Statistics Explained

Short-stay accommodation offered via online collaborative economy platforms - monthly data

This is the stable Version.


Data extracted in September 2022

Planned article update: 3 January 2023

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Highlights


Platform tourism exceeds pre-pandemic levels in first half of 2022 – almost 200 million nights booked through online platforms.

Nights booked via online platforms up 138 % in first half of 2022 compared with 2021.

Monthly guest nights in the EU, 2019-2022, Jan-Jun.jpg

During the first half of 2022, nights spent in accommodation booked via online platforms have recovered significantly compared with 2020 and 2021. In total, 199 million nights have been spent in beds booked through one of the four online collaborative economy platforms which have a data sharing agreement with Eurostat (Airbnb, Booking.com, Tripadvisor and Expedia) between January and June 2022, an increase of 138 % compared with 2021. When compared with the first two quarters of 2019, the last year unaffected by the pandemic, the increase is still 3.2 %.

This article accompanies the more detailed articles covering the pre-pandemic years 2018 and 2019, and on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on reference years 2020 and 2021. It is updated four times per year, at the beginning of each quarter, and focusses on nights spent at country and regional level (NUTS 2).



Full article


Platform tourism exceeds 2019 levels in first half of 2022

Figure 1 shows that platform tourism had already recovered gradually during the second half of 2021, with nights spent coming very close to, but not exceeding, 2019 levels. This development continued in early 2022, with guest nights above 2019 levels each month from February onwards (January: -0.2 %, February: +10.9 %, March: +2.2 %, April: +2.6 %, May: +5.6 %, June: +0.4 %).

Figure 1: Monthly guest nights in the EU, 2019-2022 (nights spent in short-stay accommodation offered via online platforms)
Source: Eurostat (tour_ce_omr)


While comparisons to 2021 document a robust recovery in all 31 countries, Table 1 shows that developments in the individual countries since 2019 were rather varied. For Q1, growth rates among EU Member States ranged from -44.2 % in Czechia to +49.8 % in Sweden, with an EU-wide growth of +4.5 %. In Q2, the picture was similar (-43.1 % in Czechia, +28.9 % in Sweden, +2.5 % in the EU).

Table 1: Quarterly guest nights spent in short-stay accommodation, by country, 2022
Source: Eurostat (tour_ce_omr)


Looking at the nine EU Member States with more than 10 million guest nights in 2019, it becomes clear that platform tourism in the most popular destination countries recovered almost completely, with the potential exceptions of Italy and Austria, which are nevertheless within reach of their pre-pandemic levels. The development in France is particularly noteworthy: France was one of the few countries with a substantial increase already in 2021 and guest nights spent in France are now 31 % above 2019 levels.

Figure 2: Guest nights by country, 2019-2022, January -June
Source: Eurostat (tour_ce_omr)


15 regions with more than 1 million guest nights in Q1/2022


Figure 3: Map of guest nights spent in short-stay accommodation, by NUTS2 region, Jan-Mar 2022
Source: Eurostat (tour_ce_omn12)


Note: Due to the nature of Eurostat’s agreement with the partner platforms, monthly regional data is released three months after the country level data. Therefore, while the content above refers to data up to and including June 2022, the regional data below only refers to January to March 2022.

Due to the high seasonality in tourism data and the fact that different countries and regions have different seasons of high demand (e.g. winter tourism in the Alps vs. summer tourism in the Mediterranean countries), the list of most popular regions in the first quarter of the year looks quite different than the list for the whole year. Out of the 15 regions with more than 1 million guest nights booked via online platforms in the first quarter of 2022, France and Spain had five regions each, two regions were in Italy and one each in Austria, Poland and Portugal. This list contains alpine regions such as Tirol in Austria and Rhône-Alpes in France, where in 2019, 42.2 % and 31.5 % respectively of nights spent in the region were spent there during the first quarter. In the EU as a whole, that same share was only 12.6 %. A second cluster of popular regions were sunny regions along the Mediterranean (Provence-Alpes- Côte d’Azur, Cataluña and Andalucia) and the Canary Islands.

Two regions (Rhône-Alpes in France and Canarias in Spain) had more than 4 million nights spent.


Data sources

The article is based on data provided to Eurostat by four international platforms (Airbnb, Booking.com, Expedia Group, Tripadvisor), following agreements on data exchange concluded early 2020. The data covers short-stay accommodation in the EU and EFTA countries, offered by service providers via one of these four online collaborative economy platforms.

Both the article and the data only refer to the accommodation offered through the four platforms, and can – due to possible overlaps – not be added to other tourism statistics on holiday rentals or other types of accommodation such as hotels, available via European statistics on tourist accommodation. Additionally, only merged data for the four platforms is released: no data on individual platforms is disclosed.

This article uses data that are published as experimental statistics. Such statistics use new data sources or methods to match user needs, but have not yet reached the maturity of fully-fledged official statistics. The project pioneers Eurostat’s use of privately held data via a direct cooperation with the industry, to produce reliable data covering the entire EU in a coherent way.

Scope and key concepts
  • Scope: the data covers holiday rentals (excluding hotels and campsites) offered via four online collaborative economy platforms.
  • Number of guest nights: number of nights spent during a stay, taking into account the size of the travel party; this article mainly focuses on this concept (e.g.: a family of four staying 3 nights in an apartment represents 1 stay, 3 nights and 12 guest nights).


Context

The collaborative economy, also called the sharing economy, covers a great variety of sectors and is rapidly growing across Europe. In the tourism sector, the collaborative economy provides many exciting opportunities for citizens as consumers as well as for micro-entrepreneurs and SMEs. At the same time, its rapid development has led to challenges, particularly in popular tourist destinations. As a result, cities and other communities are seeking to strike a balance between promoting tourism, with the economic benefits it brings, and maintaining the integrity of local communities. To promote a balanced development of the collaborative economy, the Commission issued guidelines to EU countries in 2016 on how existing EU rules apply to the collaborative economy. A series of workshops in 2017 and 2018 identified policy principles and good practices specifically on collaborative short-term accommodation services.

In March 2020, the Commission reached a landmark agreement with Airbnb, Booking.com, Expedia Group and Tripadvisor on data sharing. The agreement, signed between each platform and Eurostat on behalf of the European Commission, allows Eurostat to obtain key data from the four collaborative platforms and publish key statistics on short-term accommodation rentals concluded through these platforms on its website. In particular, platforms agreed to share, on a continuous basis, data on the number of nights booked and the number of guests. The privacy of citizens, including guests and hosts, is protected in line with applicable EU legislation and data will not allow individual citizens or property owners to be identified. The data provided by the platforms is then subject to statistical validation and aggregated and published by Eurostat.

The agreement has allowed, for the first time, access to reliable data about holiday and other short-stay accommodation offered via these collaborative economy platforms. It helps to close an information gap, since data on holiday homes, apartments and rooms in otherwise private buildings are often outside the scope of existing tourism registers.

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Accommodation offered via collaborative economy platforms - experimental data (tour_ce)
Occupancy - monthly data (tour_ce_om)

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