Turkey-EU - international trade in goods statistics
Data extracted in March 2019.Planned article update March 2020.
Imports, exports and balance for trade in goods between the EU-28 andTurkey, 2008-2018
This article provides a picture of the international trade in goods between the European Union (EU) and Turkey. It analyses the type of goods exchanged between the two economies and the shares of each EU Member State in those exchanges.
This article is part of an online publication providing recent statistics on international trade in goods, covering information on the EU's main partners, main products traded, specific characteristics of trade as well as background information.
EU and Turkey in world trade in goods
Figure 1a shows the position of Turkey among the largest traders in the world. The four largest exporters were China (EUR 2 004 billion, 16 %), the EU (EUR 1 879 billion, 15 %), the United States (EUR 1 368 billion, 11 %) and Japan (EUR 618 billion, 5 %). The four largest importers were the United States (EUR 2 131 billion, 17 %), the EU (EUR 1 857 billion, 15 %), China (EUR 1 632 billion, 13 %) and Japan (EUR 594 billion, 5 %). Figure 1b has some more details. It shows that Turkey (EUR 139 billion, 1 %) was the 22nd largest exporter in the world between Indonesia (EUR 149 billion, 1 %) and Iran (EUR 94 billion, 1 %). It was the 14th largest importer in the world (EUR 207 billion, 2 %) between Taiwan (EUR 230 billion, 2 %) and Australia (EUR 202 billion, 2 %).
Figure 2 shows the imports and exports of the EU and Turkey indexed at 100 in 2007 for the period to 2017. It also shows the cover ratio (exports / imports) for this period. Exports from the EU were lowest in 2009 (89) and highest in 2017 (152). Imports to the EU were lowest in 2009 (85) and highest in 2017 (128). The cover ratio for the EU was lowest in 2008 (83 %) and highest in 2015 (104 %) and was 101 % in 2017. Exports from Turkey were lowest in 2009 (94) and highest in 2017 (178). Imports to Turkey were lowest in 2009 (81) and highest in 2017 (167). The cover ratio for Turkey was lowest in 2011 (56 %) and highest in 2009 (72 %) and was 67 % in 2017.
Both exports to and imports from Turkey rose between 2008 and 2018
Figure 3a shows the position of Turkey among the largest trade partners of the EU. The four largest export partners of the EU were the United States (21 %), China (11 %), Switzerland (8 %) and Russia (4 %). The four largest import partners of the EU were China (20 %), the United States (13 %), Russia (8 %) and Switzerland (6 %). Figure 3b has some more details. It shows that Turkey (EUR 77 billion, 4.0 %) was the fifth largest export partner of the EU, between Russia (EUR 85 billion, 4.4 %) and Japan (EUR 65 billion, 3.3 %). In imports Turkey (EUR 76 billion, 3.8 %) was the sixth largest partner of the EU, between Norway (EUR 84 billion, 4.2 %) and Japan (EUR 70 billion, 3.6 %).
Figure 4 shows exports, imports and trade balance between the EU and Turkey. In 2008 the EU had a trade surplus with Turkey of EUR 8 billion. This remained a surplus throughout the whole period, reaching EUR 1 billion in 2018. EU exports to Turkey were highest in 2017 (EUR 85 billion) and lowest in 2009 (EUR 44 billion). EU imports from Turkey were highest in 2018 (EUR 76 billion) and lowest in 2009 (EUR 36 billion).
EU-Turkey trade by type of goods
Figure 5 shows the breakdown of EU trade with Turkey by SITC groups. The red colours denote the primary products: food & drink, raw materials and energy, while the blue colours show the manufactured goods: chemicals, machinery & vehicles and other manufactured goods. Finally, other goods are shown in green. In 2018, EU exports of manufactured goods (80 %) had a higher share than primary goods (14 %). The most exported manufactured goods were machinery & vehicles (40 %), followed by other manufactured products (22 %) and chemicals (17 %). In 2018, EU imports of manufactured goods (89 %) also had a higher share than primary goods (9 %). The most imported manufactured goods were other manufactured products (43 %), followed by machinery & vehicles (42 %) and chemicals (5 %).
Figure 6 shows the evolution of EU imports and exports by SITC group since 2008. In 2018, the EU had trade surpluses in chemicals (EUR 9.8 billion), other products (EUR 3.8 billion), raw materials (EUR 3.6 billion) and energy (EUR 2.4 billion). The EU had trade deficits in machinery & vehicles (EUR 1.3 billion), food & drink (EUR 2.1 billion) and other manufactured products (EUR 15.2 billion).
