Russia-EU – international trade in goods statistics
Planned article update: March 2021
Imports, exports and trade balance between the EU and Russia, 2009-2019
This article provides a picture of the international trade in goods between the European Union (EU) and Russia. It analyses the type of goods exchanged between the two economies and the shares of each EU Member State in those exchanges.
This article is part of an online publication providing recent statistics on international trade in goods, covering information on the EU's main partners, main products traded, specific characteristics of trade as well as background information.
EU and Russia in world trade in goods
Figure 1a shows the position of Russia among the largest traders of goods in the world in 2018. The four largest exporters were China (EUR 2 107 billion, 16 %), the EU-27 (EUR 2 060 billion, 15 %), the United States (EUR 1 412 billion, 10 %) and Japan (EUR 626 billion, 5 %). The four largest importers were the United States (EUR 2 214 billion, 16 %), the EU-27 (EUR 1 908 billion, 14 %), China (EUR 1 810 billion, 13 %) and Japan (EUR 634 billion, 5 %). Figure 1b has some more details. It shows that Russia (EUR 376 billion, 3 %) was the tenth largest exporter in the world between Canada (EUR 382 billion, 3 %) and Singapore (EUR 350 billion, 3 %). It was the 15th largest importer in the world (EUR 211 billion, 2 %) between Utd. Arab. Em. (EUR 222 billion, 2 %) and Thailand (EUR 210 billion, 2 %).
The imports and exports of goods of the EU and Russia indexed at 100 in 2008 for the period to 2018 are shown in Figure 2. It also shows the cover ratio (exports / imports) for this period. Exports from the EU were lowest in 2009 (83) and highest in 2018 (145). Imports to the EU were lowest in 2009 (77) and highest in 2018 (123). The cover ratio for the EU was lowest in 2008 (91 %) and highest in 2016 (116 %) and was 108 % in 2018. Exports from Russia were lowest in 2016 (60) and highest in 2012 (112) and were 94 in 2018. Imports to Russia were lowest in 2009, 2015 and 2016 (66) and highest in 2013 (117) and were 85 in 2018. The cover ratio for Russia was lowest in 2016 (147 %) and highest in 2018 (178 %).
Both exports to and imports from Russia increased between 2009 and 2019.
The position of Russia among the largest trade partners of the EU in 2019 can be seen in Figure 3a. In 2019, Russia was the fifth largest partner for EU exports of goods (4 %). It was preceded by the United States (18 %), the United Kingdom (15 %), China (9 %) and Switzerland (7 %). It was the fourth largest partner for EU imports of goods (7 %), preceded by China (19 %), the United States (12 %) and the United Kingdom (10 %) and followed by Switzerland (6 %).
Figure 4 shows the exports, imports and trade balance between the EU and Russia from 2009 to 2019. In 2009, the EU had a trade deficit with Russia of EUR 52 billion. The trade deficit remained throughout the whole period, reaching EUR 56 billion in 2019. Both exports to and imports from Russia increased between 2009 and 2019. EU exports to Russia were highest in 2012 (EUR 118 billion) and lowest in 2009 (EUR 63 billion). EU imports from Russia were highest in 2012 (EUR 204 billion) and lowest in 2016 (EUR 114 billion).
EU-Russia trade by type of goods
The breakdown of EU trade with Russia by SITC groups is shown in Figure 5. The red shades denote the primary products: food & drink, raw materials and energy, while the blue shades show the manufactured goods: chemicals, machinery & vehicles and other manufactured goods. Finally, other goods are shown in green. In 2019, EU exports of manufactured goods (89 %) had a higher share than primary goods (9 %). The most exported manufactured goods were machinery & vehicles (43 %), followed by other manufactured products (23 %) and chemicals (23 %). In 2019, EU imports of primary goods (73 %) had a higher share than manufactured goods (17 %). The most imported primary goods were energy (68 %), followed by raw materials (3 %) and food & drink (1 %).
Figure 6 shows the evolution of EU imports and exports by SITC group since 2009. In 2019, the EU had trade surpluses in machinery & vehicles (EUR 36 billion), chemicals (EUR 14 billion), other manufactured products (EUR 4 billion) and food & drink (EUR 4 billion). The EU had trade deficits in raw materials (EUR 3 billion), other products (EUR 14 billion) and energy (EUR 97 billion).
EU-Russia most traded goods
More detail about the goods exchanged between the EU and Russia is given in Figure 7, showing the 20 most traded goods at SITC-3 level. These top 20 goods covered 55 % of total trade in goods in 2019. Six each belonged to machinery and vehicles and other manufactured products, four to energy, three to chemicals and one to other products. The most traded product group at this level was petroleum oils, crude. Another interesting way to look at the data is to investigate the cover ratio (exports / imports) of traded goods, showing the direction of the trade flows between the two economies. These ratios can be found in the right-hand margin of Figure 7. Nine products were below 50 %, indicating EU imports from Russia were at least twice as large as EU exports to Russia. Eleven products were above 200 %, indicating EU exports to Russia were at least twice as large as EU imports from Russia.
