupcióellenes politikákat dolgozott ki. Továbbra is fennállnak azonban olyan aggasztó jelenségek, mint például a vállalkozások és a helyi politikai szereplők közötti informális kapcsolatok. Az Európai Bizottság mai jelentésében rámutat, hogy bizonyos területeken még további erőfeszítéseket lehetne tenni: ilyen a pártfinanszírozás, a közbeszerzési eljárásokra vonatkozó ellenőrzési mechanizmusok és a hivatalos személyek összeférhetetlenségének kérdése. Több erőfeszítést lehetne tenni a megválasztott és kinevezett tisztviselőkkel szemben támasztott elszámoltathatósági követelmények megerősítésére, valamint a közigazgatásban tapasztalható favoritizmus kockázatának csökkentésére. További lépéseket lehetne tenni emellett az egészségügyi hálapénzek gyakorlatának fokozatos megszüntetésére.

Az Európai Bizottság az egyes uniós tagállamok helyzetének elemzése mellett két részletes közvéleménykutatást is bemutat. Az európai polgárok több mint háromnegyede és a magyarok 89 százaléka egyetért azzal, hogy hazájában elterjedt a korrupció. Az európaiak négy százaléka és a magyarok 13 százaléka állítja, hogy az elmúlt évben csúszópénzt kértek vagy vártak el tőle. Összességében tíz európai vállalkozás közül négy úgy véli, hogy a korrupció akadályozza üzleti tevékenységét.

Ireland

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Summary EN

The Irish government has undertaken substantial reforms in its anti-corruption policies. It has improved transparency around party funding and taken steps to respond to public concern. However, more work could be done to improve the capacity to prosecute and punish corruption cases in a timely manner. Further work could also be required to address the few remaining concerns around the funding of political parties, election and referendum campaigns and corruption risks related to conflicts of interest at local level, as well as in the area of urban planning.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 81 percent of the Irish, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and three percent of Irish people, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Italy

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Summary EN

The adoption of the anti-corruption law in November 2012 represents a significant step forward in the fight against corruption in Italy: it highlights prevention policies aiming to raise the level of accountability within public administration and political elites and to balance the anti-corruption burden, which is currently falling almost exclusively on the law enforcement side. However, despite considerable efforts, corruption remains a serious challenge in Italy. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Italy should strengthen the integrity regime for elected officials through ethical codes, including accountability tools. Italy should also reinforce the legal and institutional framework on party funding. Furthermore, the deficiencies of the statute of limitation regime should be addressed without delay. The Commission is also suggesting that Italy reinforces the powers and capacity of the National Anti-Corruption Agency to perform a strong coordination role, enhances transparency around public procurement and takes further steps to address shortcomings regarding corruption in the private sector. More efforts are required with regard to conflicts of interest and asset disclosure of public officials, as well as control mechanisms around local and regional public spending.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 97 percent of Italians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Nearly 2 in 3 Europeans and 88 percent of Italian citizens believe that bribery and the use of connections is often the easiest way to obtain certain public services.

Summary IT

In Italia l’adozione, a novembre 2012, della legge anticorruzione segna un importante passo avanti. La nuova normativa rafforza le politiche di prevenzione mirate a responsabilizzare i pubblici ufficiali e la classe politica e a bilanciare l’onere della lotta al fenomeno, che attualmente ricade quasi esclusivamente sulle forze dell’ordine e sulla magistratura. Gli sforzi profusi dall’Italia sono notevoli ma la corruzione rimane un fenomeno preoccupante. Nella relazione presentata oggi la Commissione europea suggerisce di potenziare il regime di integrità per le cariche pubbliche elettive introducendo codici etici e strumenti di rendicontazione del loro operato. L’Italia dovrebbe anche consolidare lo strumentario giuridico e istituzionale sul finanziamento ai partiti e risolvere con la massima urgenza le carenze del regime di prescrizione. La Commissione consiglia anche di estendere i poteri e di sviluppare la capacità dell’autorità nazionale anticorruzione in modo che possa reggere saldamente le redini del coordinamento, garantire maggiore trasparenza degli appalti pubblici e adoperarsi ulteriormente per colmare le lacune della lotta anticorruzione nel settore privato. Il conflitto di interesse, la trasparenza della situazione patrimoniale dei pubblici ufficiali e i dispostivi di controllo

La relazione della Commissione, oltre ad analizzare la situazione in ciascuno Stato membro, rende noti anche i risultati di due ampi sondaggi d’opinione. Per più dei tre quarti dei cittadini europei, e ben il 97% degli italiani, la corruzione è un fenomeno nazionale dilagante. Quasi 2 cittadini europei su 3 e l’88% dei cittadini italiani ritiene che la corruzione e le raccomandazioni siano spesso il modo più facile per accedere a una serie di servizi pubblici.

