information on data


Population data is available by various characteristics and can be grouped around the following topics:

Ageing and population structure: based on the data available ageing trends can be followed throughout the past decades. Information on age groups and their share in the total population are available by country and at EU, Eurozone, EFTA and EEA aggregate levels. Indicators such as the age dependency ratio are calculated on the basis of the population structure. More on this subject.

Population characteristics: population figures by educational attainment, marital status, citizenship and country of birth are available. (Data availability is subject to the completeness of reporting by the countries.)

Population density: is computed for each NUTS 3 region using the data on surface area. It is one of the several indicators computed at regional level for which more information can be found here.

Population change: by comparing the population on 1 January of two consecutive years, the change in total population caused by births, deaths and migration can be followed and its components can be identified: "natural change" (live births minus deaths) and the net migration including statistical adjustment. More on this subject

On the basis of the data collected Eurostat calculates:

  • Population structure indicators (available in database tables demo_pjanind, demo_r_pjanind2 and demo_r_pjanind3):
    • Share of different age groups
    • Median age of population
    • Women per 100 men
    • Age dependency ratio
    • Young age dependency ratio
    • Old age dependency ratio
  • Population density (available in database table demo_r_d3dens)
  • Population change (available in database tables demo_gind and demo_r_gind3 for the regional level)
    • Natural change
    • Net migration including statistical adjustment

Births and fertility

The number of live births can be followed through a time series at national and regional levels as well as at the level of EU, EFTA, EEA and Eurozone aggregates. The number of live births is available at national level by characteristics of the mothers (e.g. education, marital status, citizenship, country of birth) or of the child (sex and birth order), and at the regional level by the mother's age. Information on legally induced abortions in each country can also be found. Fertility rates, mean ages at childbirth and at first child are calculated based on the distributions by mothers' age. More on this subject

On the basis of the data collected, Eurostat calculates:

  • Fertility indicators (available in database tables demo_find, demo_r_find2 and demo_r_find3):
    • Total fertility rate at national and regional level
    • Mean age of women at childbirth
    • Mean age of women at birth of first child
    • Proportion of live births outside marriage
    • Share of live births of first, second, third and fourth (or higher) order

Deaths and life expectancy

Time series on the number of deaths are available by characteristics of the deceases (for example citizenship, country of birth, region of residence etc.). Information on infant mortality (both at national and at regional levels) and late foetal deaths (at national level) is also available. Based on the distribution of deaths by sex and single year of age, the period life table is calculated. Life expectancy at birth is one of the key indicators used to analyse and compare mortality patterns in the different countries and regions. More on this subject

On the basis of the data collected Eurostat calculates:

  • Life expectancy at birth and at any given age at national and regional level (available in database tables demo_mlexpec and demo_r_mlifexp)
  • The life table at national and regional levels (available in database tables demo_mlifetable and demo_r_mlife)
  • Infant mortality rates

Migration and citizenship

Migration has become one of the key components of population change in Europe. Migration flows over past decades among EU Member States  as well as in- and outside of the EU have had a significant impact on the current population size in most Member States. Data is available on the number of foreign population residing in the countries (see Population heading in the Eurostat database), and the number of people arriving to and leaving each EU Member State every year can also be followed (immigration and emigration flows). More on this subject

Acquisitions of citizenship by persons having their usual residence in a country: one of the factors that explain how the foreign population of a country changes is the acquisition of citizenship. Data on acquisitions of citizenship is available by age and sex, and by the former citizenship of the persons concerned, also including if the person was formerly stateless. More on this subject

For more information about residence permits and enforcement of immigration legislation please see the Asylum and Managed Migration pages.

Marriages and divorces

While the number of marriages is decreasing and the number of divorces is increasing in Europe, more and more children are born outside marriages. Mixed marriages have also become quite common: for recent years, data on marriages and divorces between people of different citizenship and country of birth is also available. More on this subject

On the basis of the data collected, Eurostat calculates:

  • Marriage and divorce (available in database tables demo_nind and demo_ndivind)
    • Crude marriage rate
    • Total first marriage rate for women and for men
    • Mean age at first marriage for women and for men
    • Crude divorce rate

Population projections

Taking into account the current trends in population change, the likely future size and structure of the population are projected. EUROSTAT published the population projections in light of the recent developments in population trends.

For more information, please see the dedicated sub-page in this section.