SDG 17 - Partnerships for the goals (statistical annex)
Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development (statistical annex)
Data extracted in August 2018
Planned article update: September 2019
This article provides an overview of statistical data on SDG 17 ‘Partnership for the goals’ in the European Union (EU). It is based on the set of EU SDG indicators for monitoring of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in an EU context.
This article is part of a set of statistical articles, which are based on the Eurostat publication ’Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report - 2018 edition’. This report is the second edition of Eurostat’s series of monitoring reports on sustainable development, which provide a quantitative assessment of progress of the EU towards the SDGs in an EU context.
Official development assistance (ODA) is provided by governments and their executive agencies to support economic development and welfare in developing countries. ODA must have a minimum grant element of 25 % (at a 10 % discount rate) and be concessional in character. Eligible countries are named in the Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation’s (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) official list of ODA recipients. ODA disbursements and their purpose are reported by donors to the OECD. Data stem from OECD (DAC).
Between 2005 and 2017, the EU’s ODA to GNI ratio grew by an average of 1.5 % per year. Due to the surge in ODA since 2014, growth was much stronger over the short-term period 2012 to 2017, at 5.1 % per year on average. 2017, however, saw a decrease of EU ODA/GNI ratio to 0.50 %, down from 0.53 % in 2016. With only four EU countries having achieved the 0.7 % target in 2017, additional efforts will be needed from a majority of Member States to meet the renewed collective commitment by 2030.
In 2000, almost one-third (30.3 %) of ODA was allocated to least developed countries (LDCs), 21.3 % to lower middle income countries, 17.3 % to upper middle income countries and 1.8 % to other low-income countries. Another one-third (29.4 %) was unallocated. Since then, ODA to LDCs has increased in absolute terms. However, the proportion of ODA marked as ‘unallocated’ has increased to 49.7 % in 2016, making it more difficult to identify recipient groups. In 2016, only 17.2 % of ODA was allocated to LDCs, 14.4 % to lower middle-income countries, 17.4 % to upper middle-income countries and 1.3 % to other low-income countries.
EU financing to developing countries
EU financing to developing countries takes a number of forms. These include: ODA (public grants or concessional loans with the aim of supporting economic development and welfare); other official flows (OOFs) (public flows that are not focused on development or with a grant element of less than 25 %); private flows (direct investment, bonds, export credits and multilateral flows); grants by non-governmental organisations (from funds raised for development assistance and disaster relief), and officially supported export credits. Data stem from the OECD (DAC).
The EU trend regarding financing to developing countries has been quite positive in the long term. Between 2001 and 2016, financial flows grew by an average of 6.4 % per year. However, due to fluctuations in private flows, the short-term trend between 2011 and 2016 appears negative, as financial flows declined by 1.2 % annually.
EU imports from developing countries
This indicator is defined as the value (at current prices) of EU imports from the countries on the DAC list of ODA beneficiaries. It indicates to what extent products from these developing countries access the EU market. Information for this indicator is provided by enterprises with a trade volume above a set threshold and is collected on the basis of customs declarations. This information is then adjusted by Member States to account for the impact of trade under this threshold.
Since 2002, EU imports from developing countries more than doubled, from EUR 359 billion to EUR 957 billion in 2017. In the long-term, EU imports from developing countries grew by 6.8 % per year on average. In the short term since 2012, imports still have grown, but less intensely so, with a growth rate of 2.1 % per year.
General government gross debt
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union defines this indicator as the ratio of government debt outstanding at the end of the year to gross domestic product at current market prices. For this calculation, government debt is defined as the total consolidated gross debt at nominal value in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA 2010): currency and deposits (AF.2), debt securities (AF.3) and loans (AF.4). The general government sector comprises the subsectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds.
As shown in Figure 7, the economic crisis has had a significant impact on debt-to-GDP ratios in the EU. The long-term trend is unfavourable, with the EU’s debt-to-GDP ratio growing by 2.2 % annually between 2002 and 2017. Thanks to steady declines since 2014, the short-term trend looks much more positive, with the EU’s debt-to-GDP ratio declining by 0.6 % per year between 2012 and 2017.
Environmental taxes are defined as taxes whose base is a physical unit (or proxy of it) of something that has a proven, specific negative impact on the environment. Environmental tax revenues stem from four types of taxes: energy taxes (which in the EU contribute around three-quarters of the total), transport taxes (about one fifth of the total) and pollution and resource taxes (about 4 %). Taxes on labour are generally defined as all personal income taxes, payroll taxes and social contributions of employees and employers that are levied on labour income (both employed and non-employed). The shares of labour and environmental taxes in total EU tax revenues have remained almost unchanged over the past few years, as shown in Figure 9. Regarding the long-term trend, the share of environmental taxes in total tax revenues fell by 0.6 % annually, while the short-term decline was slightly slower, at 0.3 % per year. A shift from labour to environmental taxes is thus not visible in the EU.
More detailed information on EU SDG indicators for monitoring of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as indicator relevance, definitions, methodological notes, background and potential linkages, can be found in the introduction of the publication ’Sustainable development in the European Union — Monitoring report - 2018 edition’.