Data - Exchange and interest rates

Information on data

Below you will find some more information on the different datasets published by Eurostat.

Exchange rates

Exchange rates between the euro/ECU and other currencies

This is in the form '1 euro (ECU before 1 January 1999) = … units of the other currency'. Daily data are available, as well as monthly, quarterly, and annual. Source is the European Central Bank (euro exchange rates) and European Commission (ECU exchange rates).

Conversion factors for euro fixed series into euro/ECU

These are factors devised to help users in converting national time series of euro area countries expressed in euro ('euro fixed') into euro/ECU and vice versa. Euro fixed series should be used for single country time series. Euro/ECU series should be used for cross-country comparisons and for aggregation.

Former euro area national currencies vs. euro/ECU

Historical data – the exchange rates of the former currencies (Belgian Franc, Deutsche Mark, etc.) of those countries which joined the euro area.

Effective exchange rate indices

The source of this data is the European Commission (Directorate‑General for Economic and Financial Affairs).

This dataset comprises 'Industrial countries' effective exchange rates'.

The effective exchange rate indices are of two types:

  • Nominal effective exchange rates (NEER): These measure changes in the value of a currency against a trade-weighted basket of currencies. A rise in the index means a strengthening of the currency.
  • Real effective exchange rates (REER): These measure the change in competitiveness of a country, by taking into account the change in costs or prices relative to other countries. A rise in the index means a loss of competitiveness.


Interest rates

Short-term interest rates

Rates on money markets for different maturities (overnight, 1–12 months).

Long-term interest rates, Maastricht criterion

Yield on government bonds with a maturity of ten years. These interest rates are used to define the Maastricht criterion on long-term interest rates, which is one of the criteria for determining whether or not an EU member state is eligible to join the European monetary union.

Long-term interest rates (non-EU countries)

Government bond yields of around 10 years' maturity.

Euro yield curves

Yields and coefficients calculated for different euro yield curves (par yield curves, instantaneous forward curves and zero coupon spot rate yield curves) based on different selections of bonds.

Historical data - discontinued series

  • Day-to-day interest rates for euro area countries;
  • 3-month interest rates for euro area countries;
  • Central government bond yields;
  • Euro yield curves: former Eurostat calculation which ceased in 2005.