Full international and global accounts for research in input-output analysis (FIGARO)

The FIGARO project compiles EU-inter country Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (EU-IC-SUIOTs) also referred to as the FIGARO tables.

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Why do we need FIGARO tables?

The FIGARO tables are a tool for analysing the socio-economic and environmental effects of globalisation in the European Union (EU) – through studies on competitiveness, growth, productivity, employment, environmental footprint and international trade (e.g. global value chains).

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The FIGARO project aims to produce experimental tables for the reference year 2010 in the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010) methodology. The tables are used to evaluate EU policies and assess the position of the EU/euro area in the world.

Future plans

By 2020 the Commission aims to produce FIGARO tables every year, as well as a time series of tables from 2010 to 2018 (Supply and Use Tables — SUTs — 2010 and 2015 and Input-Output Tables — IOTs — 2010-18), based on the FIGARO project’s experience.

Project background

The FIGARO tables are part of a collaborative project between Eurostat and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. They are recognised by EU national statistical institutes and international organisations (OECD, WTO, UN).

The FIGARO tables will contribute to the OECD's global inter-country input-output tables published by the OECD under the TiVA initiative, which considers the value added by each country in the production of goods and services that are consumed worldwide.

Why are the FIGARO tables experimental statistics?

FIGARO is the first project to compile official inter-country supply, use and input-output data at EU levels.

Due to the scope of the methods and the assumptions made has been mostly driven by the data available at each stage of the process, the FIGARO tables should be considered experimental until:

  • more official data has been incorporated
  • the methods have been further agreed among EU countries
  • the tables are being produced regularly by Eurostat and integrated into the OECD's overall inter-country input-output tables.

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From 2018 to 2020, Eurostat and the JRC will continue to work (in close collaboration with the OECD) on a time series of tables (at both current and previous years‘ prices), and to improve the data and methods used in this project.

How are the FIGARO tables compiled?

The FIGARO tables are based on two key inputs and the methodology for obtaining them (in the absence of official data) which has been developed by the FIGARO team:

Input 1 – a full set of national tables

These supply, use and input-output tables are:

  • based on the ESA 2010 methodology;
  • very closely aligned with data sent by EU countries under the ESA 2010 programme that meet the quality criteria for official statistics.

Input 2 – a balanced view of trade flows

This involves a balanced view of trade for each EU country, with their EU trade partners and the rest of the world.

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In the absence of official national tables submitted by the EU Member States, Eurostat applies an estimation procedure based on the assessment of European supply and use tables at basic prices and valuation matrices.

In terms of trade data, going from two initial different bilateral trade flows (e.g. exports and mirror exports) to a single balanced trade flow value requires a methodology to remove trade asymmetries, among other kinds of imputations.

The result is a balanced view of trade which gives different values compared to those produced by Eurostat trade statistics units (in goods and in services).

Differences to national tables

In the FIGARO tables, exports and imports are valued FOB (free on board) when in the national tables data imports are valued CIF (cost, insurance and freight).

Another difference is that additional adjustments and estimates are made in the FIGARO tables (goods sent abroad for processing, merchanting services, direct purchases abroad by residents, re-exports, etc.) to reconcile as much as possible concept and coverage differences between trade statistics and national accounts trade data. FIGARO tables are consistent with national accounts' macro-aggregates (such as total final consumption, gross fixed capital, etc.) For transparency and statistical purpose, FIGARO tables include a ‘statistical’ use table with explicit discrepancies) remaining after all adjustments.

Access the statistics

Data can be downloaded in CSV as well as Rdata format. Users are kindly asked to read the information files beforehand.

CSV format

ReadMe (instructions for reading files)

The ReadMe files include the description of the variables.

Notes:

  1. Datasets cover the EU Member States and the USA.
  2. Data in the EU-IC-SUIOTs are expressed in million euros.
  3. Tables are presented in current prices.

Rdata format

ReadMe (instructions for reading files)

The Rdata file includes several objects:

The ReadMe files include the description of the variables.

Notes:

  1. Datasets cover the EU Member States and the USA.
  2. Data in the EU-IC-SUIOTs are expressed in million euros.
  3. Tables are presented in current prices.

Application: Employment effects of EU exports to the rest of the world

Input-output analysis applied to the FIGARO tables (see Miller, R. and P.E. Blair, Input-output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press: New York, US and and Arto et. al. (2015) EU exports to the World: Effects on Employment and Income, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union) and EU employment data illustrates the relationship between trade and employment for the European Union and its Member States.

The input data originates from the national accounts transmission program and are disseminated on the Eurostat website (nama_10_a64_e and naio_10_cp16).

Feedback

To help us improve these experimental statistics, users and researchers are invited to participate in the dedicated discussion on the European Statistics User Forum, focusing on the following questions:

  • What do you use the EU-Inter Country Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (EU-IC-SUIOTs) for?
  • Do you have any comments to the methodology and timeliness of their publication?
  • The FIGARO tables are disseminated as flat files and R Datasets. Are you satisfied with these dissemination channels and formats? Do you have other suggestions?
  • What additional analysis based on FIGARO tables would help you in your working area?