Focus on Comext - International trade in goods

Focus on Comext

Comext is Eurostat's reference database for detailed statistics on international trade in goods. It provides access not only to both recent and historical data of the EU and its individual Member States but also to statistics of a significant number of non-EU countries. Any aggregated and detailed statistics on international trade in goods disseminated through the Eurostat website are compiled from Comext. Note that the Comext system is also used to store and disseminate statistics on the production of manufactured goods (PRODCOM data).

More on Comext datasets

EU datasets

  • EU Trade by CN, SITC, BEC and CPA 

    These datasets contain monthly and annual time series for the imports and exports of the European Union, the euro area and the EU Member States. The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and the supplementary quantity wherever applicable. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature plus the intra- and extra-EU areas and the World) and by product according to the different levels of the following product nomenclatures: Combined Nomenclature (CN8, HS6, HS4 and HS2), Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), the Broad Economic Categories (BEC rev4 and rev5) and the Classification of Products by Activity (CPA 2002, 2008, 2.1).

    The starting date of the time series is:

    • January 1988 for the EU (evolutionary definition), Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom;
    • January 1995 for Austria, Finland and Sweden;
    • January 1999 for the Euro Area (EA19 and evolutionary definition), the EU28 and EU27_2020 aggregates, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia;
    • January 2002 for all the reporters in dataset by CPA_2.1
    • January 2017 for all the reporters in dataset by BEC/rev5

     

    As from reference month February 2020 the UK is no longer included as a reporting country. The aggregate EU27 succeeds to EU28, which is maintained, although only for reference periods before February 2020.

  • EU trade of COVID-19 medical supplies, by categories

    This dataset was created in April 2020 following the outbreak of the COVID19 pandemic. It covers more than 120 medical and non-medical products, in line with the list of the most referred products to be admitted free of import duties and value-added tax (Commission Decision C(2020)2146) and the Joint WCO/WHO classification reference for Covid-19 medical supplies. The products are classified in categories and sub-categories, according to the CN8, HS6 or HS4 (depending on the commodity). The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant.

  • Extra-EU imports by country of origin and country of consignment, by HS2-4-6 and CN8

    This dataset contains annual data on extra-EU imports since 2010. It has the particularity of containing two partner dimensions – the country of origin and the country of consignment – which makes it notably useful for comparing EU mirror data with non-EU countries data.

    The declaring countries are the Member States of the EU according to the selected reference period: 27 Member States from January 2010 to June 2013, 28 Member States (EU27_2013 plus Croatia) from July 2013 until January 2020, 27 Member States (EU28 minus the United Kingdom) from February 2020.

    The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. Data are given by trading partner (all non-EU countries of the Geonomenclature plus the extra-EU area for the first partner dimension and all the countries for the second partner dimension) and by product according to the different levels of the Combined Nomenclature (CN8, HS6, HS4 and HS2).

    The partner country in the first partner dimension is:

    a) The country of origin for goods originating from non-EU countries;

    b) The country of consignment for goods belonging to Chapter 97 ‘works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques’, goods imported after outward processing, returned goods, and goods of Community or unknown origin.

    The ‘other partner country’ (second partner dimension) is the country of consignment except if the above b) case is applicable.

    Examples:

    • imports from US of a product originated in France - partner is US, other partner is France.
    • imports from US of a product originated in Canada - partner is Canada, other partner is US.

     

    Given that the dataset is very sparse (few values will be found for the full combinations of reporter, partner, other partner, detailed product) and given that Easy Comext imposes a limited number of cells for each extraction (10 million) we advise to use Analytical Client (no limit) for queries on this dataset.

  • EU trade by CN sections

    This dataset contains monthly and annual time series for the imports and exports of the European Union, the euro area and the EU Member States. The available indicators are the trade value in euros and the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature, the intra- and extra-EU/EA areas and the world) and by product according to the 21 sections of Part two of the Combined Nomenclature.

    The starting date of the time series is

    • January 1995 for the EU (evolutionary definition), Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom;
    • January 1999 for the euro area (EA19 and evolutionary definition), the EU28 and EU27_2020 aggregates and for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

     

    As from reference month February 2020 the UK is no longer included as a reporting country. The aggregate EU27 succeeds to EU28, which is maintained, although only for reference periods before February 2020.

