SDG 3 - Good health and well-being (statistical annex)

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages (statistical annex)


Data extracted in August 2018

Planned article update: September 2019

Highlights


EU trend of SDG 3 on good health and well-being

This article provides an overview of statistical data on SDG 3 ‘Good health and well-being’ in the European Union (EU). It is based on the set of EU SDG indicators for monitoring of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in an EU context.

This article is part of a set of statistical articles, which are based on the Eurostat publication ’Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report - 2018 edition’. This report is the second edition of Eurostat’s series of monitoring reports on sustainable development, which provide a quantitative assessment of progress of the EU towards the SDGs in an EU context.

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Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy at birth evaluation 2018.PNG

Life expectancy at birth is defined as the mean number of years that a newborn child can expect to live if subjected throughout his life to the current mortality conditions (age-specific probabilities of dying). It is a conventional measure of a population’s general health and overall mortality level. As shown in Figure 1, life expectancy has on average increased steadily since 2002, with the exception of a slight decline between 2014 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2016, the indicator increased by 0.3 % per year. In the short term, the increase was around 0.2 % per year.

Figure 1: Life expectancy at birth, by sex, EU-28, 2002–2016 (years)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_10)


Figure 2: Life expectancy at birth, by country, 2011 and 2016 (years)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_10)

Share of people with good or very good perceived health

Share of people with good or very good perceived evaluation 2018.PNG

The indicator is a subjective measure on how people judge their health in general on a scale from ‘very good’ to ‘very bad’. The data stem from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Indicators of perceived general health have been found to be a good predictor of people’s future healthcare use and mortality.

Figure 3 indicates that people in the EU generally rate their health quite positively. Between 2005 and 2016, the share of people perceiving themselves in good or very good health increased by 0.5 % per year on average. However, the rate slightly decreased in the short term from 2011 to 2016, by 0.1 % per year on average.

Figure 3: People perceiving themselves to be in good or very good health, EU-27 and EU-28, 2005–2016 (% of population aged 16 or over)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_20)


Figure 4: Self-perceived health by level of perception, by country, 2016 (% of population aged 16 over)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_20)

Smoking prevalence

Smoking prevalence evaluation 2018.PNG

The indicator measures the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over who report that they currently smoke boxed cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos or a pipe [1]. It does not include use of other tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and snuff. The data are collected through a Eurobarometer survey and are based on self-reports during face-to-face interviews in people’s homes.

As shown in Figure 5, smoking prevalence among the population aged 15 and over on average decreased by 1.9 % per year between 2007 and 2017. In the short term since 2012, the decrease has amounted to 1.3 % per year.

Figure 5: Smoking prevalence, by sex, EU-28, 2007–2017 (% of population aged 15 or over)
Source: European Commission services (sdg_03_30)


Figure 6: Smoking prevalence, by country, 2012 and 2017 (% of population aged 15 or over)
Source: European Commission services (sdg_03_30)

Death rate due to chronic diseases

Death rate due to chronic diseases evaluation 2018.PNG

The indicator measures the standardised death rate of chronic diseases. Deaths due to chronic diseases are considered premature if they occur before the age of 65. The rate is calculated by dividing the number of people under 65 dying due to a chronic disease by the total population under 65. This value is then weighted with the European Standard Population [2]. Chronic diseases included in the indicator are malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases and chronic liver diseases.

As indicated in Figure 7, the rate of deaths due to chronic diseases decreased by an average of 2.3 % per year between 2002 and 2015. The decrease was slightly less pronounced in the short term, with a decline of 2.1 % per year.

Figure 7: Death rate due to chronic diseases, EU-28, 2002–2015 (number per 100 000 persons aged less than 65)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_40)


Figure 8: Death rate due to chronic diseases, by country, 2010 and 2015 (number per 100 000 persons aged less than 65)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_40)

Death rate due to tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis

Death rate due to tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis evaluation 2018.PNG

The indicator measures the standardised death rate of selected communicable diseases. The rate is calculated by dividing the number of people dying due to tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis by the total population. This value is then weighted with the European Standard Population [3]. Deaths due to tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis have fallen almost continuously since 2002, as shown in Figure 9. On average, the rate fell by 3.8 % per year between 2002 and 2015. The decrease was more pronounced in the short term, with a decline of 4.2 % per year.

Figure 9: Death rate due to tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis, by gender, EU-28, 2002–2015 (number per 100 000 persons)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_41)


Figure 10: Death rate due to tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis, by country, 2010 and 2015 (number per 100 000 persons)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_41)

Self-reported unmet need for medical care

Self-reported unmet need for medical care evaluation 2018.PNG

The indicator measures the share of the population aged 16 and over reporting unmet needs for medical care due to one of the following reasons: ‘financial reasons’, ‘waiting list’ and ‘too far to travel’. Self-reported unmet needs concern a person’s own assessment of whether he or she needed medical examination or treatment (dental care excluded), but did not have it or did not seek it. The data stem from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC). Since social norms and expectations may affect responses to questions about unmet care needs, caution is required when comparing differences in the reporting of unmet medical examination across countries [4]. In addition, the different organisation of healthcare services is another factor to consider when analysing the data.

As indicated in Figure 11, most people in the EU do not report unmet medical care needs. In addition, the share of people reporting such needs fell by 6.0 % per year on average between 2011 and 2016.

Figure 11: Self-reported unmet need for medical care, EU-27 and EU-28, 2008-2016 (% of population aged 16 and over)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_60)


Figure 12: Self-reported unmet need for medical care, by country, 2011 and 2016 (% of population aged 16 and over)
Source: Eurostat (sdg_03_60)
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More detailed information on EU SDG indicators for monitoring of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as indicator relevance, definitions, methodological notes, background and potential linkages, can be found in the introduction of the publication ’Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report - 2018 edition’.

Notes

  1. European Commission (2017), Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco and electronic cigarettes, Special Eurobarometer 458, Annex.
  2. Standardised death rates take into account the fact that countries with larger shares of older inhabitants also have higher death rates. See also: Eurostat (2013), Revision of the European Standard Population, Report for Eurostat’s Task Force, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  3. Standardised death rates take into account the fact that countries with larger shares of older inhabitants also have higher death rates. See also: Eurostat (2013), Revision of the European Standard Population, Report for Eurostat’s Task Force, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  4. OECD/EU (2016), Health at a Glance: Europe 2016 — State of Health in the EU Cycle, Paris: OECD Publishing, p. 154.