In 2015, Hamburg's gross expenditure for R&D amounted to €2.42b, which corresponds to 2.2% of the regional GDP and is below the German average (2.7%) (Eurostat, 2018). Some 56.5% of Hamburg's intraregional R&D spending is undertaken by private businesses, 22.9% by higher education actors and 20.6% by the government sector (Eurostat, 2018).
Hamburg submitted 790 applications to the German Patent and Trade Mark Office in 2016 (44.2 patent application/100,000 inhabitants vs. 82.6 patent application/100,000 inhabitants in Germany) (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2018) and 361.7 patent applications to the European Patent Office in 2012 (2% of total German applications) (Eurostat, 2018).
In 2017, 5.5% of Hamburg's employees worked in high-technology manufacturing and knowledge-intensive high-technology services (German average: 4.1%) (Eurostat, 2018).
Hamburg has a rich higher education, science and research landscape with a central role played by university research actors. Hamburg has six public universities (Hamburg Official Website, 2018), the largest is Hamburg University (UHH) with 43,326 students enrolled for the academic year 2017/2018 (Hamburg Universität, 2018). Hamburg also counts 15 private universities (Hamburg Official Website, 2018). In the region, 42.6% of the 30-34 year olds have attained higher education diplomas, above the national average (34.0%) and the European average (39.9%) (Eurostat, 2018).
The non-university research landscape is comprised of twenty-eight federal, regional and jointly funded institutions, among them the Academy of Sciences, one Helmholtz Centre, three institutes of the Max Planck Society and research schools, Leibniz research centres, jointly run research institutes, and further institutions (Hamburg Official Website, 2018). UHH hosts two clusters of excellence, funded by the German federal government: The “Climate System Analysis and Prediction” excellence cluster, which brings together interdisciplinary researchers to address climate change and the Ultrafast Imaging cluster of excellence.
Eight economic clusters have been set up to foster innovation and economic cooperation and they focus on aviation, creative industries, healthcare, life sciences, logistics, maritime, Media and IT and renewable energy.
In terms of ICT infrastructure, 96% of the population has access to broadband (above Germany average: 92%) (Eurostat, 2018).