  • EU trade by HS2-4-6 and CN8 (daily updated)

    This dataset contains monthly time series for the imports and exports of the EU Member States. The available indicators are the trade value in thousands of euros, the quantity in tonnes (net mass) and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature) and by product according to the different levels of the Combined Nomenclature (CN8, HS6, HS4 and HS2).

    The starting date of the time series depends on the reporting country:

    • from January 1999 for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom;
    • from May 2004 for Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia;
    • from January 2007 for Bulgaria and Romania; 
    • from July 2013 for Croatia.

     

    From reference month February 2020 the UK is no longer included as a reporting country. 

  • EU trade by BEC/Rev.4 and CPA_2008

    This dataset contains monthly time series for the imports and exports of the EU Member States. The available indicators are the trade value in thousands of euros, the quantity in tonnes (net mass) and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature), trade flow, statistical regime and by product according to the different levels of the Combined Nomenclature (CN8, HS6, HS4 and HS2).

    The starting date of the time series is

    • January 1988 for the EU (evolutionary definition), Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom;
    • January 1995 for Austria, Finland and Sweden;
    • January 1999 for the Euro Area (EU19 and evolutionary definition), the EU28 and EU27_2020 aggregates, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia;

     

    As from reference month February 2020 the UK is no longer included as a reporting country. The aggregate EU27 succeeds to EU28, which is maintained, although only for reference periods before February 2020.

  • Extra-EU trade by mode of transport

    These two datasets contain monthly and annual time series for the imports and exports of the European Union and each EU Member State from January 1999 or 2000 respectively, and until the last month available. Indicators are the trade value in euros and the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and tons. Data are given by trading partner (all non-EU countries of the Geonomenclature plus the extra-EU area) and by product. Classifications are the Standard goods classification for transport statistics (NST/R) and the Harmonised System (HS2-4-6).

    In addition to the basic information, these datasets include one more dimension: the mode of transport. The mode of transport is classified according to the following codifications: 0: Unknown mode of transport, 1: Sea transport, 2: Rail transport, 3: Road transport, 4: Air transport, 5: Postal consignment, 7: Fixed transport installations; 8: Inland waterway transport and 9: Own propulsion.

    As from reference month February 2020 the UK is no longer included as a reporting country. The aggregate EU27 succeeds to EU28, which is maintained, although only for reference periods before February 2020.

  • Intra-EU trade by mode of transport

    This dataset contains monthly and annual time series for the imports and exports of the following EU Member States: Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechia, Germany, Estonia, Spain, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Slovakia. Time series start from January 2010 until the last month available. The available indicators are the trade value in euros and the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and tons.  Data are given by trading partner (all individual EU Member States plus the intra-EU area) and by product according to the Standard goods classification for transport statistics (NST/R).

    In addition to the basic information, this dataset includes one more dimension: the mode of transport. The mode of transport is classified according to the following codification:  0: Unknown mode of transport, 1: Sea transport, 2: Rail transport, 3: Road transport, 4: Air transport and 8: Inland waterway transport. 

  • Adjusted extra-EU Imports by tariff regime

    This dataset contains monthly and annual time series for the imports of the EU Member States. The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and tons, and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. Data are given by trading partner (all non-EU countries of the Geonomenclature plus the extra-EU area) and by product according to the different levels of the Combined Nomenclature (CN8, HS6, HS4 and HS2).

    The starting date of the time series depends on the reporting country:

    • from January 2000 for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom;
    • from May 2004 for Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia;
    • from January 2007 for Bulgaria and Romania and
    • from July 2013 for Croatia.

    In addition to the basic information, this dataset includes two more dimensions:

    • the eligibility which reflects the tariff status as indicated in the TARIC database on the first day of each month; and
    • the tariff regime (or use) which reflects the preference as reported in data transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat (source: customs declarations, box 36 of the Single Administrative Document) combined with the duty rate and possibly adjusted.

    It should be noted that from reference month February 2020 the UK is no longer included as a reporting country.

  • EU trade with UK (Northern Ireland) and UK (excl. Northern Ireland) by HS2-4-6 and CN8

    This dataset contains monthly data for the imports and exports of the European Union, the euro area and the EU Member States with three partners only: XI – United Kingdom (Northern Ireland), XU – United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland) and GB - <sum of XI and XU>. The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and the supplementary quantity wherever applicable. The starting date of the time series is January 2021.

