Quality of employment

In recent decades, employment types have diversified in many countries and policymakers are increasingly interested in the conditions under which people work. This is why measuring employment quality has gained in importance.

How to measure the multiple facets of employment quality?

The framework developed under the lead of UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) represents a neutral and comprehensive approach to assess quality of employment in its multiple facets. It defines 68 indicators on seven dimensions that address employment quality from the perspective of the employed person. Its design also facilitates international comparison.

For statistical institutes, researchers and policy users looking to build and analyse datasets using these indicators, the framework is explained in a handbook published by UNECE.

A more detailed overview of the UNECE framework, its background and the data sources used by Eurostat to calculate the indicators can be found in this  PDF document.

 

image

 

Data on employment quality in Eurostat database

Using the UNECE framework, Eurostat has compiled data on employment quality for the EU countries that is provided in the Eurostat database.

Sources (filling 42 of the 68 indicators)

  • Labour Force Survey (LFS)
  • European Working Conditions Survey from Eurofound (EWCS).
  • European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW)
  • Structure of Earnings Survey (SES)
  • Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)

This information can be complemented with comprehensive contextual information from the Eurostat database on e.g. employment or unemployment figures or data on the overall economic trend (GDP).

The table below shows the indicators of the UNECE framework for which Eurostat provides data in its online database. It also explains how the indicators are defined and under which code the corresponding datasets can be found. In order to see the full table, please click on "more" at the bottom of the first box.

 

1. Safety and ethics of employment

a. Safety at work

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
1a1

Fatal occupational injuries

Number of fatal accidents at work (excluding traffic accidents)

ESAW

1993 – annual

until 2007:
hsw_aw_fnms

from 2008:
hsw_n2_02

1a2

Non-fatal occupational injuries

Number of non-fatal accidents at work

ESAW

1993 – annual

unti 2007:
hsw_aw_nnasx

from 2008:
hsw_n2_01

1a3

Exposure to physical health risk factors

Percentage of employed persons reporting exposure to risk factors at work that can adversely affect physical health

EU-LFS

2007, 2013

2007:
hsw_exp6a

2013:
hsw_exp6b

1a4

Exposure to mental health risk factors

Percentage of employed persons reporting exposure to risk factors at work that can adversely affect mental well-being

EU-LFS

2007, 2013

2007:
hsw_exp5a

2013:
hsw_exp5b

MoreLess

 

c. Fair treatment in employment

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
1c1

Pay gap

Unadjusted gender pay gap (economy without sectors A and O in enterprises from 10 employees)

SES

2007 – annual

earn_gr_gpgr2
1c2

Access to managerial occupations

Percentage of women managerial positions (ISCO major group 1) as a share of all employed persons in that group.

EU-LFS

1993 – annual

tqoe1c2
1c3

Discrimination at work

Percentage of employed persons who have been discriminated at work during the last 12 months

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_1c3

2. Income and benefits from employment

a. Income

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
2a1

Average earnings

Mean monthly earnings (economy without sectors A and O in enterprises from 10 employees)

SES

2002 ─ 4-annual

earn_ses_monthly
2a2

Employees with low pay

Percentage of employees receiving two-thirds or less of the national median gross earnings (economy without sectors A and O in enterprises from 10 employees)

SES

2002 ─ 4-annual

earn_ses_pub1s

3. Working time and work-life balance

a. Working hours

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
3a1

Mean weekly working hours

Average number of usual weekly working hours of employed persons

EU-LFS

1983 ─ annual

until 2008:
lfsa_ewhuna

from 2008:
lfsa_ewhun2

3a2

Long working hours

Percentage of employed persons usually working 49 hours or more per week

EU-LFS

2000 ─ annual

lfsa_qoe_3a2
3a3

Involuntary part-time work

Percentage of employed persons working part-time because they could not find a full-time job

