Kahepoolsed lepingud ELi mittekuuluvate riikidega

Kahepoolsed lepingud ELi mittekuuluvate riikidega

Kahepoolsed lepingud ELi mittekuuluvate riikidega

Kahepoolsed lepingud ELi mittekuuluvate riikidega

ELil on liitu mittekuuluvate riikidega kahte liiki kalanduskokkuleppeid:

  • kalandusalased partnerluskokkulepped – EL annab kalapüügiõiguste eest rahalist ja tehnilist toetust (sõlmitakse peamiselt lõunapoolsete partnerriikidega);
  • nn Põhjamaade lepingud – ühine varude haldamine Norra, Islandi ja Fääri saartega.

Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements (SFPA)

EU SFPAs infographic

EU SFPAs infographic  (Available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish, Published 2015)

EU Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements

EU Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements  (Available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish, Published 2020)

Sustainable fisheries agreements with non-EU countries are negotiated and concluded by the Commission on behalf of the EU. They are intended to allow EU vessels to fish for surplus stocks in that country's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), in a legally regulated environment. These agreements also focus on resource conservation and environmental sustainability, ensuring that all EU vessels are subject to the same rules of control and transparency. At the same time, a clause concerning respect for human rights has been included in all protocols to fisheries agreements.
There are two main types of agreements:
  • Tuna agreements – allow EU vessels to pursue migrating tuna stocks as they move along the shores of Africa and through the Indian Ocean.
  • Mixed agreements – provide access to a wide range of fish stocks in the partner country's exclusive economic zone.

In exchange, the EU pays the partner countries a financial contribution composed of 2 distinct parts:

  • access rights to the EEZ
  • sectorial support which aims to promote sustainable fisheries development in the partner countries, by strengthening their administrative and scientific capacity through a focus on sustainable fisheries management, monitoring, control and surveillance

The EU has currently 8 SFPAs protocols in force with third countries:

  • 6 tuna agreements: Ivory Coast, Senegal, Liberia, Seychelles, Cook Islands and Mauritius. Cabo Verde and The Gambia should enter into force before summer 2019.
  • 2 mixed agreements: Mauritania and Greenland. Morocco and Guinea Bissau are due to enter into application before summer 2019.

The EU has also 7 "dormant" agreements with Gabon, Sao Tomé e Principe, Madagascar, Mozambique, Equatorial Guinea, Micronesia, Solomon Island. "Dormant agreements" stand for countries which adopted a fisheries partnership agreement without having a protocol in force. EU vessels are therefore not allowed to fish in waters under the regime of the dormant agreements. Comoros agreement, which was also dormant, is currently being denounced.

Põhjamaade lepingud

ELi kalapüük Põhjamerel ja Kirde-Atlandil on tihedalt seotud naabrite Norra, Islandi ja Fääri saarte sealse tegevusega. Kuna mitmeid kalavarusid hallatakse piiriüleselt, siis on mõistlik, et neli osapoolt koordineerivad oma tegevust eelkõige seepärast, et eri laevastikud ei ole tingimata huvitatud samadest kalavarudest.

Mitmeid varusid hallatakse ühiselt ning kvootide ärakasutamise huvides neid vahetatakse. Osa varudest hallatakse valitsustevahelise Kirde-Atlandi kalanduse konventsiooni raames, mille eesmärk on kalavarude haldamine asjaomases piirkonnas. Teist osa varudest hallatakse rannikuriikide omavaheliste kokkulepete raames.

Sellised kokkulepped on äärmiselt olulised suurele osale ELi laevastikust; eriti oluline on kokkulepe Norraga, mis hõlmab kvoote väärtuses üle 2 miljardi euro. 

The agreement with Iceland is "dormant".

List of fisheries agreements

Country Expiry date Type Total EU contribution per year Sectorial support per year
Cabo Verde 19.5.2024 Tuna €750 000 €350 000
Comoros Protocol expired on 31.12.2016.  Agreement denounced
Cook Islands 13.10.2020 Tuna €735 000 / €700 000 €350 000
Côte d'Ivoire 31.7.2024 Tuna €682 000 €352 000 (2yrs) - €407 000
Gabon Protocol expired on 23.07.2016
Greenland 31.12.2020 Mixed €16 099 978 €2 931 000
Guinea- Bissau 14.6.2024 Mixed €15 600 000  €4 000 000
Kiribati Protocol expired on 15.09.2015
Liberia 8.12.2020 Tuna €715 000/ €650 000/ €585 000 €357 500/ €325 000/ €292 500
Madagascar Protocol expired on 31.12.2018


Mixed €61 625 000 €4 125 000


Tuna €575 000 €220 000
Micronesia   Protocol expired on 24.02.2010
Morocco 17.07.2023 Mixed €208 million over a 4 year period €17.9 - €20.5 million
Mozambique Protocol expired on 31.01.2015
São Tomé and Principe 18.12.2024 Tuna €840 000 €440 000
Senegal 17.11.2024 Tuna + hake  €1 700 000 €900 000
Seychelles 23.2.2026 Tuna

€5 300 000

€2 900 000
Solomon Islands Protocol expired on 8.10.2012
The Gambia 30.7.2025 Tuna (+ hake component)

€550 000

€275 000
Equatorial Guinea Protocol expired on 30.06.2001

Northern agreements

Country Period
Faeroe Islands 2006 - 2012
Norway 2009 - 2015

Historical and legal context of the bilateral agreements

The European Economic Community concluded its first bilateral fisheries agreements in the late 1970's. More than 30 other bilateral agreements were concluded until today mainly with developing States in Africa or in the Pacific. The negotiation of fisheries bilateral agreements resulted from the adoption of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) which establishes a legal sovereignty for coastal states over living marine resources in maritime zones within 200 nautical miles from their baselines (the "Exclusive Economic Zone"). As a result, the conclusion of bilateral agreements with third countries appeared necessary to give European Union fleets access to fish stock surplus that are not used by the coastal states' local fleets.

The Common Fisheries Policy, especially its external dimension, establishes a legal framework for EU fishing activities outside the European waters.