Kalastus

EU:n ulkopuolisten maiden kanssa tehdyt kahdenväliset sopimukset

EU:n ulkopuolisten maiden kanssa tehdyt kahdenväliset sopimukset

EU:n ulkopuolisten maiden kanssa tehdyt kahdenväliset sopimukset

EU:lla on EU:n ulkopuolisten maiden kanssa kahdenlaisia kalastussopimuksia:

  • kalastuskumppanuussopimukset – yleensä eteläisten kumppanimaiden kanssa tehtäviä sopimuksia, joissa EU antaa taloudellista ja teknistä tukea kalastusoikeuksia vastaan 
  • nk. pohjoisten valtioiden kanssa tehdyt sopimukset – Färsaarten, Islannin ja Norjan kanssa tehtäviä sopimuksia jaettujen kantojen yhteisestä hoidosta.

Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements (SFPA)

EU SFPAs infographic

EU SFPAs infographic  (Available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish, Published 2015)

EU Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements

EU Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements  (Available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish, Published 2017)

Sustainable fisheries agreements with non-EU countries are negotiated and concluded by the Commission on behalf of the EU. They are intended to allow EU vessels to fish for surplus stocks in that country's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), in a legally regulated environment. These agreements also focus on resource conservation and environmental sustainability, ensuring that all EU vessels are subject to the same rules of control and transparency. At the same time, a clause concerning respect for human rights has been included in all protocols to fisheries agreements.
 
There are two main types of agreements:
 
  • Tuna agreements – allow EU vessels to pursue migrating tuna stocks as they move along the shores of Africa and through the Indian Ocean.
  • Mixed agreements – provide access to a wide range of fish stocks in the partner country's exclusive economic zone.

In exchange, the EU pays the partner countries a financial contribution composed of 2 distinct parts:

  • access rights to the EEZ
  • sectorial support which aims to promote sustainable fisheries development in the partner countries, by strengthening their administrative and scientific capacity through a focus on sustainable fisheries management, monitoring, control and surveillance

The EU has currently 8 SFPAs protocols in force with third countries:

  • 6 tuna agreements: Ivory Coast, Senegal, Liberia, Seychelles, Cook Islands and Mauritius. Cabo Verde and The Gambia should enter into force before summer 2019.
  • 2 mixed agreements: Mauritania and Greenland. Morocco and Guinea Bissau are due to enter into application before summer 2019.

The EU has also 7 "dormant" agreements with Gabon, Sao Tomé e Principe, Madagascar, Mozambique, Equatorial Guinea, Micronesia, Solomon Island. "Dormant agreements" stand for countries which adopted a fisheries partnership agreement without having a protocol in force. EU vessels are therefore not allowed to fish in waters under the regime of the dormant agreements. Comoros agreement, which was also dormant, is currently being denounced.


Pohjoisten valtioiden kanssa tehdyt sopimukset

EU:n Pohjanmerellä ja Koillis-Atlantilla harjoittama kalastustoiminta on tiiviisti sidoksissa sen naapurimaiden Norjan, Islannin ja Färsaarten harjoittamaan kalastukseen. Koska monet kohdelajit kuuluvat yli rajojen jaettuihin kantoihin, kaikkien neljän osapuolen on järkevää koordinoida toimiaan varsinkin, kun eri laivastot eivät välttämättä ole kiinnostuneita samoista kannoista.

Sen vuoksi monia tällaisia kantoja hallinnoidaan yhdessä ja kiintiöitä vaihdetaan sen varmistamiseksi, ettei niitä jää käyttämättä. Joitakin näistä kannoista hallinnoidaan hallitustenvälisen Koillis-Atlantin kalastusjärjestön puitteissa. Toisia taas hallinnoidaan rannikkovaltioiden välisin sopimuksin.

Nämä sopimukset ovat erittäin tärkeitä suurelle osalle EU:n laivastoa. Erityisen merkittävä on Norjan kanssa tehty sopimus, joka kattaa kiintiöitä yli kahden miljardin euron arvosta.

The agreement with Iceland is "dormant".

List of fisheries agreements

Country Expiry date Type Total EU contribution per year Sectorial support per year
Cabo Verde Protocol provisionally entered into force on 20 May 2019
  Protocol expired on 31.12.2016.  Agreement denounced
Cook Islands 13.10.2020 Tuna 385 000 / 350 000 € 350 000 €
Côte d'Ivoire 31.7.2024 Tuna 682 000 € 352 000 € (2yrs) - 407 000 €
Gabon Protocol expired on 23.07.2016
Greenland 31.12.2020 Mixed 16 099 978 € 2 931 000 €
Guinea- Bissau New protocol being negotiated, legislative procedures underway
Kiribati Protocol expired on 15.09.2015
Liberia 8.12.2020 Tuna 715 000 €/ 650 000 €/ 585 000 357 500/ 325 000/ 292 500
Madagascar Protocol expired on 31.12.2018
 Mauritania

15.11.2019

Mixed 61 625 000 € 4 125 000 €
 Mauritius

07.12.2021

Tuna 575 000 € 220 000 €
Micronesia   Protocol expired on 24.02.2010
Morocco New Agreement and its implementing Protocol entered into force on 18 July 2019
  Protocol expired on 31.01.2015
São Tomé and Principe Protocol expired on 22.05.2018
Senegal 19.11.2019 Tuna (+ hake component)  1 808 000/
1 668 000 € 
750 000 €
Seychelles 17.1.2020 Tuna

5 350 000 € in 2014
To 5 000 000 in 2019

2 600 000 €
Solomon Islands Protocol expired on 8.10.2012
The Gambia Protocol provisionally entered into force on 31 July 2019
Equatorial Guinea Protocol expired on 30.06.2001

Northern agreements

Country Period
Faeroe Islands 2006 - 2012
Norway 2009 - 2015

Historical and legal context of the bilateral agreements

The European Economic Community concluded its first bilateral fisheries agreements in the late 1970's. More than 30 other bilateral agreements were concluded until today mainly with developing States in Africa or in the Pacific. The negotiation of fisheries bilateral agreements resulted from the adoption of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) which establishes a legal sovereignty for coastal states over living marine resources in maritime zones within 200 nautical miles from their baselines (the "Exclusive Economic Zone"). As a result, the conclusion of bilateral agreements with third countries appeared necessary to give European Union fleets access to fish stock surplus that are not used by the coastal states' local fleets.

The Common Fisheries Policy, especially its external dimension, establishes a legal framework for EU fishing activities outside the European waters.