Latvia

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Summary EN

Latvia has made progress in preventing and addressing corruption, with a searchable online database of political donations. It is developing and refining its anti-corruption laws. This ongoing work is positive, but there are concerns remaining about the implementation of the legal framework. In this report, the European Commission suggests build on the achievements of the Bureau for combating and preventing corruption (KNAB) by strengthening its independence and protecting it from potential political interference. Furthermore, promoting e-procurement techniques and greater competition for public contracts would help address risks in public procurement. Also, Latvia can improve transparency of state-owned companies, and apply Parliament's Code of Ethics more rigorously.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 83 percent of Latvians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and 6 percent of Latvians, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary LV

Latvija ir guvusi panākumus korupcijas problēmu risināšanā un novēršanā, izveidojot politisko partiju ziedojumu interneta datubāzi. Latvijā tiek izstrādāti un pilnveidoti tiesību akti pretkorupcijas jomā. Paveiktais darbs ir vērtējams pozitīvi, bet joprojām pastāv bažas par tiesiskā regulējuma īstenošanu. Šodienas ziņojumā Eiropas Komisija ierosina turpināt Korupcijas novēršanas un apkarošanas biroja (KNAB) sekmīgo darbu, nostiprinot tā neatkarību un aizsargājot to no iespējamās politiskās iejaukšanās. Turklāt e-iepirkumu metožu un lielākas konkurences veicināšana attiecībā uz publiskajiem iepirkumiem varētu palīdzēt mazināt riskus publiskā iepirkuma jomā. Bez tam Latvija var uzlabot pārredzamību valstij piederošajos uzņēmumos un stingrāk piemērot Saeimas deputātu ētikas kodeksu.

Līdztekus analīzei par situāciju katrā dalībvalstī Eiropas Komisija ir laidusi klajā divas plaša mēroga sabiedriskās domas aptaujas. Vairāk nekā trīs ceturtdaļas Eiropas iedzīvotāju un 83 % Latvijas iedzīvotāju piekrīt, ka korupcija viņu valstī ir izplatīta. 4 % eiropiešu, un 6 % Latvijas iedzīvotāju apgalvo, ka pagājušajā gadā no viņiem prasīts vai sagaidīts kukulis. Kopumā četri no desmit Eiropas uzņēmumiem Eiropā uzskata, ka korupcija ir šķērslis uzņēmējdarbībai.

Lithuania

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Summary EN

Lithuania has already demonstrated commitment to prevent and combat corruption, through an extensive legal framework. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Lithuania should prioritise the prosecution of larger cases and develop prevention tools to detect corruption in procurement, focusing on the local level and the healthcare sector. The Commission also suggests that Lithuania should develop a strategy against informal payments in healthcare, and improve the control of declarations of conflicts of interest made by elected and appointed officials. The transparency of political party financing also requires additional efforts.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 95 percent of Lithuanians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. A full 29 percent of Lithuanian citizens have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year – the highest in the EU, where the overall average is 4 percent of citizens.

Summary LT

Sukūrusi plačią teisinę sistemą Lietuva jau pademonstravo ryžtą užkirsti kelią korupcijai ir su ja kovoti. Šiandienos ataskaitoje Europos Komisija siūlo Lietuvai teikti pirmenybę stambesnių bylų tyrimui ir sukurti prevencijos priemones korupcijai viešojo pirkimo srityje nustatyti, sutelkiant dėmesį į vietos lygmenį ir sveikatos priežiūros sektorių. Komisija taip pat siūlo Lietuvai parengti kovos su neoficialiais mokėjimais sveikatos priežiūros sistemoje strategiją ir gerinti išrinktų ir paskirtų pareigūnų interesų konfliktų deklaracijų kontrolę. Taip pat reikia papildomų pastangų politinių partijų finansavimo skaidrumui užtikrinti.

