Indicators Explained

The Resource Efficiency Scoreboard presents indicators covering themes and subthemes of the Roadmap to a resource efficient Europe. It consists of 32 indicators arranged in three groups: lead, dashboard and thematic indicators. The EU needs these indicators to monitor progress towards the objectives and targets of a resource efficient Europe, and to allow for benchmarking and comparison between Member States.

The navigation tree below will provide you with presentations of each group as well as descriptions and definitions of the resource efficiency indicators.

Lead indicator

One lead indicator has been selected to try and represent the change in use of natural resources. There is no indicator that can fully achieve this goal, but the lead indicator still heads up the scoreboard to provide a focus on resource productivity, defined as the ratio between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic material consumption (DMC).

Resource productivity

The indicator is defined as the gross domestic product (GDP) divided by domestic material consumption (DMC).
DMC measures the total amount of materials directly used by an economy. It is defined as the annual quantity of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory of the local economy, plus all physical imports minus all physical exports. It is important to note that the term 'consumption', as used in DMC, denotes apparent consumption and not final consumption. DMC does not include upstream flows related to imports and exports of raw materials and products originating outside of the local economy.

Dashboard indicators

These themes provide an additional ‘dashboard' or selection of indicators to complement the lead indicator. They focus on four areas of resource management: materials, water, carbon and land. This dashboard of complementary macro-indicators has the advantage that it focuses on clear stocks or flows of main resources. As such it can be easily understood, measured and communicated. There are nine dashboard indicators divided into 4 sub-themes:

Materials

Domestic material consumption per capita

The indicator is defined as the total amount of material directly used in an economy and equals direct material input (DMI) minus exports. DMI measures the direct input of materials for the use in the economy. DMI equals domestic extraction (DE) plus imports. For the ‘per capita’ calculation of the indicator the average population is used (the arithmetic mean of the population on 1st January of two consecutive years).
Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is based on the Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts (EW-MFA). The theory of Economy-wide material flow accounts includes compilations of the overall material inputs into national economy, the changes of material stock within the economy and the material outputs to other economies or to the environment. EW-MFA covers all solid, gaseous, and liquid materials, except water and air. Water included in products is included.

Land

Productivity of artificial land

Productivity of artificial land is defined as the gross domestic product (GDP) of a country divided by its total artificial land. Artificial land consists of built-up areas (areas covered with buildings and greenhouses) and non built-up areas (streets and sealed surfaces). Artificial land productivity shows whether built-up and non built-up areas are efficiently used to generate added economic value.
For the calculation of artificial land productivity Eurostat uses the GDP in millions of PPS (Purchasing Power Standard). This unit allows to compare countries for the same year.
More information on land cover/land use can be found here.

Built-up areas

The indicator measures i) the total built-up area in a country (in km2) and ii) the total built-up area as a share of the total surface area of land in the country. Built-up areas are areas covered with buildings and greenhouses whereas non built-up areas include streets and sealed surfaces. Land is a finite resource and land taken by urban development and infrastructure presents a high risk of being irreversible. It consumes mostly agricultural land and increases fragmentation of habitats, thus causing risk to these natural resources.
The data refers to the land use/cover area frame survey (LUCAS).
More information can be found here.

Water

Water exploitation index

The indicator presents i) the annual total fresh water abstraction in a country as a percentage of its long-term annual average (LTAA) available water from renewable fresh water resources; ii) the annual groundwater abstraction as a percentage of the country’s long-term annual average groundwater available for abstraction; and iii) the annual surface water abstraction as a percentage of the country’s long-term annual average surface water resources available for abstraction. The latter is calculated as the total fresh water resources (external inflow plus precipitation less evapotranspiration) less groundwater available for abstraction.
Total fresh water abstraction includes water removed from any fresh water source, either permanently or temporarily. Mine water and drainage water as well as water abstractions from precipitation are included, whereas water used for hydroelectricity generation (in situ use) is excluded. The minimum period taken into account for the calculation of LTAA is 20 years. The warning threshold of 20% for this indicator distinguishes a non-stressed from a water scarce region, with severe scarcity occurring where the WEI exceeds 40%. However the indicator is limited for several reasons: Firstly, the total fresh water abstraction does not distinguish between abstracted water that is redirected after use (and after appropriate treatment) back to the water body or if it is used for irrigation purposes with inevitable evaporation. Secondly, the abstraction and WEI are national data and disregard regional and seasonal changing conditions during the course of the year (water bodies/river basins with different level of water scarcity and hot spots in summer time). Eurostat is in maintaining more differentiated data but coverage is not yet considered sufficient. As soon as the more advanced indicator WEI+ is established, it will replace the WEI.
More information can be found in Statistics Explained.