EU-LFS

2000 ─ annual

lfsa_epgar
3a4

Distribution of weekly working hours

Percentages of employed persons by usual weekly working hours in hour brackets

EU-LFS

2000 ─ annual

lfsa_qoe_3a4
3a5

Multiple job holders

Percentage of employed persons who have more than one job

EU-LFS

1983 ─ annual

tqoe3a5

b. Working arrangements

 
No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
3b1

Night work

Percentage of employed persons usually working at night

EU-LFS

1992 ─ annual

lfsa_ewpnig
3b2

Evening work

Percentage of employed persons usually working in the evening

EU-LFS

1992 ─ annual

lfsa_ewpeve
3b3

Weekend work

Percentage of employed persons usually working at Saturday on/or Sunday

EU-LFS

2000 ─ annual

lfsa_qoe_3b3
3b4

Flexible work schedules

Percentage of employees with a flexible work schedule

EU-LFS

2004, 2010

tqoe3b4

c. Work-life balance

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
3c1

Employment rate of mothers and fathers

Employment rate of 20 to 49 year olds with a child below 6 years

EU-LFS

2005 ─ annual

lfst_hheredch
3c2

Possibility to work at home

Percentage of persons usually working at home by number of children

EU-LFS

2005 ─ annual

lfst_hhwahchi
3c3

Commuting time

Mean duration of one way commuting time between work and home in minutes

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_3c3

4. Security of employment and social protection

a. Security of employment

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
4a1

Fixed-term contracts

Percentage of employees with a fixed-term contract

EU-LFS

1995 ─ annual

lfsa_etpgan
4a2

Job tenure

Distribution of duration of employment with current employer by years in brackets

EU-LFS

2000 ─ annual

lfsa_qoe_4a2
4a3

Own account workers

Percentage of self-employed without employees of all persons in employment

EU-LFS

1983 ─ annual

tqoe4a3
4a5

Perceived job security

Percentage of employed persons expecting a possible loss of their job in the next 6 months

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_4a5
4a6

Temporary employment agency workers

Percentage of employed persons working for a temporary work agency

EU-LFS

2006 ─ annual

until 2008:
lfsa_qoe_4a6r1

from 2008:
lfsa_qoe_4a6r2

4ax1

Precarious employment rate

Percentage of employees with a short-term contract of up to 3 months

EU-LFS

2000 ─ annual

until 2008:
lfsa_qoe_4ax1r1

from 2008:
lfaa_qoe_4ax1r2

5. Social dialogue

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
5.1

Collective bargaining coverage rate

Percentage of employees being subject to a collective pay agreement

SES

2002 ─
4-annual

2002:
earn_ses_agt01

2006:
earn_ses06_01

2010:
earn_ses10_01

2014:
earn_ses14_01

6. Skills development and training

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
6.1

Training participation

Percentage of employed persons participating in job-related non-formal education and training in the past 12 months

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_6_1
6.2

Volume of training

Percentages of employed persons by volume of job-related non-formal education and training per participant in the last 12 months in days

EWCS

2015

qoe_ewcs_6_2
6.3

Usefulness of training

Percentage of employed persons perceiving that their job-related non-formal education and training helped to improve the way they work

EWCS

2015

qoe_ewcs_6_3
6.4

Learning at work

Percentage of employed persons whose job involves improving their skills

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_6_4
6.5

Employability

Percentage of employed persons whose work experience and job skills would be helpful to find another job

EWCS

2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_6_5
6.6

Skills match

Percentage of employed persons having the opportunity to use their knowledge and skills in their current job

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_6_6

7. Employment-related relationships and work motivation

a. Employment-related relationships

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
7a1

Relationship with co-workers

Percentage of employed persons having a good relationship with their colleagues

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7a1
7a2

Relationship with supervisor

Percentage of employees having a good relationship with their supervisor

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7a2
7a3

Employment-related violence

Percentage employed persons exposed to employment-related physical, psychological or sexual violence in the last 12 months

EWCS

2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7a3

b. Work motivation

No Indicator / Operationalisation in database Source Table code
7b1

Job autonomy

Percentage of employed persons being able to choose their methods of work or to influence their pace of work

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7b1
7b2

Feedback from supervisor

Percentage of employees receiving regular feedback from their supervisor

EWCS

2015

qoe_ewcs_7b2
7b3

Intrinsic rewards

Percentage of employed persons thinking that they do useful work

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7b3
7b4

Work intensity

Percentage of employed persons having to work at very high speed or to tight deadlines

EWCS

2005, 2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7b4
7b5

Organisational participation

Percentage of employed persons being able to influence decisions that affect their work

EWCS

2010, 2015

qoe_ewcs_7b5