Be padėties kiekvienoje ES valstybėje narėje analizės, Europos Komisija taip pat pateikia dvi išsamias apklausas. Daugiau nei trys ketvirtadaliai Europos piliečių ir net 95 proc. lietuvių pritaria, kad korupcija jų šalyje yra plačiai paplitusi. Net 29 proc. Lietuvos piliečių praėjusiais metais buvo prašomi kyšio arba buvo tikimasi, kad jie jį sumokės – tai didžiausias skaičius ES, kurios bendras vidurkis yra 4 proc. piliečių.

Luxembourg

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Summary EN

Luxembourg is perceived to be a country where petty corruption is not a problem and effective systems are in place to deter corruption in public services. However, the small and tight-knit nature of the business community, and the lack of rules on lobbying as well as access to information, raise the risk of conflicts of interest. Thus, in this report, the European Commission suggests that Luxembourg should clarify accounting obligations and political parties’ accounting duties, and introduce a supervisory mechanism for political campaign accounts. The Commission also suggests that Luxembourg improves the rules on conflicts of interests, and adopts legislation on access to public information. Resources used to combat financial and economic crime should be increased.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 42 percent of Luxembourgish citizens, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Only 1 percent of Luxembourgish citizens have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, while the European average is 4 percent.

Summary FR

Le Luxembourg est perçu comme un pays où le problème de la petite corruption ne se pose pas et où des systèmes efficaces ont été mis en place pour prévenir la corruption dans les services publics. La taille réduite du monde des affaires luxembourgeois et le manque de règles en matière de lobbying et d'accès à l'information crée cependant un risque de conflits d'intérêts. Dans le rapport présenté aujourd'hui, la Commission européenne propose donc que le Grand-Duché précise ses normes comptables nationales ainsi que les obligations comptables des partis politiques, et mette en place un mécanisme de contrôle des comptes de campagne électorale. Elle propose également que le Luxembourg renforce ses règles en matière de conflit d'intérêts et adopte une législation sur l'accès public à l'information. Les ressources consacrées à la lutte contre la criminalité financière et économique devraient être augmentées.

En plus d'une analyse de la situation dans chaque État membre de l’UE, la Commission européenne présente les résultats de deux vastes sondages d’opinion. Plus des trois quarts des citoyens européens, et 42 % des Luxembourgeois, estiment que la corruption est très répandue dans leur propre pays. Seulement 1 % des Luxembourgeois déclarent avoir été explicitement ou implicitement invités à payer un pot-de-vin au cours de l’année écoulée, alors que la moyenne européenne se situe à 4 %.

Malta

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Summary EN

Malta has made the prevention of corruption one of its priorities, which has led to reforms aiming at greater transparency. However, certain issues still need to be addressed. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Malta reviews the financing of political parties, which remains largely unregulated. Coordination among the institutions investigating corruption should also be improved to ensure the effective collection of evidence. The Commission is also suggesting that continued efforts are undertaken to improve the transparency of judicial appointments, and of decision-making in environmental planning.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 83 percent of the Maltese, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. 53% of Maltese citizens say corruption is particularly widespread among officials issuing building permits. Approximately one in four Europeans and 29 percent of the Maltese consider that they are affected by corruption in their everyday lives.

Summary MT

Malta poġġiet il-prevenzjoni tal-korruzzjoni bħala waħda mill-prijoritajiet tagħha, li wasslet għal riformi bil-għan ta' aktar trasparenza. Madankollu, xi kwistjonijiet għad iridu jiġu indirizzati. Fir-rapport tagħna illum, il-Kummissjoni Ewropea tissuġġerixxi li Malta tanalizza l-finanzjament tal-partiti politiċi, li għadu fil-biċċa l-kbira tiegħu mhux regolat. Il-koordinazzjoni bejn l-istituzzjonijiet li jinvestigaw il-korruzzjoni għandha titjieb ukoll biex jiġi żgurat il-ġbir effettiv tal-evidenza. Il-Kummissjoni qed tissuġġerixxi wkoll biex isiru sforzi kontinwi biex titjieb it-trasparenza tal-ħatriet ġudizzjarji, u tat-teħid tad-deċiżjonijiet tal-ippjanar ambjentali.