Water productivity

Water productivity indicates how much economic output is produced per cubic meter of fresh water abstracted (in EUR per m3 or PPS per m3). It serves as a measure of the efficiency of water use.
Total fresh water abstraction includes water removed from any fresh water source, either permanently or temporarily. Mine water and drainage water as well as water abstractions from precipitation are included, whereas water used for hydroelectricity generation (in situ use) is excluded. The indicator is limited for several reasons:
Firstly, total fresh water abstraction does not distinguish between abstracted water that is redirected after use (and after appropriate treatment) back to the water body or if it is used for irrigation purposes with inevitable evaporation.
Secondly, no distinction is made between fresh water abstracted from surface or groundwater.
Lastly, water abstraction statistics are national data and disregard regional and seasonal changing conditions during the year (water bodies / river basins with different level of water scarcity and hot spots in summer time). Eurostat is in maintaining more differentiated data (groundwater, surface water, regional breakdown), but coverage is not yet considered sufficient.
For the interpretation it should be taken into account that water productivity is strongly influenced by the economic structure and the proportion of water intensive industries. A lower water productivity primarily means that the economic and industrial structure of the country is water use intensive. A less water-consuming economy would show a relatively high water productivity. The change in water productivity is influenced by both ‘real’ productivity improvements and deteriorations, as well as by changes in economic and industry structure. For the calculation of water productivity Eurostat uses the GDP either in the unit of EUR in chain-linked volumes to the reference year 2010 at 2010 exchange rates or in the unit PPS (Purchasing Power Standard). The unit EUR in chain linked volumes allows observing the water productivity trends over time in a single geographic area, whereas the unit PPS allows to compare countries for the same year. Since GDP is measured in million EUR or million PPS and water abstraction in million cubic meters, water productivity is available in both EUR per m3 and PPS per m3.
More information on water statistics in Statistics Explained.

Carbon

Green gas emissions per capita

The indicator measures total national emissions of the so called ‘Kyoto basket’ of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the so-called F-gases (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, nitrogen triflouride (NF3) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)). Using each gas’ individual global warming potential (GWP), they are being integrated into a single indicator expressed in units of CO2 equivalents. Emissions data are submitted annually by the EU Member States as part of the reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The average population of the reference year (calculated as the arithmetic mean of the population on 1st January of two consecutive years) is used as denominator (per capita).
The indicator does not include emissions and removals related to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); it does not include emissions reported as a memorandum item according to UNFCCC Guidelines but does include emissions from international aviation as well as indirect CO2 emissions.

Energy productivity

The indicator results from the division of the gross domestic product (GDP) by the gross available energy for a given calendar year. It measures the productivity of energy consumption and provides a picture of the degree of decoupling of energy use from growth in GDP.
For the calculation of energy productivity Eurostat uses the GDP either in the unit of million euro in chain-linked volumes to the reference year 2010 (at 2010 exchange rates) or in the unit million purchasing power standards (PPS). The unit euro in chain linked volumes allows observing the energy productivity trends over time in a single geographic area, whereas the unit PPS allows comparison between countries for the same year. The gross available energy is calculated as: Primary production + Recovered & recycled products + Imports – Exports + Stock changes.

Energy dependence

The indicator shows the extent to which an economy relies upon imports in order to meet its energy needs. It is calculated as net imports divided by the gross available energy.
Energy dependence = Net imports / Gross available energy.
Net imports are calculated as total imports minus total exports. Gross available energy is a calculated value, defined as: Primary production + Recovered & recycled products + Imports – Exports + Stock changes
Energy dependency may be negative in the case of net exporter countries while positive values over 100 % indicate the accumulation of stocks during the reference year.

Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption

The indicator measures the share of renewable energy consumption in gross final energy consumption according to the Renewable Energy Directive. The gross final energy consumption is the energy used by end-consumers (final energy consumption) plus grid losses and self-consumption of power plants.
This indicator is calculated on the basis of Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The calculation is based on data collected in the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics and complemented by specific supplementary data transmitted by national administrations to Eurostat. In some countries the statistical systems are not yet fully developed to meet all requirements of Directive 2009/28/EC, in particular with respect to ambient heat captured from the environment by heat pumps.

Thematic indicators

Thematic indicators have been included in the Scoreboard in order to reflect progress in different key themes according to the Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe. They, like the dashboard indicators, also contribute to a more complete picture on resource use, alongside the lead indicator. Many of them are indicators that report directly on policy implementation and so may be used to assess policy effectiveness. Others further elaborate upon the state of different natural resources, whether the pressures upon them, their status or the extent of impacts.

Transforming the economy

Turning waste into a resource

Generation of waste excluding major mineral wastes

This indicator is defined as all waste generated in a country per inhabitant and year, excluding major mineral wastes, dredging spoils and contaminated soils. This exclusion enhances comparability across countries as mineral waste accounts for high quantities in some countries and economic activities such as mining and construction.
The indicator covers hazardous (hz) and non-hazardous (nh) waste from all economic sectors and from households, including waste from waste treatment (secondary waste) but excluding most mineral waste. It is based on data compiled according to the waste categories listed in Annex I to the Waste Statistics Regulation (Regulation 2150/2002/EC).

Landfill rate of waste excluding major mineral wastes

The indicator, expressed in percentage, is defined as the volume of waste landfilled (directly or indirectly) in a country per year divided by the volume of the waste treated in the same year. The data reflect the treatment of national waste and exclude waste that is imported from non-EU countries.
Waste taken into account excludes mineral waste from construction and demolition, other mineral wastes, soils and dredging spoils. This exclusion enhances comparability across countries, as mineral waste accounts for high quantities in some countries due to economic activities such as mining and construction. One exception, however, is that the indicator explicitly includes combustion wastes and solidified, stabilised and vitrified wastes, despite them being completely or partly mineral.
The indicator is derived from the two-yearly reporting of the countries according to the Waste Statistics Regulation. It covers landfilling of hazardous and non-hazardous waste from all economic sectors and from households, including waste from waste treatment (secondary waste) but excluding most mineral waste, and waste going into pre-treatment activities (like sorting, drying).
Disposal on land is defined by disposal codes D1, D5, D12 and labeled ‘deposit onto or into land’ (summarized as code DSP_D in the database). The indicator is based on data compiled according to Annex I of the Waste Statistics Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 2150/2002) and the statistical waste nomenclature EWC-Stat set out in Annex III.

Recycling rate of municipal waste

The indicator measures the share of recycled municipal waste in the total municipal waste generation. Recycling includes material recycling, composting and anaerobic digestion. The ratio is expressed in percent (%) as both terms are measured in the same unit, namely tonnes.

Recycling rate of e-waste

The indicator is calculated by multiplying the 'collection rate' as set out in the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive with the 'reuse and recycling rate' set out in the WEEE Directive, where:
  • The 'collection rate' equals the volumes collected of WEEE in the reference year divided by the average quantity of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) put on the market in the previous three years (both expressed in mass unit).
  • The 'reuse and recycling rate' is calculated by dividing the weight of the WEEE that enters the recycling/preparing for re-use facility by the weight of all separately collected WEEE (both in mass unit) in accordance with Article 11(2) of the WEEE Directive 2012/19/EU, considering that the total amount of collected WEEE is sent to treatment/recycling facilities.
The indicator is expressed in percent (%) as both terms are measured in the same unit.

Supporting research and innovation

Eco-innovation index

The indicator is based on 16 sub-indicators from eight contributors in five thematic areas: eco-innovation inputs, eco-innovation activities, eco-innovation outputs, resource efficiency outcomes and socio-economic outcomes. The overall score of an EU Member State is calculated by the unweighted mean of the 16 sub-indicators. It shows how well individual Member States perform in eco-innovation compared to the EU average, which is equated with 100 (index EU=100). The index complements other measurement approaches of innovativeness of EU countries and aims to promote a holistic view on economic, environmental and social performance.
The relevant target in the Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe is for an increase in the funding for research that contributes to the environmental knowledge base. Such increases will tend to improve a Member State’s positioning according to the index. This indicator is published by the Eco-Innovation Observatory.

