Classical Swine Fever
Classical Swine Fever
Diagnosis, notification and Health Situation
Classical swine fever is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the Community.
Please refer to the Animal Disease Notification System for a description of the notification system and the latest health situation table.
The CSF Diagnostic Manual is laid down in Commission Decision 2002/106/EC of 1 February 2002 approving a Diagnostic Manual establishing diagnostic procedures, sampling methods and criteria for evaluation of the laboratory tests for the confirmation of classical swine fever as amended by Commission Decision 2002/359/EC. The Community Reference Laboratory for CSF is Institute of Virology, Hannover Veterinary School, Buenteweg 17, D-30559 Hannover, Germany.
Preventive and control measures
EU legislation to control CSF is laid down in Council Directive 2001/89/EC (Corrigendum) of 23 October 2001 on Community measures for the control of classical swine fever as amended by ACT of 2004 and Commission Decision 2006/911/EC.
In case of an outbreak of CSF in domestic pigs or when cases occur in wild boar, further protection measures can be adopted by the Commission.
Member States have to draw up a contingency plan in order to be prepared in the event of outbreaks of CSF. These plans are approved by the Commission (Corrigendum) - Commission Decision 2000/113/EC - Commission Decision 2004/431/EC + corrigendum .
Emergency vaccination against classical swine fever can be used for the control of CSF in the event of outbreaks. The main criteria and risk factors to be considered for the decision to apply emergency vaccination in pig holdings are listed in Annex VI of Directive 2001/89/EC. In order to respond quickly, the Community has purchased 1.000.000 doses of live attenuated CSF vaccine and made arrangements for keeping it in stock and making it rapidly available in case of an emergency vaccination of domestic pigs.
EU measures for CSF regionalisation are provided by Commission Implementing Decision (2013/764/EU) of 13 December 2013 concerning animal health control measures relating to classical swine fever in certain Member States.
In addition document SANCO/7032/2010 (Rev 4) contains Guidelines on surveillance/monitoring, control and eradication of classical swine fever in wild boar. It provides guidance to the Member States as regards different options for controlling the disease, including vaccination of wild boar and hunting measures. These guidelines are based on:
- the requirements of Articles 15 and 16 of Directive 2001/89/EC;
- the Chapter IV, (H) of the Annex of Commission Decision 2002/106
- The EFSA Scientific Opinion of the Panel on AHAW on a request from Commission on "Control and eradication of Classic Swine Fever in wild boar".
Description of the disease
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine (pigs and wild boar) which can spread via trade in live pigs, fresh pig meat and certain meat-based products.
Transmission takes place through direct contact between animals (secretions, excretions, semen, blood) or indirect contact through vehicles, clothes, instruments, needles, insufficiently cooked waste food fed to pigs; it can also be spread by pig traders and farm visitors. Transplacental infection leading to persistently infected offspring can also take place.
Sources for the virus are blood and all tissues, secretions and excretions of sick and dead animals. Congenitally infected piglets may be persistently viraemic and may shed the virus for months. Spread from infected wild boar to domestic pigs and vice versa has taken place on several occasions in the past in some areas of Europe.
Prevention can be achieved through effective communication between veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and pig farmers, effective disease reporting and animal identification system, a strict import control of live pigs, fresh and cured meat, prohibition of feeding pigs with waste food and virological and serological surveillance.
In case of outbreaks in the EU, one needs to resort to the slaughtering of all pigs in the infected farms and the destruction of cadavers. A protection zone (3 km radius) and surveillance zone (10 km radius) are established around each outbreak, with restrictions on pig movements. An epidemiological investigation with the tracing of the source of infection and the possible spread is carried out. If appropriate, emergency vaccination can also be used. Additional ad hoc protection measures may be adopted by the Commission.