Flimkien ma' analiżi tas-sitwazzjoni f'kull Stat Membru tal-UE, il-Kummissjoni Ewropew qed tippreżenta wkoll żewġ stħarriġ tal-opinjoni estensivi. Aktar minn tliet kwarti taċ-ċittadini Ewropej u 83 % tal-Maltin, jaqblu li l-korruzzjoni hija mifruxa f'pajjiżhom. 53 % taċ-ċittadini Maltin isostnu li l-korruzzjoni hija mifruxa b'mod partikolari fost uffiċjali li joħorġu l-permessi għall-bini. Madwar wieħed minn kull erba' Ewropej u 29 % tal-Maltin jqisu li huma affettwati mill-korruzzjoni fil-ħajja tagħhom ta' kuljum.

Netherlands

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Summary EN

The Netherlands' integrated approach to prevent and detect corruption could serve as a model elsewhere in the EU. However, political parties have only recently agreed new rules on the transparency of financing, and evidence that foreign bribery is tackled adequately is lacking. In today's report, the European Commission suggests that the categories of assets of elected officials that must be declared are extended. The Commission is also suggesting that the Netherlands should focus their efforts on prosecuting cases of corruption in international business transactions, by increasing the capacity to proactively investigate foreign bribery.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 61 percent of the Dutch, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and two percent of the Dutch, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary NL

De geïntegreerde aanpak van Nederland om corruptie te voorkomen en op te sporen, kan als model dienen voor andere EU-landen. Politieke partijen hebben echter pas onlangs overeenstemming bereikt over nieuwe regels inzake de transparantie van partijfinanciering, en er is onvoldoende bewijs dat buitenlandse omkoping adequaat wordt aangepakt. In het verslag van vandaag stelt de Europese Commissie een uitbreiding voor van de vermogenscategorieën die gekozen ambtsdragers moeten aangeven. De Commissie stelt ook voor dat Nederland zijn inspanningen concentreert op de vervolging van corruptie bij internationale handelstransacties, door de capaciteit voor het proactief opsporen van buitenlandse omkoping, te vergroten.

Naast een analyse van de situatie in elke lidstaat van de EU presenteert de Europese Commissie ook twee uitgebreide opiniepeilingen. Meer dan drie kwart van de Europese burgers en 61 procent van de Nederlanders is het erover eens dat corruptie in hun eigen land wijdverbreid is. Vier procent van de Europeanen en 2 procent van de Nederlanders zegt dat hen in het afgelopen jaar werd gevraagd om steekpenningen te betalen of dat dit van hen werd verwacht. Vier op de tien Europese ondernemingen vinden dat corruptie het doen van zaken belemmert.

Poland

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Summary EN

Poland has been implementing measures and fine-tuning policies against corruption, however a more strategic approach is necessary to ensure comprehensive solutions. Thus, in this report, the European Commission suggests implementing a long-term strategy against corruption, listing specific actions, the timeframe and resources for their implementation, and those responsible. Further reforms are needed to safeguard the transparency of public procurement and healthcare. The Commission also suggests that Poland should strengthen safeguards against potential politicisation of the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau (CBA). Anti-corruption measures should be strengthened around the supervision of state-owned companies.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 82 percent of Poles, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. A full 15 percent of Poles, compared to four percent of Europeans overall, have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, mostly related to healthcare.

Summary PL

Polska wprowadziła środki oraz dopracowała swoją politykę w dziedzinie zwalczania korupcji, jednakże konieczne jest bardziej strategiczne podejście, by zapewnić kompleksowe rozwiązania. W prezentowanym dzisiaj sprawozdaniu Komisja Europejska sugeruje zatem wdrożenie długoterminowej strategii przeciwko korupcji, opisując konkretne działania, ramy czasowe oraz zasoby konieczne do jej wdrożenia, a także odpowiedzialne podmioty. Niezbędne są dalsze reformy, by zapewnić przejrzystość procesu udzielania zamówień publicznych i w służbie zdrowia. Zdaniem Komisji Polska powinna również wzmocnić zabezpieczenia przed ewentualnym upolitycznieniem Centralnego Biura Antykorupcyjnego (CBA). Należy wzmocnić środki zapobiegania korupcji w odniesieniu do nadzoru przedsiębiorstw państwowych.