Getting the prices right

Environmental tax revenues

The indicator is presented in two ways. Firstly, as the proportion of environmental tax revenues in total revenues from all taxes and social contributions. This evidences the different taxation splits that Member States have between environment and other factors such as labour and capital. Secondly, the indicator is presented as the proportion of environmental tax revenues in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This allows a comparison of environmental taxation between Member States taking into account the size of the different national economies.

Energy taxes by paying sector

The indicator measures the percentage of energy taxes that are raised against seven paying sectors as a proportion of the total amount of tax revenue raised from energy taxes. The seven sectors are: Households, Industry (except Construction), Construction, Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, Transportation and storage, Services (except wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage), and Agriculture, forestry and fishing.
Energy taxes are one of the four tax categories that make up environmental taxes (the other three being pollution taxes, resource taxes (excluding taxes on oil and gas extraction) and transport taxes). As per environmental taxes, the energy tax base is a physical unit of something that has a proven specific negative impact on the environment, but it is restricted to certain items that are concerning the energy sector, which also includes CO2 taxes.

Nature and ecosystems

Biodiversity

Common bird index

The indicator is an index and integrates the population abundance and the diversity of a selection of common bird species associated with specific habitats. Each of the three EU aggregate indices (i.e. common farmland birds, common forest birds and all common birds) is a composite, multispecies index calculated using Monte Carlo simulations as described in Soldaat et al. (2017) and an R-script developed by Statistics Netherlands (2017). This indicator presents the unsmoothed estimate.
No rare species are included, although some species common in certain Member States may be considered rare in others. The species covered under the common farmland and common forest indices are deemed to be dependent on that particular kind of habitat for feeding and nesting.
The list of species is available in the annex under "EU list of all common bird species". When counting the birds in the wild, countries record the observations in different ways. For the analysis done by the EBCC, the results have to be processed according to the minimum standard common to all countries.
For more information on the use of bird population data as a general indicator of environmental status, read 'Use of outputs generated by Pan-Europe common bird monitoring scheme'.

Area under organic farming

The indicator is defined as the share of total utilised agricultural area (UAA) occupied by organic farming (existing organically-farmed areas and areas in process of conversion). Organic farming is a method of production, which puts the highest emphasis on environmental protection and, with regard to livestock production, animal welfare considerations. It avoids or largely reduces the use of synthetic chemical inputs such as fertilisers, pesticides, additives and medical products. Farming is only considered to be organic at the EU level if it complies with Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007, which has set up a comprehensive framework for the organic production of crops and livestock and for the labelling, processing and marketing of organic products, while also governing imports of organic products into the EU. The detailed rules for the implementation of this Regulation are laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 889/2008.

Landscape fragmentation

Landscape fragmentation caused by transportation infrastructure and built-up areas has a number of ecological effects. It contributes significantly to the decline and loss of wildlife populations and to the increasing endangerment of species in Europe, for example through the dissection and isolation of populations, and affects the water regime and the recreational quality of landscapes. Landscape fragmentation is measured in number of meshes per 1000 km2 - the effective mesh density. The more barriers fragmenting the landscape, the higher the effective mesh density. The effective mesh size meff expresses the probability that any two points chosen randomly in a region are connected; that is, not separated by barriers such as transport routes or built-up areas. This can be interpreted as the probability that two animals, placed in different locations somewhere in a region, can find each other within the region without having to cross a barrier such as a road, urban area, or major river. Thus, it indicates the ability of animals to move freely in the landscape without encountering such barriers. The more barriers fragmenting the landscape, the lower the probability that the two points are connected, and the lower the effective mesh size. meff is measured in km2.  Fragmentation geometry has been created from input data (TeleAtlas roads/rails, CLC urban classes, mountain areas / mountain ridges based on Nordregio and WorldClim data and rivers/lakes based on Catchment Characterisation and Modelling (CCM) v.2 database and CLC database) and landscape fragmentation metrics (Jaeger 2000) has been calculated.
More information can be found here.

