In 2017, 30.4 million persons in the EU aged 20-64 were self-employed. Of these, 26.9 million were native-born, while 3.5 million were foreign-born (of which 2.2 million were migrants born outside the EU and 1.3 million were migrants born in a different EU Member State).
In relative terms, the share of self-employed persons among the native-born population (14.2%) was higher than the share recorded for foreign-born migrants (12.7% for migrants born in a different EU Member State and 12.4 % for migrants born outside the EU).
Among the EU Member States, by far the highest self-employment rates for migrants born outside the EU were recorded in Slovakia (36.5 %) and the Czech Republic (34.5 %), followed by Hungary (20.3 %) and Malta (19.5 %). The lowest rates were recorded in Sweden (8.1 %), Estonia and Austria (both 8.0 %) and Cyprus (7.9 %).
For migrants born in a different EU Member State, the highest self-employment rate in 2017 was recorded in Poland (28.6 %), followed by Malta (20.3 %) and Latvia (19.5 %). In contrast, the lowest self-employment rates for migrants born in a different EU Member State were registered in Austria (9.0 %), Cyprus and Luxembourg (both 8.8 %), with the lowest share in Hungary (7.4 %).
The rate of self-employment among native-born persons peaked in Greece (31.0 %), Italy (22.1 %) and Poland (17.4 %). By contrast, the lowest shares (below 10 %) were recorded in Hungary (9.7 %), Germany (9.4 %), Sweden (8.9 %), Luxembourg (8.7 %) and Denmark (7.6 %).
Further information on migrant integration statistics dedicated to employment conditions can be found in this Statistics Explained article.
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