Turkey-EU - international trade in goods statistics
Data extracted in March 2020
Planned article update: March 2021
Imports, exports and trade balance between the EU and Turkey, 2009-2019
This article provides a picture of the international trade in goods between the European Union (EU) and Turkey. It analyses the type of goods exchanged between the two economies and the shares of each EU Member State in those exchanges.
This article is part of an online publication providing recent statistics on international trade in goods, covering information on the EU's main partners, main products traded, specific characteristics of trade as well as background information.
EU and Turkey in world trade in goods
Figure 1a shows the position of Turkey among the largest traders of goods in the world in 2018. The four largest exporters were China (EUR 2 107 billion, 16 %), the EU-27 (EUR 2 060 billion, 15 %), the United States (EUR 1 412 billion, 10 %) and Japan (EUR 626 billion, 5 %). The four largest importers were the United States (EUR 2 214 billion, 16 %), the EU-27 (EUR 1 908 billion, 14 %), China (EUR 1 810 billion, 13 %) and Japan (EUR 634 billion, 5 %). Figure 1b has some more details. It shows that Turkey (EUR 142 billion, 1 %) was the 23rd largest exporter in the world between Indonesia (EUR 153 billion, 1 %) and Norway (EUR 103 billion, 1 %). It was the 19th largest importer in the world (EUR 189 billion, 1 %) between Australia (EUR 199 billion, 1 %) and Malaysia (EUR 184 billion, 1 %).
The imports and exports of goods of the EU and Turkey indexed at 100 in 2008 for the period to 2018 are shown in Figure 2. It also shows the cover ratio (exports / imports) for this period. Exports from the EU were lowest in 2009 (83) and highest in 2018 (145). Imports to the EU were lowest in 2009 (77) and highest in 2018 (123). The cover ratio for the EU was lowest in 2008 (91 %) and highest in 2016 (116 %) and was 108 % in 2018. Exports from Turkey were lowest in 2009 (77) and highest in 2018 (127). Imports to Turkey were lowest in 2009 (70) and highest in 2013 (125) and were 110 in 2018. The cover ratio for Turkey was lowest in 2011 (56 %) and highest in 2018 (75 %).
Both exports to and imports from Turkey increased between 2009 and 2019.
The position of Turkey among the largest trade partners of the EU in 2019 can be seen in Figure 3a. The four largest export partners of the EU were the United States (18 %), the United Kingdom (15 %), China (9 %) and Switzerland (7 %). The four largest import partners of the EU were China (19 %), the United States (12 %), the United Kingdom (10 %) and Russia (7 %). Figure 3b has some more details. It shows that Turkey (EUR 68 billion, 3.2 %) was the sixth largest export partner of the EU, between Russia (EUR 88 billion, 4.1 %) and Japan (EUR 61 billion, 2.9 %). In imports Turkey (EUR 70 billion, 3.6 %) was the sixth largest partner of the EU, between Switzerland (EUR 110 billion, 5.7 %) and Japan (EUR 63 billion, 3.3 %).
Figure 4 shows the exports, imports and trade balance between the EU and Turkey from 2009 to 2019. In 2009, the EU had a trade surplus with Turkey of EUR 10 billion. The trade surplus remained until 2018 but turned to a deficit of EUR 1.5 billion in 2019. Both exports to and imports from Turkey increased between 2009 and 2019. EU exports to Turkey were highest in 2017 (EUR 77 billion) and lowest in 2009 (EUR 42 billion). EU imports from Turkey were highest in 2019 (EUR 70 billion) and lowest in 2009 (EUR 32 billion).
EU-Turkey trade by type of goods
The breakdown of EU trade with Turkey by SITC groups is shown in Figure 5. The red shades denote the primary products: food & drink, raw materials and energy, while the blue shades show the manufactured goods: chemicals, machinery & vehicles and other manufactured goods. Finally, other goods are shown in green. In 2019, EU exports of manufactured goods (81 %) had a higher share than primary goods (15 %). The most exported manufactured goods were machinery & vehicles (39 %), followed by other manufactured products (23 %) and chemicals (19 %). In 2019, EU imports of manufactured goods (88 %) also had a higher share than primary goods (11 %). The most imported manufactured goods were other manufactured products followed by machinery & vehicles ( both 42 %) and chemicals (5 %).
Figure 6 shows the evolution of EU imports and exports by SITC group since 2009. In 2019, the EU had trade surpluses in chemicals (EUR 10 billion), raw materials (EUR 3 billion), other products (EUR 3 billion) and energy (EUR 1 billion). The EU had trade deficits in food & drink (EUR 2 billion), machinery & vehicles (EUR 3 billion) and other manufactured products (EUR 13 billion).
EU-Turkey most traded goods
More detail about the goods exchanged between the EU and Turkey is given in Figure 7, showing the 20 most traded goods at SITC-3 level. These top 20 goods covered 45 % of total trade in goods in 2019. Nine belonged to machinery and vehicles, six to other manufactured products, two to chemicals, one each to food and drink, raw materials and energy. The most traded product group at this level was motor cars and motor vehicles. Another interesting way to look at the data is to investigate the cover ratio (exports / imports) of traded goods, showing the direction of the trade flows between the two economies. These ratios can be found in the right-hand margin of Figure 7. Eight products were below 50 %, indicating EU imports from Turkey were at least twice as large as EU exports to Turkey. Seven products were above 200 %, indicating EU exports to Turkey were at least twice as large as EU imports from Turkey. Five products were between 50 % and 200 %, showing more balanced trade.
