In 2015, there were 159 research centres in Central Transdanubia (CT) (CSO, 2016): this is the outcome of a third consecutive year’s decline (in 2012 there were still 221 centres). Overall, this indicator changes rapidly in the region: in 2011, this number was 195. The number of researchers (full-time equivalent - FTE) is 1,846 (CSO 2016), which is substantially higher than in the early 2010s (965 in 2010). Only 5.8% of the national research centres, and 7.2% of the FTE researchers are located in CT, since over half of these are concentrated in the Central Hungary region. The regional R&D expenditure kept increasing all over the 2010s, being at €114.01m in 2014 (Eurostat, 2017). However, regional R&D expenditure /regional gross domestic product (GDP) (1.1%) is still below the national average (1.4% in 2014) and the EU-28 average (2.0% in the same year). Private companies have accounted for 73.9% of the regional R&D expenditures in 2014 (Eurostat, 2017), which is above the national average (71.5%).
Business enterprises actively collaborate with the region’s universities. At Pannon University of Veszprém researchers collaborate with a number of automotive firms and with universities in other regions in automotive industry-specific research areas. Moreover, they have broad collaboration portfolio with industrial partners in the field of ICT, in eco-industries and participate in a number of international research projects in engineering and natural sciences. Another innovative actor is the Agricultural Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Martonvásár, an important public research organisation that performs higher education activities as well.
CT hosts industrial parks and four accredited innovation clusters: Innoskart, System Science Innovation Cluster, Ecopolis and Pharmagora. A variety of transfer institutions, incubators, and technology transfer offices foster commercialisation. Chambers of Commerce are also important regional innovation actors. Central Transdanubian Regional Innovation Agency (CTRIA), the regional innovation agency has a good overview of the regional innovation activities and carries out a range of for profit and public benefit innovation management services.
The number of patent applications per million inhabitants filed to the European Patent Office (EPO) was 8.9 in 2012, far below the national average of 17.1 per million inhabitants (Eurostat, 2017). The high-tech sector employment, on the other hand, has increased significantly since the previous year, reaching 17.2 thousand employees in 2016 (Eurostat, 2017), which represents 7.7% of the national employment in the sector (against the 6.2% in 2015) and 3.5% of the total regional employment (against the EU-28 average of 4.0%). This also represents an increase from 2.5% (2015) to 3.5% (2016) of the total regional employment.
The population aged 30-34 with tertiary education attainment in the region has been fluctuating over the years and was at 25.0% in 2016 (Eurostat, 2017). This is below the national average (33.0%) and the EU-28 average (39.1%).
In CT, 100% of the households had internet access in 2016 (Eurostat, 2017), which is above the national average (99%).
In summary, due to the efforts of intermediary institutions, substantial EU-funding, and foreign investors’ increasing commitment to innovation related activities, CT's innovation performance started to get closer to its full potential.