Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety
9. Are there health effects from combined exposures to different EMFs or co-exposure with other agents?
The few available studies on combined exposure to different EMFs do not provide sufficient evidence for specific risk assessment. The studies on effects on DNA integrity after an MRI investigation are clearly of interest to follow up. However, it is not clear which component of the complex EMF exposure during scanning may cause the effect: SMF, switched gradient MF or the pulsed RF EMF with its heating effect. Further studies on DNA integrity and MRI exposure are needed, and the feasibility of cohort studies of MRI patients and occupationally exposed personnel should be discussed.
Regarding co-exposure to ELF or RF with several chemical or physical agents, an increase or a decrease in the effects of some chemicals or physical agents have been observed in some cases. However, due to the small number of investigations available and the large variety of protocols adopted (different chemical or physical treatments and different EMF exposure conditions), it is not possible to draw conclusions. Further investigations should be carried out to clarify the role of EMFs in increasing/decreasing the effect of other treatments such as UV radiation and ionising radiation and to explore the potentially beneficial (protective) effects of such exposures on humans.