Trade with Turkey by Member State
Table 1a shows the imports of goods from Turkey by Member State. The three largest importers from Turkey in the EU were Germany (EUR 13 286 million), Italy (EUR 9 459 million) and France (EUR 7 581 million). Bulgaria (19.4 %) had the highest share for Turkey in its extra-EU imports.
Table 1b shows the exports of goods to Turkey by Member State. The three largest exporters to Turkey in the EU were Germany (EUR 20 045 million), Italy (EUR 8 334 million) and the Netherlands (EUR 6 223 million). Bulgaria (19.8 %) had the highest share for Turkey in its extra-EU exports.
The trade in goods balance between the EU Member States and Turkey is shown in Table 1c. It shows that 14 Member States had a trade surplus with Turkey. The largest surplus was held by Germany (EUR 6 759 million), followed by the Netherlands (EUR 1 089 million) and Czechia (EUR 568 million). Thirteen Member States had a trade deficit with Turkey. The largest deficit was held by Spain (EUR 2 899 million), followed by Slovenia (EUR 2 207 million) and Romania (EUR 1 626 million).
Source data for tables and graphs
EU data is taken from Eurostat's COMEXT database. COMEXT is the reference database for international trade in goods. It provides access not only to both recent and historical data from the EU Member States but also to statistics of a significant number of third countries. International trade aggregated and detailed statistics disseminated via the Eurostat website are compiled from COMEXT data according to a monthly process.
Data are collected by the competent national authorities of the Member States and compiled according to a harmonised methodology established by EU regulations before transmission to Eurostat. For extra-EU trade, the statistical information is mainly provided by the traders on the basis of customs declarations.
EU data are compiled according to Community guidelines and may, therefore, differ from national data published by the Member States. Statistics on extra-EU trade are calculated as the sum of trade of each of the 27 EU Member States with countries outside the EU. In other words, the EU is considered as a single trading entity and trade flows are measured into and out of the area, but not within it.
The EU-27 data reflect the political change in the EU composition. Therefore the United Kingdom is considered as an extra-EU partner country for the EU-27. However, the United Kingdom is still part of the internal market until the end of the transitory period, meaning that data on trade with the United Kingdom are still based on statistical concepts applicable to trade between the EU Member States. As a consequence, while imports from any other extra-EU-27 trade partner are grouped by country of origin, the United Kingdom data reflect country of consignment. In practice this means that the goods imported by the EU-27 from the United Kingdom were physically transported from the United Kingdom but part of these goods could have been of other origin than the United Kingdom. For this reason data on trade with the United Kingdom are not fully comparable with data on trade with other extra-EU-27 trade partners.
Data for the non EU-27 countries used in figures 1-3 are taken from the UNCTAD database of the United Nations. For the calculation of shares, the world trade is defined as the sum of EU trade with non-EU countries (source: Eurostat) plus the international trade of non-EU countries (source: UNCTAD).
Methodology According to the EU concepts and definitions, extra-EU trade statistics (trade between EU Member States and non-EU countries) do not record exchanges involving goods in transit, placed in a customs warehouse or given temporary admission (for trade fairs, temporary exhibitions, tests, etc.). This is known as 'special trade'. The partner is the country of final destination of the goods for exports and the country of origin for imports.
Product classification Information on commodities exported and imported is presented according to the Standard international trade classification (SITC). A full description is available from Eurostat's classification server RAMON.
Unit of measure Trade values are expressed in millions or billions (109) of euros. They correspond to the statistical value, i.e. to the amount which would be invoiced in case of sale or purchase at the national border of the reporting country. It is called a FOB value (free on board) for exports and a CIF value (cost, insurance, freight) for imports.
Trade is an important indicator of Europe's prosperity and place in the world. The block is deeply integrated into global markets both for the products it sources and the exports it sells. The EU trade policy is an important element of the external dimension of the 'Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth' and is one of the main pillars of the EU's relations with the rest of the world.
Because the 27 EU Member States share a single market and a single external border, they also have a single trade policy. EU Member States speak and negotiate collectively, both in the World Trade Organization, where the rules of international trade are agreed and enforced, and with individual trading partners. This common policy enables them to speak with one voice in trade negotiations, maximising their impact in such negotiations. This is even more important in a globalised world in which economies tend to cluster together in regional groups.
The openness of the EU's trade regime has meant that the EU is the biggest player on the global trading scene and remains a good region to do business with. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe.
- International trade in goods (t_ext_go), see:
- International trade in goods - long-term indicators (t_ext_go_lti)
- International trade in goods - short-term indicators (t_ext_go_sti)
- International trade in goods (ext_go), see:
- International trade in goods - aggregated data (ext_go_agg)
- International trade in goods - long-term indicators (ext_go_lti)
- International trade in goods - short-term indicators (ext_go_sti)
- International trade in goods - detailed data (detail)
- EU trade since 1988 by SITC (DS-018995)
- International trade in goods statistics - background
- International trade in goods (ESMS metadata file — ext_go_esms)
- User guide on European statistics on international trade in goods