Trade with Russia by Member State
Table 1a shows the imports of goods from Russia by Member State. The three largest importers from Russia in the EU were Germany (EUR 27 886 million), the Netherlands (EUR 21 415 million) and Italy (EUR 14 324 million). Finland (43.6 %) had the highest share for Russia in its extra-EU imports.
Table 1b shows the exports of goods to Russia by Member State. The three largest exporters to Russia in the EU were Germany (EUR 26 658 million), Italy (EUR 7 918 million) and Poland (EUR 7 435 million). Latvia (37.7 %) had the highest share for Russia in its extra-EU exports.
The trade in goods balance between the EU Member States and Russia is shown in Table 1c. It shows that six Member States had a trade surplus with Russia. The largest surplus was held by Czechia (EUR 863 million), followed by Latvia (EUR 802 million) and Slovenia (EUR 273 million). Twenty-one Member States that had a trade deficit with Russia. The largest deficit was held by the Netherlands (EUR 14 313 million), followed by Poland (EUR 6 791 million) and Italy (EUR 6 406 million).
Source data for tables and graphs
EU data is taken from Eurostat's COMEXT database. COMEXT is the reference database for international trade in goods. It provides access not only to both recent and historical data from the EU Member States but also to statistics of a significant number of third countries. International trade aggregated and detailed statistics disseminated via the Eurostat website are compiled from COMEXT data according to a monthly process.
Data are collected by the competent national authorities of the Member States and compiled according to a harmonised methodology established by EU regulations before transmission to Eurostat. For extra-EU trade, the statistical information is mainly provided by the traders on the basis of customs declarations.
EU data are compiled according to Community guidelines and may, therefore, differ from national data published by the Member States. Statistics on extra-EU trade are calculated as the sum of trade of each of the 27 EU Member States with countries outside the EU. In other words, the EU is considered as a single trading entity and trade flows are measured into and out of the area, but not within it.
The United Kingdom is considered as an extra-EU partner country for the EU-27 for the whole period covered by this article. However, the United Kingdom was still part of the internal market until the end of the transitory period (31 December 2020), meaning that data on trade with the United Kingdom are still based on statistical concepts applicable to trade between the EU Member States. Consequently, while imports from any other extra-EU-27 trade partner are grouped by country of origin, the United Kingdom data reflect the country of consignment. In practice this means that the goods imported by the EU-27 from the United Kingdom were physically transported from the United Kingdom but part of these goods could have been of other origin than the United Kingdom. For this reason, data on trade with the United Kingdom are not fully comparable with data on trade with other extra-EU-27 trade partners.
Data for the non EU-27 countries used in figures 1-3 are taken from the UNCTAD database of the United Nations. For the calculation of shares, the world trade is defined as the sum of EU trade with non-EU countries (source: Eurostat) plus the international trade of non-EU countries (source: UNCTAD).
According to EU concepts and definitions, extra-EU trade statistics (trade between EU Member States and non-EU countries) do not record exchanges involving goods in transit, placed in a customs warehouse or given temporary admission (for trade fairs, temporary exhibitions, tests, etc.). This is known as 'special trade’. The partner is the country of final destination of the goods for exports and the country of origin for imports.
Information on commodities exported and imported is presented according to the Standard international trade classification (SITC). A full description is available from Eurostat’s classification server RAMON.
Unit of measure
Trade values are expressed in millions or billions (109) of euros. They correspond to the statistical value, i.e. to the amount which would be invoiced in case of sale or purchase at the national border of the reporting country. It is called a FOB value (free on board) for exports and a CIF value (cost, insurance, freight) for imports.
Trade is an important indicator of Europe’s prosperity and place in the world. The bloc is deeply integrated into global markets both for the products it sources and the exports it sells. The EU trade policy is an important element of the external dimension of the 'Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth’ and is one of the main pillars of the EU’s relations with the rest of the world.
Because the 27 EU Member States share a single market and a single external border, they also have a single trade policy. EU Member States speak and negotiate collectively, both in the World Trade Organization, where the rules of international trade are agreed and enforced, and with individual trading partners. This common policy enables them to speak with one voice in trade negotiations, maximising their impact in such negotiations. This is even more important in a globalised world in which economies tend to cluster together in regional groups.
The openness of the EU’s trade regime has meant that the EU is the biggest player on the global trading scene and remains a good region to do business with. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe.
- International trade in goods (t_ext_go), see:
- International trade in goods - long-term indicators (t_ext_go_lti)
- International trade in goods - short-term indicators (t_ext_go_sti)
- International trade in goods (ext_go), see:
- International trade in goods - aggregated data (ext_go_agg)
- International trade in goods - long-term indicators (ext_go_lti)
- International trade in goods - short-term indicators (ext_go_sti)
- International trade in goods - detailed data (detail)
- EU trade since 1988 by SITC (DS-018995)
- International trade in goods statistics - background
- International trade in goods (ESMS metadata file — ext_go_esms)
- User guide on European statistics on international trade in goods