Indices by SITC, BEC and CPA

These datasets contain monthly and annual time series for the imports and exports of the European Union, the euro area and each EU Member State from January 2000 until the last month available. The available indicators are the unit value indices (UVI) in euros, national currencies and US dollars and the volume indices in euros. Data are given by trading partner (mainly economic and geographical areas but also some individual countries) and by product according to the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC rev.3 and rev.4, 1 and 2 digit codes), the Broad Economic Categories (BEC rev.4, 1-3 digit codes) and the Classification of Products by Activity (CPA 2008, 1 and 2 digit codes).

Trade in goods by Invoicing Currency (TIC)

The ‘Shares of trade by invoicing currency’ dataset under this folder contains annual time series from 2010 for the EU aggregate, the Member States, the EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) and the enlargement (candidate and potential candidate) countries. TIC statistics are compiled by the Member States and supplied to Eurostat on a mandatory basis in even reference years and on a voluntary basis in odd reference years. The available indicator is the ‘Observation value’, expressing the share of trade by invoicing currency. The data are available by product group and currency as follows:

  • by three product groups: Raw materials without oil (SITC sections 0-4, excluding division 33), Oil (SITC division 33) and Manufactured products (SITC sections 5-8)
  • by four currencies: euro, national currencies of EU Member States not belonging to the euro area, US dollar and ‘other’ (i.e. aggregated group of currencies of all non-EU countries except the United States).

Shares by invoicing currency are calculated, within each product group, on the total Extra-EU trade for the EU Member States and on world imports and exports for the EFTA and enlargement countries.

Trade in goods by Enterprise Characteristics (TEC)

Statistics on trade by enterprise characteristics are compiled once a year by linking intra- and extra-EU trade micro-data with business register data.

This folder contains the following tables:

DS01: Trade by NACE Rev.2 activity and enterprise size class
DS02: Concentration of trade by NACE Rev.2 activity
DS03: Trade by partner country and activity
DS04: Trade by number of partner countries and NACE Rev.2 activity
DS05: Trade by commodity and NACE Rev.2 activity
DS06: Trade by type of trader
DS07: Trade by type of ownership
DS08: Trade by export intensity
DS09: Trade by NACE Rev.2 activity sector
DS10: Trade by partner country and enterprise size class

All the datasets contain annual time series for the imports and exports of the EU Member States from reference year 2012. The available indicators are the number of enterprises and the trade value in thousands of euros. Data are given by trading partner (mainly intra- and extra-EU areas) and by activity according to the EU Statistical Classification of Economic Activities (NACE).

Non-EU datasets

  • South Mediterranean trade

    This dataset contains monthly and annual time series for the imports and exports of the South Mediterranean countries. The available indicators are the trade value in thousands of euros, the quantity (net mass) in tons and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature) and by product according to the different levels of the Harmonised System (HS6, HS4 and HS2).

    The starting date of the series depends on the reporting country:

    • from 2000 for Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia;
    • from 2002 for Syria;
    • from 2005 for Israel;
    • from 2007 for the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

    Users should note that the data transmissions are irregular and that recent data are mostly unavailable.

  • EU enlargement countries trade

    This dataset contains monthly time series for the imports and exports of the candidate and potential candidate countries (AL, BE, ME, MK, TR, XK, XS). The available indicators are the trade value in thousands of euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kilos and tons, and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature), statistical regime and by product according to the different levels of the Combined Nomenclature (CN8, HS6, HS4 and HS2).

    The starting date of the series depends on the reporting country:

    • from 2002 for Albania, North Macedonia and Turkey;
    • from 2004 for Kosovo;
    • from 2005 for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia.
  • EFTA trade

    This folder contains several datasets for the trade of the EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). The available indicators are the trade value in euros and the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and tons. Data are given by trading partner (all countries of the Geonomenclature) and by product, according to the Harmonised System (HS), the SITC or the respective national classifications:

    • EFTA trade since 1995* by SITC
    • EFTA trade since 2003* by HS2-4-6
    • EFTA trade since 2003 by national product classification (8 digits) - CH, NO, IS