Komisja Europejska prezentuje wnioski z analizy sytuacji we wszystkich państwach członkowskich UE, a także wyniki z dwóch szeroko zakrojonych badań opinii publicznej. Ponad trzy czwarte obywateli Unii oraz 82 % Polaków zgadza się ze stwierdzeniem, że korupcja jest powszechnym zjawiskiem w ich kraju. Całe 15 % Polaków (4 % Europejczyków ogółem) spotkało się z sugestią wręczenia łapówki lub też w inny sposób było świadkami korupcji w minionym roku, głównie w kontekście opieki zdrowotnej.

Portugal

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Summary EN

In Portugal, although various anti-corruption initiatives have been implemented over the last decade, including new legislation, there is no comprehensive national anti-corruption strategy in place. In addition, effective prosecution of high-level corruption cases remains a challenge. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Portugal ensures that law enforcement, prosecution and judiciary are well equipped to effectively deal with complex corruption cases, and establishes a convincing track record of corruption cases. Further preventive action against corrupt practices in party funding should be undertaken, and codes of conduct for elected officials should be developed. The Commission is also suggesting that further efforts need to be made to adequately address conflicts of interests and asset disclosure of officials at local levels. Transparency and control mechanisms around public procurement procedures should be strengthened further. Moreover, Portugal should identify risk factors for corruption in local urban planning decisions.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 90 percent of the Portuguese, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Portugal scores better than the EU average, however, when citizens are asked whether they have direct experience of corruption – fewer than one percent of the Portuguese say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, while the European average is 4 percent. 36 percent of Portuguese citizens consider that they are affected by corruption in their everyday lives.

Summary PT

Em Portugal, apesar de terem sido implementadas várias iniciativas de luta contra a corrupção ao longo da última década, incluindo nova legislação, não existe uma estratégia nacional de luta contra a corrupção em vigor. Além disso, o exercício efetivo da ação penal nos casos de corrupção de alto nível continua a ser um desafio. No relatório hoje publicado, a Comissão Europeia sugere que Portugal assegure que as autoridades coercivas, o Ministério Público e os tribunais estão bem preparados para lidar eficazmente com os processos de corrupção complexos e apresenta um registo de resultados comprovados nos processos de corrupção. Devem ser tomadas mais medidas preventivas contra as práticas de corrupção no financiamento dos partidos e estabelecidos códigos de conduta aplicáveis aos funcionários públicos eleitos. A Comissão sugere também que sejam realizados esforços suplementares para responder adequadamente aos conflitos de interesses e para divulgar o património dos funcionários a nível local. A transparência e os mecanismos de controlo dos procedimentos de adjudicação de contratos públicos devem ser reforçados. Além disso, Portugal deve identificar os fatores de risco de corrupção nas decisões de planeamento urbano local.

Paralelamente a uma análise da situação em cada Estado-Membro da UE, a Comissão Europeia apresenta também duas extensas sondagens de opinião. Mais de três quartos dos cidadãos europeus e um total de 90 % dos portugueses concordam que a corrupção é generalizada no seu país de origem. No entanto, Portugal regista melhores resultados do que a média da UE; quando os cidadãos são questionados quanto à sua experiência direta de corrupção, menos de 1 % dos portugueses afirmam que lhes foi solicitado ou que deles foi esperado o pagamento de um suborno no ano passado, ao passo que a média europeia é de 4 %. 36 % dos cidadãos portugueses consideram que são atingidos pela corrupção no seu dia a dia. Na Europa em geral, quatro em cada dez empresas europeias consideram que a corrupção constitui um obstáculo à atividade empresarial.

Romania

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Summary EN

In Romania, both petty and political corruption remains a significant problem. Although some positive results have been observed when it comes to prosecution of high level corruption cases, political will to address corruption and promote high standards of integrity has been inconsistent. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Romania ensures that all necessary guarantees remain in place to safeguard the independence and continuation of non-partisan investigations into high-level corruption cases, including with regard to elected and appointed officials. The Commission also suggests that Romania develops comprehensive codes of conduct for elected officials and that dissuasive sanctions for corrupt practices are ensured. Strengthening of prevention and control mechanisms with regard to public procurement and public contracts is also suggested, including in state-owned and state-controlled companies. Furthermore, the Commission suggests increasing the efficiency of prevention and detection of conflicts of interest among public officials, as well as strengthening safeguards when it comes to allocation of public funding, and carrying out strategies to reduce corruption in healthcare.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 93 percent of Romanians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. 25 percent of Romanians, the second highest percentage in the EU, have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, compared to the EU average of 4 percent.