EU-Turkey most traded goods
Another interesting way to look at the data is to investigate the cover ratio (exports / imports) of traded goods, showing the direction of the trade flows between the two economies. These ratios can be found in the right-hand margin of Figure 7. Ten products have ratios below 50, indicating EU imports from Turkey are at least twice as large as EU exports to Turkey. Seven products have ratios above 200, indicating EU exports to Turkey are at least twice as large as EU imports from Turkey. Three products have ratios between 50 and 200, showing more balanced trade.
Trade with Turkey by Member State
Figure 8a shows the EU imports from Turkey by Member State. The three largest importers from Turkey in the EU were Germany (EUR 13 957 million), the United Kingdom (EUR 9 306 million) and Italy (EUR 9 047 million). Bulgaria (22 %) held the highest share for Turkey in its total extra-EU imports.
Figure 8b shows the EU exports to Turkey by Member State. The three largest exporters to Turkey in the EU were Germany (EUR 19 655 million), Italy (EUR 8 784 million) and the United Kingdom (EUR 7 960 million). Bulgaria (24 %) held the highest share for Turkey in its total extra-EU exports.
Figure 8c shows the trade balance between the EU Member States and Turkey. Sixteen Member States had a trade surplus with Turkey. The largest was held by Germany (EUR 5 698 million), followed by the Netherlands (EUR 1 527 million) and Czechia (EUR 794 million). Twelve Member States had a trade deficit with Turkey. The largest was held by Spain (EUR 1 974 million), followed by Slovenia (EUR 1 799 million) and Romania (EUR 1 636 million).
Source data for tables and graphs
EU data is taken from Eurostat's COMEXT database. COMEXT is the reference database for international trade in goods. It provides access not only to both recent and historical data from the EU Member States but also to statistics of a significant number of third countries. International trade aggregated and detailed statistics disseminated via the Eurostat website are compiled from COMEXT data according to a monthly process.
Data are collected by the competent national authorities of the Member States and compiled according to a harmonised methodology established by EU regulations before transmission to Eurostat. For extra-EU trade, the statistical information is mainly provided by the traders on the basis of customs declarations.
EU data are compiled according to Community guidelines and may, therefore, differ from national data published by the Member States. Statistics on extra-EU trade are calculated as the sum of trade of each of the 28 EU Member States with countries outside the EU. In other words, the EU is considered as a single trading entity and trade flows are measured into and out of the area, but not within it.
Data for the other major traders are taken from the Comtrade database of the United Nations. Data availability differs among countries, therefore Figure 1 shows the latest common available year for all the main traders. For the calculation of shares the world trade is defined as the sum of EU trade with non-EU countries (source: Eurostat) plus the international trade of non-EU countries (source: IMF Dots database).
Methodology According to the EU concepts and definitions, extra-EU trade statistics (trade between EU Member States and non-EU countries) do not record exchanges involving goods in transit, placed in a customs warehouse or given temporary admission (for trade fairs, temporary exhibitions, tests, etc.). This is known as 'special trade'. The partner is the country of final destination of the goods for exports and the country of origin for imports.
Product classification Information on commodities exported and imported is presented according to the Standard international trade classification (SITC). A full description is available from Eurostat's classification server RAMON.
Unit of measure Trade values are expressed in millions or billions (109) of euros. They correspond to the statistical value, i.e. to the amount which would be invoiced in case of sale or purchase at the national border of the reporting country. It is called a FOB value (free on board) for exports and a CIF value (cost, insurance, freight) for imports.
Trade is an important indicator of Europe's prosperity and place in the world. The block is deeply integrated into global markets both for the products it sources and the exports it sells. The EU trade policy is an important element of the external dimension of the 'Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth' and is one of the main pillars of the EU's relations with the rest of the world.
Because the 28 EU Member States share a single market and a single external border, they also have a single trade policy. EU Member States speak and negotiate collectively, both in the World Trade Organization, where the rules of international trade are agreed and enforced, and with individual trading partners. This common policy enables them to speak with one voice in trade negotiations, maximising their impact in such negotiations. This is even more important in a globalised world in which economies tend to cluster together in regional groups.
The openness of the EU's trade regime has meant that the EU is the biggest player on the global trading scene and remains a good region to do business with. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe.
- International trade in goods (t_ext_go), see:
- International trade in goods - long-term indicators (t_ext_go_lti)
- International trade in goods - short-term indicators (t_ext_go_sti)
- International trade in goods (ext_go), see:
- International trade in goods - aggregated data (ext_go_agg)
- International trade in goods - long-term indicators (ext_go_lti)
- International trade in goods - short-term indicators (ext_go_sti)
- International trade in goods - detailed data (detail)
- EU trade since 1988 by SITC (DS-018995)
- International trade in goods statistics - background
- International trade in goods (ESMS metadata file — ext_go_esms)
- User guide on European statistics on international trade in goods