Newcastle disease

Newcastle disease

Control measures

Council Directive 92/66/EEC introduced Community measures to control Newcastle disease.

In case of disease outbreaks specific control measures including killing of infected animals and those suspected to be infected or contaminated need to be implemented in the infected holdings and areas around the outbreaks. Council Directive 92/66/EEC requires setting up a 3km protection zone and 10km surveillance zone. The protection zone measures must be applied for at least 21 days, and the surveillance zone measures must be applied for at least 30 days after the cleansing and disinfection of the outbreak holding.

Notification and Health Situation

Newcastle Disease is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC on the notification of animal diseases within the EU.

Description of the disease

Newcastle disease (ND) is a disease of major importance for poultry and other birds. It is caused by specified viruses of the avian paramyxovirus type (APMV-I) of the family Paramyxoviridae. The disease is characterised by respiratory and/or nervous signs, partial or complete cessation of egg production or misshapen eggs, greenish watery diarrhoea and oedema of the tissues around the eyes and the neck.

Transmission - The infection is spread via direct contact with secretions, especially faeces, from infected birds or indirect contact through contaminated feed, water, equipment, vehicles, humans, fomites etc.

Vaccination - The use of prophylactic and emergency vaccination is permitted. Prophylactic vaccination is applied on a large scale in the EU and elsewhere in the world. All Member States except Sweden, Finland and Estonia apply a prophylactic vaccination policy. So far emergency vaccination was used only once in Italy during an outbreak in 2001.

ND is a disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and due to its potential for very serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders with serious socio-economic consequences requirements for international trade of live animals and animal products are laid down in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code.