Safeguarding clean air

Urban population exposure to air pollution by particulate matter

The indicator shows the population-weighted concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 to which the urban population is potentially exposed.
Fine and coarse particulates (PM10) are those whose diameter is less than 10 micrometres, whilst fine particulates (PM2.5) are those whose diameters are less than 2.5 micrometers. Particulates can be carried deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of the condition of people with heart and lung diseases. The smaller the particles the deeper they travel into the lungs, with more potential for harm. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) the annual mean concentration is the best indicator for PM-related health effects.
In 1996, the Environment Council adopted Framework Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. The first Daughter Directive (1999/30/EC) relating to limit values for PM10 and other pollutants in ambient air fixed an annual limit value of 40 micrograms of PM10 per cubic meter (40 µg/m3). Note that the WHO guideline value is 20 µg/m3 (annual mean).
More recently, the Directive 2008/50/EC set a framework to define and establish objectives for ambient air quality and to harmonise methods and criteria among the Member States. This does have limits for PM2.5. The limit value that was due to be met on 1 January 2015 is 25 µg/m3, which falls to 20 µg/m3 by 2020. Note that the WHO guideline value is 10 µg/m3 (annual mean). The directive 2008/50/EC also places a requirement on Member States to assess and reduce population exposure to concentrations of PM2.5 by 2020. The magnitude of the required reduction depends on national average concentrations between 2009 and 2011. Where concentrations for those years were greater than 22 µg/m3, all appropriate measures should be used to reduce below 18 µg/m3 by 2020.

Urban population exposed to PM10 concentrations exceeding the daily limit value (50 µg/m3 on more than 35 days in a year)

The indicator measures the percentage of population in urban areas with PM10 concentrations exceeding the daily limit value (50 µg/m3). This daily limit should not be exceeded on more than 35 days in a calendar year. The exposure to PM10 pollution is estimated based upon PM10 measured at all urban monitoring stations, including urban and suburban traffic station types. The air quality data is collected by the European Environment Agency on an annual basis according to the Exchange of Information Decision (97/101/EC amended by the Commission Decision 2001/752/EC). All data is stored in AirBase, the European air quality database, which has data back to 1999. Information on cities (used to weight the data by population) is obtained from the Urban Audit data. The methodology for the calculation of the indicator is developed by the European Environment Agency.

Land and soils

Estimated soil erosion by water - area affected by severe erosion rate (source: JRC)

The indicator assesses the soil loss by water erosion processes (rain splash, sheetwash and rills) and gives an indication of the area affected by a certain rate of soil erosion (severe soil loss, E > 10 tonnes/hectare/year). This area is expressed in km2 and as a percentage of all potentially erosive-prone land in the country. Generally, artificial, sandy, rocky and icy surfaces as well as wetlands and water bodies are not included in the area on which the indicator is based. Where there is no area of land that is considered to be subject to soil erosion by water of more than 10 tonnes per hectare, a country will have a zero value. Soil erosion may still be occurring in areas of those countries, but at a rate of less than 10 tonnes per hectare.
Data on soil erosion are published under agreement with data provider - Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC – Ispra). These data represent the soil erosion rates by water estimated on the basis of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) empirical computer model.

Gross nutrient balance on agricultural land

The indicator balance represents the total potential threat to the environment of nitrogen and phosphorous surplus or deficit in agricultural soils. A lack of nitrogen or phosphorous may cause degradation in soil fertility and erosion, while an excess may cause surface and groundwater (including drinking water) pollution and eutrophication. Manure and fertiliser introduce nitrogen and phosphorous to the soil while harvesting of crops, removal of residues and runoff remove nitrogen and phosphorous from the soil. Nitrogen and phosphorous balance surpluses are monitored for the purposes of the Water Framework Directive and nitrogen for the Nitrates Directive.
The data comes from multiple sources including the consumption of fertilisers, livestock population, crop production and areas of various types of crops.
The land types included are arable land, permanent crops and permanent grassland. The unit of measure used is kg of nutrient per hectare of this land.