    *:2009 for Liechtenstein

  • Trade of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland) from January 2021

    This folder contains several datasets for reporter ‘United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)’, starting from reference month January 2021. Trading partners are all EU and non-EU countries of the Geonomenclature. The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant. 
    The following datasets are available:

    • UK (NI) trade since January 2021 by HS2-4-6 and CN8
    • UK (NI) trade since January 2021 by BEC/rev4
    • UK (NI) trade since January 2021 by SITC
    • UK (NI) trade since January 2021 by CPA 2.1
    • UK (NI) trade since January 2021 by mode of transport (NST/R)
    • UK (NI) trade since January 2021 by mode of transport, (HS2-4-6)
  • Trade of the United Kingdom (UK) February - October 2020

    This folder contains several datasets for reporter 'United Kingdom’ for the reference months covering the Brexit transition period February to October 2020. Trading partners are all EU and non-EU countries of the Geonomenclature. The available indicators are the trade value in euros, the quantity (net mass) in 100 kg and the supplementary quantity wherever relevant.

    The following datasets are available:

    • UK trade February to October 2020 by HS2-4-6 and CN8
    • UK trade February to October 2020 by BEC/rev4
    • UK trade February to October 2020 by SITC
    • UK trade February to October 2020 by CPA 2.1
    • UK trade February to October 2020 by mode of transport (NST/R)
    • UK trade February to October 2020 by mode of transport (HS2-4-6)

Statistics on the production of manufactured goods and international trade (Europroms)

These statistics combine international trade in goods statistics with industrial production statistics collected via a business survey. The subfolder 'Annual detailed data since 1995 by PRODCOM list (NACE rev2) contains the two following datasets:

  • Sold production, exports and imports
  • Total production

Both datasets contain annual data from 1995 for the EU Member States, EFTA countries and candidate countries. Data for the potential candidate countries are incomplete. The products are classified according to the PRODCOM nomenclature.

Indicators for the first dataset are the Value and Quantity for production, imports and exports.

The second dataset contains data on annual total production (sold production plus any production retained by the producing enterprise for further processing). Total production is only reported by volume, because goods that are not sold cannot be valued. In addition, there is no relation between total production and external trade, so imports and exports are not shown.

Easy Comext and Comext Analytical interfaces

The Comext system was conceived and implemented in the early 90's. Since then, it has been continuously adapted and re-engineered to take into account technological evolution and new users' needs. The main components of the system are: a database organised as a data warehouse, an application interface (API named "Comext server") and user interfaces (Easy Comext and Comext Analytical).

Both Easy Comext and Comext Analytical are of particular value for regular users performing frequent extractions, often with a large volume of data or with very precise requests. Users can filter and create tailor-made queries which can be saved and modified at any time. Users can also define aggregations and functions. The extracted data can be visualised in the form of tables or graphics, downloaded or sent automatically by e-mail.

Easy Comext can be accessed directly at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/newxtweb/ or through an internet search for ‘Easy Comext’. The Easy Comext User Manual explains step-by-step how to make a data extraction. Users needing to extract huge amounts of data should use Comext Analytical which is accessible through the Easy Comext interface but requires a login (‘Login’ button).

Bulk download facility

The Bulk Download facility allows the users to download the Eurostat datasets in a format which can easily be imported into a chosen tool for further analysis.

International trade in goods statistics are available in csv format from the Bulk Download web page and the Comext domain. They are accompanied by metadata (classifications, data availability, etc.) and methodological notes.

Where to find the most recent Comext data

Data from 2001 up to the latest reference months can be downloaded from the Comext data subfolder. The following statistics are available for the EU and its Member States:

  • Trade values (in euros) and quantities (in kg and supplementary unit, if available), according to the product codes of the CN, as well as the SITC, CPA and BEC classifications, by intra- and extra-EU partner country; and
  • Trade values (in euros) and quantities (kg) by mode of transport, according to product codes of the Harmonised System and the nomenclature NSTR, by extra-EU partner country.

Where to find historical Comext data

Historical data can be downloaded from the folder 1976-1987_Nimexe — It contains annual intra and extra-EU trade data from 1976 to 1987, broken down by product according to the Nimexe classification. The Nimexe classification was used to collect trade statistics before the implementation of the Combined Nomenclature in January 1988.