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Food Safety

Control measures for some further Exotic Diseases

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the international standard setting body for animal health, has drawn up a list of epidemic animal diseases of major economic importance (OIE Listed diseases).

Council Directive 92/119/EEC applies to all those diseases with the exception of those for which specific provision has already been made at EU level.

Its aim is to lay down general measures to prevent the further spread of certain animal diseases of major economic importance and in particular to control the movements of animals and products liable to spread the infection.

The diseases covered are in display below. Beware that Teschen Disease and Bluetongue were originally also covered by the Directive. Teschen disease was then excluded from the OIE disease list, and Community legislation was therefore amended, see Directive 2002/60/EC, Art.1. For Bluetongue, the Council has laid down specific control and eradication provisions in Directive 2000/75/EC.

The control measures include the following actions, among others:

Suspicion

  • Notification
  • Official veterinary investigation
  • Placing under official surveillance of the holding

Disease confirmed

  • Killing of susceptible animals to prevent the disease to spread further
  • Destruction/treatment of contaminated waste and substances
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Epizootical enquiry
  • Crisis unit
  • Placing under official surveillance of other holdings
  • Establishment of a protection zone and of a surveillance zone

Further exotic diseases

Lumpy Skin Disease

Description

Lumpy skin disease is an infectious viral disease of cattle (Bos taurus, zebus, domestic buffaloes), characterised by fever, painful nodules affecting the whole skin, the subcutaneous tissue and sometimes the musculature, by swellings, inflammation of superficial lymph nodes and by lameness.

This disease is caused by a virus of the Poxviridae family, genus Capripoxvirus.

Transmission

Transmission may occur via infected saliva or through insect vectors. Regarding the occurrence, it's mainly present in sub-Saharan Africa. There's no specific treatment although strong antibiotic therapy may avoid secondary infection. Vaccination exists, with homologous or heterologous attenuated virus vaccines.

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general EU measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease.

Notification and Health Situation

Lumpy skin disease is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC on the notification of animal diseases within the EU.

Peste des Petits Ruminants

Description

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is also known as pseudorinderpest of small ruminants, pest of small ruminants, goat plague, pest of sheep and goats, Kata, stomatitis-pneumoenteritis syndrome, contagious pustular stomatitis, and pneumoenteritis complex.

It is an acute or subacute viral disease of sheep and especially of goats, characterised by sudden fever, nasal discharge, congestion of conjunctiva, bronchopneumonia, necrotic stomatitis and diarrhoea. The disease is caused by a virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Morbillivirus, antigenically close to the rinderpest virus. Cattle and pigs develop inapparent infections.

To date, PPR has been diagnosed only in captive wild ungulates from families of Gazellinae (dorcas gazelle), Caprinae (Nubian ibex and Laristan sheep) and Hippotraginae (gemsbok). Experimentally, the American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is fully susceptible. Cattle and pigs develop inapparent infections. There is a breed-linked predisposition in goats.

Man is not at risk.

Transmission

The disease is transmitted through direct contact between animals. There is no carrier state.

Occurrence

PPR occurs in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East and India.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment. Antibiotics may prevent secondary pulmonary infections.

Vaccination

Rinderpest vaccine is commonly used. A homologous PPR vaccine is also available and preferable.

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general EU measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease.

Notification and Health Situation

Peste des Petits Ruminants is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the EU.

Rift Valley Fever

Description

Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of cattle, sheep, goats, dromedaries, several rodents and wild ruminants. It is characterised by fever, weakness, diarrhoea and vomiting, nasal discharge, abortions and a high mortality rate among the new born animals. Humans are very susceptible (major zoonosis).

Transmission

Via mosquitoes as vectors or reservoir hosts. Direct contamination occurs in humans when handling infected animals and meat.

Occurrence

Exclusively in African countries, with an underlying association with high rainfall and dense populations of vector mosquitoes.

There is no specific treatment. A symptomatic treatment is applied in severe human cases.

Vaccination

With an attenuated virus vaccine or an inactivated virus vaccine.

RVF is a List A disease, according to the OIE Classification of Diseases.

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general EU measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease.

Notification and Health Situation

Rift Valley Fever is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the EU.

Rinderpest

Description

Rinderpest is a highly fatal viral disease of domestic and wild cattle, sheep and goats and Asian pigs, characterised by fever, mucous membrane congestion and later gastrointestinal signs. The virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Morbillivirus.

Occurrence

Mainly in the Middle East and in southwestern and central Asia.The virus has never become established in either the Americas or Australia/New Zealand.

Transmission by direct or close indirect contact. No treatment is available.

Vaccination

Cell-culture attenuated virus vaccines are highly effective. The commonly used vaccine is an attenuated strain of rinderpest virus.Immunity lasts at least 5 years and is probably life-long. Annual revaccination is recommended in order to obtain a high percentage of immunised animals in an area.

Rinderpest is an OIE List A disease.

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general EU measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease.

Notification and Health Situation

Rinderpest is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the EU.

Sheep and Goat Pox (Capripox)

Description

Sheep and goat pox are serious and very contagious viral diseases characterised by fever, nasal secretions and widespread skin eruption.

The poxviruses of sheep and goats (capripoxviruses) are closely related. They are also related to the virus of lumpy skin disease. The virus remains viable in wool for 2 months and in premises for as long as 6 months.

Occurrence

Sheep and goat pox are endemic in most of Africa, the Middle East and Asia.

Transmission

Occurs through direct contact with infected animals or indirectly by contaminated implements, vehicles or products (litter, animal feed), by insects (mechanical vectors). Contamination can also be airborne.
There is no treatment available.

Vaccination

There are numerous attenuated virus vaccines. The conferred immunity lasts up to 2 years.

Sheep pox and goat pox are OIE List A diseases.

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general EU measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease.

Notification and Health Situation

Sheep and goat pox are notifiable diseases, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the EU.

Vesicular Stomatitis

Description

Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease of domestic equine, bovine and porcine animals. Wild hosts are the white-tailed deer and numerous species of small mammals in the tropics. VS can be transmitted to humans (minor zoonosis). The disease is characterised by excessive salivation, vesicles of various sizes in the mouth and lesions to the epithelial tissues of the mouth, teats and feet. The symptomatology is similar to that of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), with which it can easily be confused (but horses are resistant to FMD and susceptible to VS.

The disease is caused by a virus of the Rhabdoviridae family, genus Vesiculovirus.

Transmission

Contamination by transcutaneous or transmucosal route or transmission through arthropods (mosquitoes...).

Occurrence

VS is limited to the Americas.

There is no specific treatment. Antibiotics may prevent secondary infections of abraded tissues. Animal movement should be restricted and a laboratory diagnosis must be performed rapidly. Trucks and fomites should be disinfected.

Differentiation from foot-and-mouth disease is very important.

In accordance with Resolution 32 adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE during its 82nd General Session 25 – 30 May 2014, VS has been deleted from the OIE list of diseases (Chapter 1.2. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 23rd Edition 2014).

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general EU measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease.

Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease of deer

Available soon