Summary RO

În România, atât corupția la scară mică, cât și corupția politică continuă să fie o problemă semnificativă. Cu toate că s-au înregistrat unele rezultate pozitive în ceea ce privește urmărirea penală a cazurilor de corupție, voința politică de a aborda problema corupției și de a promova standarde înalte de integritate a fost inconsecventă. În cadrul raportului de azi, Comisia Europeană sugerează României să se asigure că sunt menținute toate garanțiile necesare pentru a proteja independența investigațiilor și continuarea anchetelor imparțiale în cazurile de corupție la nivel înalt, inclusiv cele cu privire la persoane care au fost alese sau numite în funcții publice. Comisia sugerează, de asemenea, României să elaboreze coduri de conduită cuprinzătoare pentru persoanele alese în funcții publice și să asigure aplicarea unor sancțiuni eficace pentru a descuraja actele de corupție. O altă recomandare se referă la întărirea mecanismelor de prevenire și control cu privire la atribuirea contractelor de achiziții publice , inclusiv în întreprinderile deținute sau controlate de stat. În plus, Comisia sugerează atât creșterea eficacității în ceea ce privește prevenirea și depistarea conflictelor de interese în rândul funcționarilor publici, cât și consolidarea sistemului de garanții în domeniul alocării fondurilor publice și aplicarea unor strategii pentru reducerea corupției din domeniul sănătății.

Împreună cu analiza situației din fiecare stat membru al UE, Comisia Europeană prezintă, de asemenea, două ample sondaje de opinie. Mai mult de trei sferturi din cetățenii europeni și 93 % din români sunt de acord că fenomenul corupției este răspândit pe scară largă în țara lor de origine. Unui procent de 25 % din români, reprezentând al doilea cel mai mare procent din UE, le-a fost cerut în mod explicit sau tacit să dea mită în decursul ultimului an, în comparație cu media europeană de 4 %.

Slovakia

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Summary EN

Slovakia has made considerable efforts to improve the legal anti-corruption framework for criminal law and public procurement. However, several factors limit the effectiveness of anti-corruption work; problems with legislation, the perceived lack of independence of parts of the judiciary, and close ties between the political and business elite. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Slovakia should strengthen the independence of the judiciary, in particular by specifying criteria for when presidents and vice-presidents of courts can be removed from office. The Commission is also suggesting to increase transparency of party funding at local and regional levels. When it comes to misuse of EU Funds, the Commission recommends strengthening control mechanisms to prevent conflicts of interest.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 90 percent of Slovakian citizens, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. 8 percent of Europeans, and 21 percent of Slovaks, have experienced or witnessed a case of corruption in the past year. In Slovakia, 66 percent of business representatives consider corruption as a problem for doing business.

Summary SK

Slovensko vynaložilo značné úsilie na zlepšenie protikorupčného právneho rámca pre trestné právo a verejné obstarávanie. Však, viacero faktorov obmedzuje účinnosť protikorupčných opatrení: problémy s právnymi predpismi, pocit chýbajúcej nezávislosti zložiek súdnictva a úzke prepojenie medzi politickou a podnikateľskou elitou. Európska komisia v dnešnej správe navrhuje, aby Slovensko posilnilo nezávislosť súdnictva, a aby predovšetkým presne vymedzilo kritériá, na základe ktorých možno predsedov a podpredsedov súdov odvolať z funkcie. Komisia takisto navrhuje, aby sa zväčšila transparentnosť financovania politických strán na miestnej a regionálnej úrovni. Pokiaľ ide o zneužívanie fondov EÚ, Komisia odporúča, aby sa posilnili mechanizmy kontroly s cieľom predchádzať vzniku konfliktov záujmov.

Spolu s analýzou situácie v každom členskom štáte EÚ Európska komisia predstavuje aj výsledky dvoch rozsiahlych prieskumov verejnej mienky. Viac než tri štvrtiny európskych občanov sú zajedno v tom, že v ich krajine je korupcia rozšírená. Na Slovensku tento názor zastáva celých 90 percent občanov. Minulý rok sa 8 percent Európanov a 21 percent občanov na Slovensku osobne stretlo s korupciou alebo sa tieto osoby stali svedkami korupcie. Na Slovensku považuje korupciu za prekážku v podnikaní 66 percent zástupcov podnikateľov.

