In the context of the Dublin Regulation, the phenomenon where a third-country national applies for international protection in more than one EU Member State with or without having already received international protection in one of those EU Member States.
1. The term 'asylum-shopping' has no legal definition, but is used in an informal sense and also in Commission Communications. It is often used with a negative connotation, as it implies an abuse of the asylum procedure through the lodging of more than one application for international protection in different EU Member States (choosing the EU Member State which may grant the most appealing social, humanitarian and economic standards).
2. A second meaning understands asylum shopping as a comparison and selection of one asylum rule among several (see European University Institute: the Development of the EU Asylum Policy: Revisiting the Venue-shopping Argument )
3. Commission Staff Working Document SEC/2008/2029 provides not only some examples of what 'asylum shopping' means but also an assessment of the impacts of the Dublin system (which comprises the Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) and Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 (Eurodac Regulation) and their implementing regulations).