Pescuit

Acorduri bilaterale cu ţări din afara UE

Acorduri bilaterale cu ţări din afara UE

Acorduri bilaterale cu ţări din afara UE

Acordurile de pescuit dintre UE şi ţările terţe sunt de două tipuri:

  • acorduri de parteneriat în domeniul pescuitului – UE oferă sprijin tehnic şi financiar, primind în schimb drepturi de pescuit (în general, acestea sunt încheiate cu partenerii sudici)
  • aşa-numitele „acorduri nordice” – stocurile comune sunt gestionate în comun (încheiate cu Norvegia, Islanda şi Insulele Feroe).

Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements (SFPA)

EU SFPAs infographic

EU SFPAs infographic

Available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish

Published 2015

EU Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements

EU Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements

Available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish

Published 2017

Sustainable fisheries agreements with non-EU countries are negotiated and concluded by the Commission on behalf of the EU. They are intended to allow EU vessels to fish for surplus stocks in that country's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), in a legally regulated environment. These agreements also focus on resource conservation and environmental sustainability, ensuring that all EU vessels are subject to the same rules of control and transparency. At the same time, a clause concerning respect for human rights has been included in all protocols to fisheries agreements.
There are two main types of agreements:
  • Tuna agreements – allow EU vessels to pursue migrating tuna stocks as they move along the shores of Africa and through the Indian Ocean.
  • Mixed agreements – provide access to a wide range of fish stocks in the partner country's exclusive economic zone.

In exchange, the EU pays the partner countries a financial contribution composed of 2 distinct parts:

  • access rights to the EEZ
  • sectorial support which aims to promote sustainable fisheries development in the partner countries, by strengthening their administrative and scientific capacity through a focus on sustainable fisheries management, monitoring, control and surveillance

The EU has currently 12 active SFPAs protocols in force with third countries:

  • 9 tuna agreements: Cabo Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Sao Tomé e Principe, Madagascar, Senegal, Liberia, Seychelles, Cook Islands and Mauritius
  • 3 mixed agreements: Mauritania, Morocco, and Greenland.

The EU has also 9 "dormant" agreements with Mozambique, Micronesia, Solomon Island, Gambia, Gabon, Comoros, Kiribati, Equatorial Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. "Dormant agreements" stand for countries which adopted a fisheries partnership agreement without having a protocol in force. EU vessels are therefore not allowed to fish in waters under the regime of the dormant agreements.

Acordurile nordice

Activităţile de pescuit derulate de UE în Marea Nordului şi în nord-estul Oceanului Atlantic sunt strâns legate de cele ale ţărilor vecine - Norvegia, Islanda şi Insulele Feroe. Întrucât multe din stocurile de peşte sunt comune, este normal ca cele patru părţi să îşi coordoneze activităţile, mai ales în condiţiile în care nu toate flotele sunt neapărat interesate de aceleaşi specii.

De aceea, multe stocuri sunt gestionate în comun şi se face schimb de cote pentru a se evita pierderea lor. O parte din stocuri sunt gestionate prin intermediul Convenţiei privind pescuitul în Atlanticul de Nord-Est, menită să reglementeze gestionarea stocurilor de peşte din regiune, în timp ce alte stocuri sunt gestionate prin intermediul acordurilor încheiate între ţările riverane.

Acordurile sunt foarte importante pentru o mare parte din flota UE, în special acordul cu Norvegia, care acoperă cote în valoare de peste 2 miliarde de euro.

Lista acordurilor de pescuit

Ţara Data expirării Tip Contribuţia anuală a CE Sume destinate dezvoltării politicii în domeniul pescuitului
Cabo Verde 22.12.2018 Tuna 550 000 €/ 500 000 € 275 000 €/ 250 000 €
Comoros Protocol expired on 31.12.2016
Cook Islands 13.10.2020 Tuna 385 000 / 350 000 € 350 000 €
Côte d'Ivoire 30.6.2018 Tuna 680 000 € 257 500 €
Gabon Protocol expired on 23.7.2016
Greenland 31.12.2020 Mixed 16 099 978 € 2 931 000 €
Guinea- Bissau Protocol expired on 23.11.2017
Kiribati Protocol expired on 15.09.2015
Liberia 8.12.2020 Tuna 715 000 €/ 650 000 €/ 585 000 357 500/ 325 000/ 292 500
Madagascar 31.12.2018 Tuna 1 566 250/
1 487 500 €
700 000 €
 Mauritania

15.11.2019

Mixed 61 625 000 € 4 125 000 €
 Mauritius

07.12.2021

Tuna 575 000 € 220 000 €
Micronesia   Protocol expired on 24.2.2010
Morocco 27.2.2019 Mixed 30 million € 14 million €
Mozambique Protocol expired on 31.1.2015
São Tomé and Principe 22.5.2018 Tuna 710 000/
675 000 €
325 000 €
Senegal 19.11.2019 Tuna (+ hake component)  1 808 000/
1 668 000 € 
750 000 €
Seychelles 17.1.2020 Tuna

5 350 000 € in 2014
To 5 000 000 in 2019

2 600 000 €
Solomon Islands Protocol expired on 8.10.2012

Northern agreements

Country Period
Faeroe Islands 2006 - 2012
Norway 2009 - 2015

Historical and legal context of the bilateral agreements

The European Economic Community concluded its first bilateral fisheries agreements in the late 1970's. More than 30 other bilateral agreements were concluded until today mainly with developing States in Africa or in the Pacific. The negotiation of fisheries bilateral agreements resulted from the adoption of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) which establishes a legal sovereignty for coastal states over living marine resources in maritime zones within 200 nautical miles from their baselines (the "Exclusive Economic Zone"). As a result, the conclusion of bilateral agreements with third countries appeared necessary to give European Union fleets access to fish stock surplus that are not used by the coastal states' local fleets.

The Common Fisheries Policy, especially its external dimension, establishes a legal framework for EU fishing activities outside the European waters.