Slovenia

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Summary EN

Slovenia has been among the most active of the Central and Eastern European states in the fight against corruption, with a well-developed legal and institutional anti-corruption framework. However, recent years appear to have seen a decline in the political drive against corruption, amidst allegations and doubts about the integrity of high-level officials. In this report, the European Commission suggests that Slovenia should apply dissuasive penalties to elected and appointed officials for when requirements to disclose assets and conflicts of interests are breached and take further steps to strengthen accountability standards for elected officials. The Commission is also suggesting that Slovenia should safeguard the operational independence and resources of anti-corruption bodies and prosecution services specialized in combating financial crime . Slovenia should also strengthen anti-corruption mechanisms concerning state-owned and state–controlled companies, as well as around public procurement and privatisation procedures. More efforts can be made to ensure effective supervision of party funding.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and a full 91 percent of Slovenians, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Four percent of Europeans, and three percent of the Slovenians, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary SL

Slovenija je med državami Srednje in Vzhodne Evrope med najdejavnejšimi v boju proti korupciji, saj ima dobro razvit pravni in institucionalni protikorupcijski okvir. Vendar pa se zdi, da je v zadnjih letih, sredi domnev in dvomov o integriteti funkcionarjev na visokih položajih, prišlo do upada politične volje za boj proti korupciji. Evropska komisija v svojem današnjem poročilu Sloveniji predlaga uvedbo odvračalnih kazni za izvoljene in imenovane funkcionarje, če kršijo zahteve o prijavi premoženjskega stanja in nasprotju interesov, ter sprejetje dodatnih ukrepov za okrepitev standardov odgovornosti izvoljenih funkcionarjev. Komisija poleg tega predlaga, naj Slovenija zaščiti operativno neodvisnost in vire protikorupcijskih organov ter posebne tožilske službe za boj proti finančnemu kriminalu. Slovenija bi morala tudi okrepiti protikorupcijske mehanizme v zvezi s podjetji v državni lasti ali pod državnim nadzorom ter na področju postopkov za oddajo javnih naročil in privatizacijskih postopkov. Poleg tega lahko stori še več za zagotavljanje učinkovitega nadzora nad financiranjem strank.

Evropska komisija skupaj z analizo stanja v vsaki državi članici EU predstavlja tudi dve obširni raziskavi javnega mnenja. Več kot tri četrtine evropskih državljanov in 91 odstotkov Slovencev se strinja, da je v njihovi državi korupcija splošno razširjena. Štirje odstotki Evropejcev in trije odstotki Slovencev pravijo, da so bili v preteklem letu pozvani, naj plačajo podkupnino, ali pa se je to od njih pričakovalo. Štiri od desetih evropskih podjetij menijo, da korupcija ovira poslovanje.

Spain

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Summary EN

Although an anti-corruption legal framework is largely in place in Spain and law enforcement has shown good results in investigating corrupt practices, today's report does show a certain number of deficiencies. Particularly challenging is political corruption and deficient checks and balances, notably in public spending and control mechanisms at regional and local levels. In this report, the European Commission suggests that tailor-made anti-corruption strategies for regional and local levels administrations are developed, that on-going reforms and implementation of the new rules on party funding is pursued, and that comprehensive codes of conduct for elected officials with adequate accountability tools are developed. The Commission is also suggesting that irregularities in public procurement procedures at regional and local levels should be addressed further.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of Europeans, and a full 95 percent of Spanish citizens, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Approximately one in four Europeans considers that they are affected by corruption in their everyday lives. In Spain, that number is 63 percent, the highest percentage in the EU. Four percent of Europeans, and 2 percent of Spanish citizens, say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year.

Summary ES

Aunque en España ya existe en gran medida un marco jurídico de lucha contra la corrupción, y la legislación se ha aplicado con buenos resultados en materia de investigación de las prácticas corruptas, el informe de hoy muestra una serie de insuficiencias. Un reto especial lo constituye la corrupción política y los deficientes controles y equilibrios, especialmente en lo relativo al gasto público y a los mecanismos de control a escala autonómica y local. En su informe de hoy, la Comisión Europea sugiere desarrollar estrategias de lucha contra la corrupción adaptadas a las necesidades de las administraciones autonómica y local, proseguir con las reformas en curso y la aplicación de las nuevas normas en lo tocante a la financiación de los partidos políticos, e instaurar códigos generales de conducta para los cargos electos, con instrumentos adecuados de responsabilización. La Comisión también propone seguir insistiendo en la lucha contra las irregularidades que se producen en los procedimientos de contratación pública a escala autonómica y local.

