In 2019, regional GDP per capita, expressed in terms of national purchasing power standards (PPS), ranged from 32% of the European Union (EU) average in the North-West region of Bulgaria as well as Mayotte, an overseas region of France, to 260% in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. There is a considerable variation both between and within the EU Member States.
The indicators presented in this article come from regional GDP and employment data published today. The article shows only a small part of the large amount of regional data available at Eurostat.
Source dataset: nama_10r_2gdp
The leading regions in the ranking of regional GDP per capita in 2019, after Luxembourg (260% of the EU average), were Southern (240%) in Ireland, Prague (205%) in Czechia, Brussels in Belgium and Eastern & Midland in Ireland (both 202%) as well as Hamburg (195%) in Germany. The high GDP per capita in these regions can be partly explained by a high inflow of commuting workers (Luxembourg, Prague, Brussels and Hamburg) or by the large capital assets owned by some multinationals domiciled in the regions (Southern and Eastern & Midland in Ireland).
In contrast, after North-West in Bulgaria and Mayotte (both 32% of the EU average), the lowest regions in the ranking were the remaining non-capital regions of Bulgaria: North-Central (35%), South-Central (37%), South-East (40%) and North-East (41%). In the case of Mayotte, demographic factors mainly explain the low GDP per capita, since 44% of the population is less than 15 years old.
Regional differences in labour productivity
In 2019, regional GDP per person employed ranged from €12 700 in North-Central in Bulgaria to €205 500 in Southern in Ireland, compared with the EU average of €66 800. This ‘labour productivity’ measures the overall productivity of regional economies without adjusting for differences in price levels or average hours worked.
After Southern (€205 500), the leading regions in the ranking of regional GDP per person employed in 2019, were Eastern & Midland (€156 900) in Ireland, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (€136 600), Walloon Brabant (€123 400) and Brussels (€121 200) in Belgium.
In contrast, the lowest levels of labour productivity were recorded in three Bulgarian regions: North-Central (€12 700), South-Central (€13 000) and North-West (€13 400).
For more information:
- In this article, the regional data are presented at NUTS 2 level. The names of the regions are in English.
- GDP and thus GDP per capita, provides a measure of the total economic activity in a region. It may be used to compare the degree of economic development of regions. GDP does not measure the income ultimately available to private households in a region.
- Labour productivity (in this article) is calculated as GDP in € per person employed. Productivity measured per hour worked and/or in PPS can produce substantially different results.
- For further methodological information, you can read the methodological file.
- Overview of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS)
- Eurostat manual on regional accounts methods
- Eurostat website section dedicated to regional statistics
- Eurostat database on regional statistics
- Eurostat Regions and Cities Illustrated
- Eurostat "My region" app
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