Final Opinion on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
Final Opinion on
potential risks to human health of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
This Opinion focuses on the assessment of potential risks to human health associated with the use of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).
A public consultation on the preliminary version of the Opinion was open on the website of the Scientific Committees from 19 July to 17 September 2017. Information about the public consultation was broadly communicated to national authorities, international organisations and other stakeholders.
Each comment and reference submitted during this time has been carefully considered by the SCHEER. Where appropriate, the text of the relevant sections of the Opinion was edited or explanations were added as a result of pertinent comments. The literature has been updated with relevant publications.
Content of the Opinion
The Committee concluded that there is no evidence of direct adverse health effects from LEDs in normal use by the general population. Cellular and animal studies showing adverse effects appeared to be conducted under exposure conditions that were difficult to relate to human exposures or used exposure levels in excess of internationally agreed exposure limits.
There is a low level of evidence that exposure to light in the late evening, including that from LED lighting and/or screens, may have an impact on the circadian rhythm. At the moment, it is not yet clear if this disturbance of the circadian system leads to adverse health effects. Children have a higher sensitivity to blue light and although emissions may not be harmful, blue LEDs (between 400 nm and 500 nm) including those in toys may be very dazzling and may induce photochemical retinopathy, which is a concern especially for children below three years of age. Older people may experience discomfort from exposure to light that is rich in blue light.
Reliable information on the dose-response relationship for adverse health effects for the healthy general public is not available in the scientific literature for all wavelengths emitted by LED devices.
Since the use of LED technology is still evolving, the Committee considers that it is important to closely monitor the risk of adverse health effects from long-term LED use by the general population.