Junto con un análisis de la situación en cada Estado miembro de la UE, la Comisión Europea también presenta dos sondeos de opinión pormenorizados. Más del 75 % de los ciudadanos europeos, y un 95 % de los españoles, coinciden en que la corrupción está muy extendida en su país de origen. Aproximadamente 1 de cada 4 ciudadanos europeos considera que se ven afectados por la corrupción en su vida cotidiana; en España, este porcentaje alcanza el 63 %, el más alto de la UE. El 4 % de los ciudadanos europeos, y el 2 % de los españoles, afirman que durante el año pasado se les pidió o se esperaba que pagasen un soborno.

Sweden

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Summary EN

Sweden is among the least corrupt countries in the EU. It has taken an ambitious role in fighting corruption, and several anti-corruption initiatives have been carried out. However, a few areas of concern remain, such as corruption risks in municipalities and counties, as well as gaps in the Swedish framework for prosecuting Swedish corporations on grounds of bribery in foreign countries. In this report, the European Commission suggests that municipalities and county councils should be obliged to secure transparency in public contracts with private entrepreneurs. The Commission also suggests that the level of fines for corporations committing foreign bribery should be raised, and that liability should be triggered even if the crime has been committed by intermediaries or third-party agents. Sweden should also consider reviewing the provision of dual criminality, whereby an offence has to be a crime under the law of the country in which it has allegedly been committed. Sweden can also improve the transparency of financing of political parties further, by considering a general ban on donations from donors whose identity is not known.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. Four percent of Europeans say that they have been asked or expected to pay a bribe in the past year, but in Sweden, that number is significantly lower (less than one percent). However, as many as 18% of Swedes say that they personally know someone who takes or has taken a bribe, which is higher than the EU average (12 percent).

Summary SV

Sverige är ett av de länder som har minst problem med korruption i EU. Öppenhet och offentlighetslagstiftning spelar här en viktig roll. På vissa områden kan dock förbättringar ske. I rapporten föreslår EU-kommissionen bland annat ökade krav på insyn när det gäller kommuners avtal med privata entreprenörer. EU-kommissionen föreslår också att bötesbeloppen för företag höjs i fall av mutbrott i utlandet, samt att det i dessa fall bör bli lättare att utkräva ansvar även när brottet ska ha begåtts av en tredje part. Dessutom - för att idag kunna bestraffa ett mutbrott begånget i utlandet kräver svensk lagstiftning att detta ses som ett brott även i landet i fråga. Detta krav kan behöva ses över. I rapporten uttrycker EU-kommissionen också oro över att det fortfarande går att lämna anonyma bidrag till svenska politiska partier. Sverige bör överväga att införa ett förbud mot sådana, på såväl nationell som regional och kommunal nivå.

Tillsammans med analysen av situationen i varje medlemsland presenterar EU-kommissionen också två omfattande opinionsundersökningar. Fyra procent av européerna säger sig ha ombetts eller förväntats betala en muta under det senaste året. I Sverige är situationen betydligt bättre än snittet - här är siffran under en procent. Däremot säger sig 18 procent av svenskarna känna någon som har tagit emot en muta, att jämföra med EU-snittet på 12 procent.

United Kingdom

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Summary EN

In the United Kingdom, petty corruption does not appear to pose a challenge. Moreover, the UK has made strides in encouraging its companies to refrain from bribing officials abroad, through stringent legislation and detailed guidelines. Traditionally, the UK promotes high ethical standards of public service. However, to ensure continued success, further efforts are necessary to address risks of foreign bribery in vulnerable industries such as defence. In this report, the European Commission suggests that the UK should ensure transparency in out-of-court settlements in corruption cases. Accountability in the governance of banks can also be further strengthened. The Commission is also suggesting to cap donations to political parties, impose limits on electoral campaign spending and ensure proactive monitoring and prosecution of potential violations.

Alongside an analysis of the situation in each EU Member State, the European Commission is also presenting two extensive opinion polls. More than three quarters of European citizens, and 64 percent of UK respondents, agree that corruption is widespread in their home country. Approximately one in four Europeans considers that they are affected by corruption in their everyday lives. In the UK, this figure is well below the EU average, 16 percent.