Medicinal products

Good Manufacturing and Distribution Practices

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

The manufacture or import of medicinal products is subject to manufacturing or import authorisation. The authorisation holder must comply with the principles and guidelines of good manufacturing practice and use active substances (active pharmaceutical ingredients) which were manufactured in compliance with GMP. The relevant legal requirements are outlined below.

For human medicinal products and investigational medicinal products:

For veterinary medicinal products:

Eudralex Volume 4 of "The rules governing medicinal products in the European Union" contains guidance for the interpretation of the principles and guidelines of good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human and veterinary use laid down in Commission Directives 2003/94/EC and 91/412/EEC, respectively. Further information can be found on the website of the EMA.

GMP Latest Developments


Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs) and related agreements on GMP with third countries

The EU has MRAs on GMP with Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland and the United States. All these agreements cover human/veterinary medicines; however the detailed product scope varies. For more details please see:

EU-FDA mutual recognition of inspections of medicines manufacturers enters operational phase

1st November 2017 marked the beginning of mutual recognition of inspections of manufacturing sites for human medicines between the US and eight EU countries (Austria, Croatia, France, Italy, Malta, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom).

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has completed the capability assessments of drug manufacturing regulatory authorities in these eight EU countries, recognising them as capable to carry out good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspections. The remaining EU countries will be assessed by the FDA on a rolling basis, to be completed by 15 July 2019.

For its part, the European Commission confirmed that the US FDA has the capability, capacity and procedures in place to carry out good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspections at a level equivalent to the EU, earlier in 2017.

This important agreement, which updates the mutual recognition agreement from 1998, strengthens reliance upon each other’s inspection expertise and resources. Mutual benefits for EU authorities and the FDA include:

  • The ability to focus inspection resources on other parts of the world where active pharmaceutical ingredients and medicines for the EU or US markets are manufactured
  • Prioritising inspections of medicines manufacturing sites for higher risk cases
  • Reassuring patients that they can rely on the quality, safety and efficacy of all medicines, no matter where they have been manufactured
  • Improving the ability to identify and address problems at manufacturing sites before they become a public health risk
  • Reducing the administrative burdens and costs facing pharmaceutical manufacturers, including smaller producers.

To make this agreement operational, teams from the EU national competent authorities, European Commission, European Medicines Agency and the US FDA have been working intensively on auditing and assessing the respective supervisory system.

Mutual recognition covers medicinal products for human use with the exception of vaccines, plasma derived medicinal products, and investigational medicinal products (clinical trial material).

Import of active substances

Directive 2011/62/EU amending Directive 2001/83/EC introduces EU-wide rules for the import of active substances (active pharmaceutical ingredients APIs). Article 46b(2) specifies that APIs can only be imported if, they are accompanied by written confirmation from the competent authority of the exporting third country confirming similar standards of GMP and control to those of the EU.

Good Distribution Practice (GDP)

The wholesale distribution of medicinal products and active substances is an important activity. The quality and the integrity of medicinal products can be affected by a lack of adequate control. To this end, the Commission published:

Further information can be found on the website of the EMA.

GDP Latest Developments