Key areas

Addressing food

Daily calorie supply per capita by source

The indicator shows the total daily calorie supply per capita and the split into calories from animal products and vegetal products. It should not be confused with the per capita consumption of those products (calorie consumption) as calorie supply includes also losses through food distribution and mismanagement.
The supply data are based on the food balance sheets (FBS) available at FAOSTAT. Data sources are primarily FAO questionnaires, national publications available in the ESS Library and Country visits by statisticians involving discussions with national experts.
The food balance sheet shows the availability for human consumption for each food item i.e. each primary commodity, which corresponds to the sources of supply and its utilisation. The total quantity of all foodstuffs produced in a country added to the total quantity imported and adjusted to any change in stocks that may have occurred since the beginning of the reference period, gives the supply available during that period. Data on per capita food supplies are expressed in terms of quantity and by applying appropriate food composition factors for all primary and processed products. The data for this indicator can also be expressed in terms of its energy value.
More information can be found in the FAO Handbook on Food Balance Sheets.

Improving buildings

Final energy consumption in households

The indicator measures the total energy consumed by households as final users, expressed in 1000 tonnes of oil equivalent.
The indicator has been chosen as a proxy for indicators in the key area 'Improving buildings' of the resource efficiency initiative. This area focuses on the energy spent in households for heating purposes and how the amelioration of buildings can contribute to energy-saving plans.
Eurostat collects data on total energy consumption in households split by fuel category. More detailed data for energy consumption in households (e.g. energy for space heating, space cooling, water heating and cooking) will be collected in the future under the Commission Regulation (EU) No 431/2014 of 24 April 2014 amending Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy statistics, as regards the implementation of annual statistics on energy consumption in households.
See also indicator 'Final energy consumption in households - share of selected fuel (t2020_rk210)'.

Final energy consumption in households - share of selected fuels

This indicator presents the share of six types of fuel to the final residential energy consumption: solid fossil fuels, oil and petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat and renewables and biofuels. The share of each fuel is expressed in per cent of the total consumption.
The indicator has been chosen as a proxy for indicators in the key area 'Improving buildings' of the resource efficiency initiative. This area focuses on the energy spent in households for heating purposes and how the amelioration of buildings can contribute to energy-saving plans.
Eurostat collects data on total energy consumption in households split by fuel category. More detailed data for energy consumption in households (e.g. energy for space heating, space cooling, water heating and cooking) will be collected in the future under the Commission Regulation (EU) No 431/2014 of 24 April 2014 amending Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy statistics, as regards the implementation of annual statistics on energy consumption in households.
See also indicator 'Final energy consumption in households (t2020_rk200)'.

Ensuring efficient mobility

Average carbon dioxide emissions per km from new passenger cars

This indicator is defined as the average emissions of carbon dioxide per kilometre by new passenger cars registered in a given year.

Pollutant emissions from transport

Emissions from transport are the main contributor to air pollution. This indicator analyses the transport emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM10), with data provided annually starting from 1990. The indicator is an index to year 2000 (index 2000 = 100).
Emissions are officially reported under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) to the EMEP Programme (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air pollutants in Europe). The pollutants can be grouped into acidifying substances, particulates and ozone precursors. NOx, the leading pollutant from transport, contributes to acidification, formation of ground level ozone and particulate formation.
No specific emission reduction target or objective exists for transport-related emissions. However, emission ceiling targets are specified in both the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NEC Directive) and the Gothenburg protocol under the CLRTAP (UNECE 1999). Following the Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC), a number of limit values (e.g. hourly limit values) have been set for the atmospheric concentrations of main pollutants, including SOx, NOx, air borne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), lead, CO, benzene and ozone.
More information can be found in the European Union emission inventory reports to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Such reports are published annually and compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in cooperation with the EU Member States.

Modal split of passenger transport - passenger cars

This indicator is defined as the percentage share of each mode of transport in total inland transport, expressed in passenger-kilometres (pkm). It is based on transport by passenger cars, buses and coaches, and trains. All data should be based on movements on national territory, regardless of the nationality of the vehicle. However, the data collection methodology is not harmonised at the EU level.

Modal split of freight transport - by road

This indicator is defined as the percentage share of each mode of transport in total inland transport expressed in tonne-kilometres (tkm). It includes transport by road, rail and inland waterways.
Road transport is based on all movements of vehicles registered in the reporting country. Rail and Inland waterways transport is generally based on movements on national territory, regardless of the nationality of the vehicle or vessel, but there are some variations in definitions from country to country.