Material flows and resource productivity

Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) provide an aggregate overview, in thousand tonnes per year, of the material flows into and out of an economy. EW-MFA cover solid, gaseous, and liquid materials, except for bulk flows of water and air.

What are EW-MFA used for?

The general purpose of EW-MFA is to describe the interaction of the domestic economy with the natural environment and the rest of the world economy in terms of flows of materials (excluding water and air). EW-MFA is a statistical framework conceptually embedded in environmental-economic accounts and fully compatible with concepts, principles, and classifications of national accounts – thus enabling a wide range of integrated analyses of environmental, energy and economic issues e.g. through environmental-economic modelling.

Material inputs into national economies include domestic extraction of material originating from the domestic environment and physical imports originating from other economies. Material outputs from national economies include materials released to the domestic environment (e.g. emissions to air, water and soil) and physical exports to other economies. Material flows within the economy are not represented in EW-MFA.

A variety of material flow-based indicators are derived from EW-MFA, for example domestic material consumption (DMC), which is a prominent indicator for sustainable development.

Data collection and publication

Eurostat undertakes annual data collections which are covered by Regulation (EU) 691/2011 consolidated version (Annex III). The EW-MFA questionnaire as well as compilation guidelines can be found on the Environment – methodology webpage.  

EW-MFA data are downloadable from Eurostat's online database. Nine data sets are available:

  • Material flow accounts (env_ac_mfa): includes detailed material flows into (domestic extraction and physical imports) and out (physical exports) of an economy according to Regulation (EU) 691/2011.
  • Material flow accounts - domestic processed output (env_ac_mfadpo): provides detailed material flows from an economy to the environment, termed 'domestic processed output'
  • Material flow accounts - balancing items (env_ac_mfabi): provides balancing items required to articulate a consistent material input-output balance of an economy.
  • Material flow accounts - main indicators (env_ac_mfain): this dataset provides highly aggregated EW-MFA and derived indicators.
  • Material flow accounts in raw material equivalents (MFA-RME) - modelling estimates (env_ac_rme): extension to the standard EW-MFA to include the 'material footprint' indicator raw material consumption - RMC. It is based on environmental-economic modelling.
  • Material flow accounts in raw material equivalents by final uses of products - modelling estimates (env_ac_rmefd): this data set provides estimates of material use in raw material equivalents ('material footprints') linked to final uses of products. This more detailed data set is fully consistent with the dataset material flow accounts in raw material equivalents (env_ac_rme) and is derived with the same environmental-economic model.
  • Resource productivity (env_ac_rp): resource productivity is the policy indicator relating gross domestic product (GDP) – measured in various units – to the main material flow indicator domestic material consumption (DMC).
  • Circular material use rate (env_ac_cur): this small data set provides the indicator 'circular material use rate' by country and year.
  • Circular material use rate by material type (env_ac_curm): this data set presents the 'circular material use rate' for the aggregated EU by material type.

In order to facilitate compiling extended material flow accounts at the country level, Eurostat has published the 'Country RME tool', accompanied by the 'Handbook country RME tool' and a file with input data. This tool allows the user to estimate country-level estimates of flows in raw material equivalents (RME), such as imports and exports in RME, raw material input (RMI) and raw material consumption (RMC).

Access to the data via ready made tables (Main tables)

Access to more detailed data (database)